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History Fees 

,„ Cornell University Library 


History of Cincinnati Ohio, 

3 1924 032 193 520 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

1 7 : ; 9 






Illustrations and Biographical Sketches. 


Henry A. Ford, A.M., and Mrs. Kate B. Ford. 




cod turn 

Id I I 7 ; , . , — I I--J 

3 ~ ■' ■' -<v 


Prefatory Note, 

The reader looks forward to this, the first history of 
Cincinnati that has yet found itself in print. The 
writers look back across its half-century of chapters and 
the century of years embraced by its annals, and have, 
chiefest of all, to regret many unavoidable errors, both 
of omission and commission. The more important of 
these, it is hoped, will appear in our page of errata; but 
there are still many, doubtless, that have escaped the 
compilers' attention. In a few cases, discrepancies 
appear between their statements and those of an extract 
immediately following. In those instances they must 

assure the reader that the former rest upon an authority 
believed to be superior to the other in regard to the mat- 
ter in hand; but time and space could not always be 
taken for the discussion and settlement of points con- 
cerning which there are variant reports. In all really 
important matters, they believe the history will be found 
quite trustworthy, especially when corrected from the 
page of errata. 

For the biographical feature of the work, except so 
much of it as is embodied in the chapters before the 
Lth, the writers have not, in general, any responsibility. 




I. — A Brief Description of Cincinnati 
II. — Ancient Works Upon the City's Site 
III.— The Site of Losantiville 
IV. — Before Losantiville 
V. — Losantiville 
VI. — Fort Washington 
VII. — Cincinnati's First Decade 
VIII. — Cincinnati Township 
IX. — Cincinnati's Second Decade . 

X. — Cincinnati's Third Decade 
XI. — Cincinnati's Fourth Decade . 
XII. — Cincinnati's Fifth Decade 
XIII. — Cincinnati's Sixth Decade 
XIV. — Cincinnati's Seventh Decade 
XV. — Cincinnati's Eighth Decade 
XVI. — Cincinnati in the War 
XVII. —The Siege of Cincinnati 
XVIII. — Cincinnati's Ninth Decade 
XIX. — The German Element in Cincinnati . 
XX. — Religion in Cincinnati 
XXI.— Education . 
XXII.— Public Charities . 
XXII. — Benevolent and other Societies 
XXIV.— Science 
XXV.— Art 
XXVI.— Music .... 






















































-Bookselling and Publication 

'.. — Medicine .... 

-The Rench and Bar 
— Manufacturing 
—The Industrial Exposition 
'. — Commerce and Navigation 
—Banking — Finance — Insurance 
—The Post Office . 

—The Local Militia — The First Appointments 
—The City: Government 
—The Fire Department 
—The Water-works 
-Penal Institutions 
-The Police — Board of Health 
-Markets . ... 

-Streets — Street Railroads — Bridges — Parks, etc. 
-Annexations and Suburbs 
-Biographical Sketches 
-Personal Notes 













13 6 


Baum, Martin .... 


Burkhalter, Christian 


Burnet, Jacob .... 


Burnet, Dr. William 


Blackburn, Dr. John 


Bramble, Dr. David D. 


Buckner, Dr. James H. 


Bailey, Samuel, jr. . 


Bouscaren, Louis G. F. 


Cists, the . 


Cary Sisters, the 


Cramer, Dr. John . . . . 


Cox, Hon. Joseph 


Cappeller, Hon. W. S. 


Carey, Milton Thompson 


Chickering, J. B. 


Covington, Hon. S. F. 


Denman, Matthias 


Drakes, the 

. 204 

Drake, Dr. Daniel . . . . 


Dunlevy, Hon. A. H. . 


Davis, William Bramwell 


Duckworth, George K. 


Dodson, William Beal 


Eshelby, E. O 


Eaton, Morton Monroe 


Eells, Samuel .... 


Filson, John . . . . 


Frankensteins, the . 


Flint, Rev. Timothy 


Findlay, Samuel .... 


Fox, Charles . 

Force, Hon. Manning F. 

Follett, Hon. John F. 

Fishburn, Cyrus D. 

Fehrenbatch, Hon. John 

Guilford, Nathan 

Goforth, Dr. William 

Goudy, Thomas . 

Hemann, Joseph Anton 

Hofer, Nikolaus 

Herron, Joseph 

Hole, Dr. John . 

Hammond, Charles 

Hunt, Samuel F. 

Hickenlooper, Andrew 

Harper, Professor George W. . 

Hunt, Colonel C. B. 

Johnston, Campbell and family 

Klauprecht, Emil 

Kautz, August V. 

Kron, Pastor 

King, Rufus 

Ludlow, Colonel Isaac 

Lewis, Samuel . 

Molitor, Stephan 

Moor, August 

McGuffey, Dr. William H. 

Mansfield, Edward D. 

Morrell, Dr. Calvin . 

McClure, Dr. Robert 

McMillan, William . 



Matthews, Hon. Stanley' 
Mussey, Dr. Reuben D. 
Mussey, Dr. W. H. 
Miles, 'Dr. A. J. 
Muscroft, Dr. C. S 
Maley, Dr. P. F 
McClung, Colonel David 
Nast, Wilhelm 
Patterson, Colonel Robert, . 
Pulte, Joseph H., 
Pike, S. N. . 
Picket, Albert 
Powers, Benjamin F., 
Reese, Rev. Dr. Friedrich 
Rodter, Heinrich, 
Rumelin, Karl Gustav, 
Rattermann, Heinrich A., . 
Rentz, August, . 
Roelker, Dr. Friedrich, 
Rehfuss, Ludwig, 
Ray, Dr. Joseph 
Ramsay, Dr. Samuel 
Riddle, Colonel John 
Ramp, Samuel W. ' 
Symmes, John Cleve, 
Stallos, Theodore, 
Stowe, Calvin, E., 



Stites, Dr. John, 


Symmes, Daniel, 


Short, John Cleves, 


Smith, Hon. Amor, 


Staley, L. A., 


Sadler, L. L., 


Stowe, James G. , 


Santmeyer, Captain C. A. , 


Steele, Charles McDonald, 


Skaats, Hon. George W. , 


Starbuck, Calvin W., 


Smith, Samuel Sherwood, 


Underhill, Dr. J. W., . 


Von Stein, Albert, . 


Von Masters, Heinrich, . 


Varwig, Henry, 


Voight, Captain Lewis, . 


Von Seggern, Christopher, 


Walker, George 


Weitzel, General Gottfried 


Wright, Dr. Marmaduke B 


Wild, John S 


Ward, General Durbin 


Wright, Dr. C. O 


Wulsin, Drausin 


White, James S 


Zinn, Major Peter 








The Cincinnati Music Hall 


Portrait of Colonel David W. McClung 

facing 192 


Judge J. C. Symmes 



" Amor Smith, jr. 

facing 200 

Fort Washington 



L. A. Staley 

facing 208 


in 1802 


Hon. W. S. Cappeller 

facing 216 

Plan of Cincinnati in 1815 



Samuel F. Hunt 

facing 224 

The Trollope Bazaar . 



Samuel W. Ramp 

facing 232 

The Church of the Pioneers 


Samuel Bailey, jr, 

facing 240 

The First Cincinnati College Building 



E. O. Eshelby 

facing 248 

The Tyler 

Davidson Fountain 

between 404 and 


" L. L. Sadler 

facing 256 

Portrait 0: 

John Cleves Short 



James G. Stowe 

facing 264 


Hon. Stanley Matthews 



Prof. J. B. Chickering 

facing 272 


Alonzo Taft 



" Alice Cary 

between 272 and 273 


Colonel John Riddle . 



" Phcebe Cary 

between 272 and 273 


Dr. Reuben D. Mussey 



" Professor G. W. Harper 

facing 280 


Dr. W. H. Mussey 



" Captain C. A. Santmeyer . 

facing 288 


Major Peter Zinn . 



" Murat Halstead 

facing 291 


General Rees E. Price 



" Hon. George W. Skaats 

facing 296 


General Durbin Ward 



" Drausin V, 

facing 304 


Hon. Manning F. Force 



James S. W wite 

facing 312 


Hon. Joseph Cox 



S. F. Covington „ 

facing 320 


Hon. John F. Follett 



" Charles McDonald Steele 

facing 328 


David D. Bramble 



Colonel C. B. Hunt . 

facing 336 


Dr. A. J. Mills 



" Louis G. F. Bouscaren 

facing 344 


Dr. J. W. Underhill 



" Hon. John Fehrenbatch 

facing 352 


William Bramwell Davis 



George K. Duckworth 

facing 360 


Dr. James H. Buckner 



" Morton Monroe Eaton, M. D. 

facing 368 


Dr. C. S. Muscroft 



Henry Varwig 

facing 376 


Dr. Cyrus D. Fishburn 



" Captain Lewis Voight 

facing 384 


Dr. C. O. Wright 



William Henry Cook, M. D. 

facing 392 


P. F. Maley 

facing 176 

" Christopher Von Seggern 

facing 400 


General A. Hickenlooper 



W. H. Bristol 

facing 408 






Cincinnati, Ohio. 



How blest is he whose doom it is 

A wanderer to roam, 
Who even in memory can return 

To such a lovely home. 
Oh, were I in the fairest clime 

That smiles beneath the sky, 
Here would my spirit long to come — 

If not to live, to die. 
As yearns the weary child at night 

To gain its mother's breast, 
So, weary with my wanderings, 

Here would I long to rest. 

"To the Queen City," by Charles A Jones. 

Where grand Ohio rolls his silver floods 

Through verdant fields and darkly waving woods, ^ 

Beholding oft, in flowery verdure drest, . 

The green isle swelling from his placid breast ; 

Here where so late the Indian's lone canoe, 

Swift o'er the wave, in fearless triumph flew, 

Behold the stately steam-borne vessel glide, 

With eager swiftness, o'er the yielding tide ; 

And where so late its shelter, rude and low, 

The wigwam reared, beneath the forest bough, 

Lo ! cities spring before the wondering eyes, 

And domes of grandeur swell into the skies. 

[Lines prefixed to Bullock's Sketch of a Journey, 1827.] 

To the Queen of the West, 
In her garlands dressed, 
On the banks of the Beautiful River. 

H. W. Longfellow. 

Cincinnati is situated on the north bank of the river 
Ohio, the part of it first settled being opposite the mouth 
of the Licking river, upon the site of the original village 
of Losantiville. Its latitude is thirty-nine degrees six 
minutes north; longitude eighty-four degrees twenty- 
seven minutes west. It is three hundred and ninety 
miles west of Washington city; four hundred and sixty- 
six miles by the river, or two hundred and fifty miles in a 
direct line, southwest of Pittsburgh; one hundred and 
twenty miles southwest of Columbus, and two hundred 
and fifty-five from Cleveland; and five hundred miles by 
river, or two hundred and ninety directly, to the mouth 
of the Ohio at Cairo. (The city is built upon three ter- 
races, The first, or that next the river, has an average 
height, above low water in the river, of sixty feet; the sec- 
ond of one hundred and twelve feet; and the third, or 

the general level of the hills, rises to commanding heights 
varying from three hundred and ninety-six feet on Mount 
Adams to four hundred and sixty feet on Mount Harri- 
son, west of Mill creek. /The first terrace was found by 
the early settlers to extend from a gravelly hill or bluff 
near the present line of Third street, between Broadway 
and a point west of John street, to an abrupt but not 
very high bank about one hundred feet south of the hill, 
which was penetrated here and there by small coves. 
Between this bank and the river was a low but sloping 
shore, always flooded in time of high water. All this has 
been changed, including the disappearance of the bank 
and bluffs, by the progress of improvement in the older 
part of the city. The second terrace stretched from the 
general line of Third street in a gentle rise, as .now, back 
to the hills. From this the ascent to the third plateau, 
or the summit of the hills, is in many places exceedingly 
abrupft and is surmounted in part by graded and macad- 
amized roads up the ravines between the spurs, and in 
part by four inclined places — at Mount Adams, at the 
head of Main street, at a slope on Mount Auburn, near 
the head of Elm street, and at Price's hill, near the west 
end of the city, up all of which cars are pulled by powerful 
steam engines. These hills, with the popular resorts and 
places of amusement thereon, constitute the chief attrac- 
tion of the city, and are almost world renowned in their 
fame. Mr. John R. Chamberlain, writer of the valuable 
article on Cincinnati in the American Cyclopaedia, says 
they form "one of the most beautiful natural amphithea- 
tres on the continent, from whose hilltops may be seen 
the splendid panorama of the cities below and the wind- 
ing Ohio. No other large city of the United States af- 
fords such a variety of position and beauty." They are 
described as having been exceedingly attractive in their 
pristine loveliness. Mr. J. P. Foote, in his "Schools of 
Cincinnati," writing of the hills as they appeared in the 
early day, says; "At that period they formed a border 
of such surpassing beauty, around the plain on which 
Cincinnati stood, as to cause us, who remember them in 
their beauty, almost to regret the progress of improve- 
which has taken from us what it can never restore." The 
names of the principal eminences, from east to west of 
the city, are Mount Lookout, the Walnut Hills, Mount 
Adams, Mount Auburn, Clifton Heights, Fairmount, 


Mount Harrison, Mount Hope, Price's Hill, and Mount 
Echo. The average height of the hills above tidewater 
at Albany is eight hundred and fifty feet, and of the 
second terrace five hundred and forty feet; it being 
twenty-five feet below the level of Lake Erie. Low water 
mark in the river at Cincinnati in four hundred and 
thirty-two feet above the sea, and one hundred and thirty- 
three below Lake Erie. The descent from the upper 
plane of Cincinnati below the hills to low water is there- 
fore one hundred and eight feet. 

The major part of the city, for population and busi-" 
ness, though by far the smallest in territorial extent, lies 
upon the first and second terraces. They are part of a 
beautiful and fertile plain, lying in an irregular circle, 
and extending on both sides of the river, about twelve 
miles in circumference. It is cut into unequal parts 
by the course of the river, which here makes several 
curves, but has a general northeast to southwest direc- 
tion. On two sides of the northern section of the plain, 
which is the smaller, the city is built along the narrow 
spaces between the hills and the river, and to some ex- 
tent on the hills themselves. On the northeast, for four 
and a half miles, or to and including Columbia, now a 
part of the city, this belt is but about five hundred yards 
wide; on the southwest the width is only three hundred 
yards to the city limits, a mile and three-quarters beyond 
the point where the hills, after curving around this part 
of the plateau, return to the river, about three miles from 
the point at which they left it on the other side. The 
city has thus a very extensive water-front — about eleven 
miles, allowing for the curvatures of the river, and taking 
in, among the annexations of the last ten years, the old 
village of Columbia on the one side and the former su- 
burb of Sedamsville on the other. The average width of 
the city site is three miles, although up the valley of 
Mill creek, since the annexation of Cumminsville in 
1873, the extreme breadth is five and one-half miles. 
The total area enclosed by the corporation lines is fifteen 
thousand two hundred and sixty acres, or very nearly 
twenty-four square miles — an increase of seventeen square 
miles since 1870 (when it comprised but four thousand 
four hundred and eighty acres), by the successive and 
rapid annexation of suburbs. The older part of the city 
is intersected by the valley of Deer creek on the east, 
which is now dry except after heavy rains, and is partly 
occupied by the great Eggleston avenue sewer; and by 
the Mill creek valley on the west,' which is broad and 
fertile, and comparatively level for many miles to the 
northward. Beyond Mill creek the hills are cut through 
by the narrower valley of Lick run. The former con- 
tains a good sized stream, which has been greatly service- 
able for mills and other purposes, since an early period 
in the history of the place. 

The main body of the city, including the business portion and the 
densest population, borders on the river between the mouth of Deer 
creek on the east and that of Mill creek on the west, a distance of two 
and one-half miles. North of East Liberty street and the Hamilton 
road, the hillsides from Deer creek to Mill creek are terraced with 
streets, and [in places] covered with dwellings to their summits. Mount 
Adams, overlooking the southeast corner of the plateau, has streets 
thickly lined with dwellings on its summit and west and south sides. 
The remainder of the city, including the narrow valleys along the 


river, above and below the city proper, the village of Cumminsville, 
next the northern corporation line in Mill creek valley, and the several 
table-iand villages from Woodburn on the east to Fairmount on the 
west, is irregularly built. In the northwest part are native forests and 
cultivated farms. On the western hills are vineyards and gardens. Be- 
tween Harrison avenue and the Twenty-fifth ward (Cumminsville) are 
many vegetable gardens. * 


A number of villages, formerly suburbs, are now in- 
cluded in the city. The principal of these, beginning on 
the east, are Columbia, Walnut Hills, Mount Auburn, and 
Cumminsville. Fairmount is a residence quarter west of 
Mill Creek valley, and Sedamsville is mainly a manufact- 
uring district, lying south of the western range of hills, 
between it and the river, about three and a half miles 
from Fountain Square. Fulton is a part of the city at 
the base of the hills on the other side of the plain, be- 
ginning beyond the Little Miami railway depot and run- 
ning in a narrow tract northeast to Pendleton village, 
which lies between it and Columbia. Northeast of 
Columbia the city includes a part of Tusculum. Due 
north of it, at the extreme northeast corner of the city, is 
Mount Lookout, a small but attractive suburb, in part 
outside the corporation limits, and the seat of the Cincin- 
nati observatory; about north of the dividing line between 
Fulton and Pendleton, and on the hills, is the little plat 
known as O'Bryonville, between which and Walnut Hills 
is Woodburn, an extensive and well-built area; and west 
of Walnut Hills, between Mount Auburn and the north 
corporation line, is Corryville, a residence and business 
quarter, on the \«est of which is the spacious and beauti- 
ful Burnet Woods Park, and on the north, just outside 
the eity, in the southwest part of Avondale, the famous 
zoological gardens. Camp Washington occupies a lim- 
ited space between the Miami canal and Mill creek, in 
the vicinity of the workhouse and the house of refuge. 
Brighton is not marked as a district quarter upon the 
latest maps, but is that part of the city reaching from the 
junction of Freeman street and Central avenue west to 
Mill Creek, and takes its name from the former existence 
of the city stockyards there. Barrsville, Forbusville, 
Peterstown, and Lick Run are hamlets adjoining or not 
far from Fairmount, on the heights west of Mill Creek; 
and Weaversburgh is a station on the Westwood Narrow 
Gauge railroad west of Fairmount, and close to the cor- 
poration line. These highlands, between Fairmount and 
the Ohio, are as yet occupied to but a limited extent, 
from the difficulty with which most parts of them are 
still reached from the city. "The outer highland belt of 
the city commands distant views of hills in Kentucky 
and Ohio, and of the valleys of Mill Creek, the Licking, 
and the Ohio. It is beautified by elegant residences in 
the midst of extensive and highly cultivated landscape 
lawns, whose shrubbery is often the native forest, and is 
traversed by winding avenues. From the eastern corpo- 
ration line, through East Walnut Hills and Woodburn to 
West Walnut Hills, mansions occupy grounds of from 
three to seventy-five acres. The blue limestone of the 
hills is used in the construction of the finest buildings; 
[and .some of them have been erected from material 

* American Cyclopaedia, article Cincinnati. 


quarried upon the very grounds they occupy.] West 
Walnut. Hills and Mount Auburn, though in parts quite 
compactly built, abound in -elegant and costly residences, 
each having from one to four acres of grounds."* 

Outside the city, but in immediate proximity to it, are 
several lovely suburbs. Prominent among these is Clif- 
ton, between Cumminsville and Avondale, with the Bur- 
net Woods park cornering upon it at the southeast. It 
is described as "a most beautiful suburb, and an almost 
continuous landscape garden."f It has many fine groves 
and costly residences. The grounds about them occupy 
areas of ten to eighty acres. Avondale, next east of 
Clifton, and north of Corryville and Walnut Hills, com- 
prises about eight hundred acres of territory, and is also 
superbly built. Its views include the neighboring hills, 
which, however, shut out the river scenery from the den- 
izens of this suburb. East and northeast of this are 
Norwood, Oakley, Madisonville, and other places of 
suburban residence; and between the last named and 
Columbia is Linwood, a small place near the Little Mi- 
ami railroad, six and a half miles from the court house 
in Cincinnati. College Hill, away to the northwestward, 
about eight miles from Fountain Square, occupies the 
highest ground in the county,' on the heights west of Mill 
Creek. Glendale is another famous suburb in this direc- 
tion; also Carthage, eight miles out, near which are the 
Longview and the Colored insane asylums, and the city 
and county infirmaries. North and northeast of the city 
are also Bond Hill and Hartwell; Mount Washington and 
California are eastward, beyond the left bank of the Little 
Miami; Riverside, a suburb of two and one-half miles 
length along the river, adjoins Sedamsville on the extreme 
southwest of the city, and beyond it are Delhi and other 
suburban villages scattered along the shore. In all direc- 
tions from the city, but particularly to the north, north- 
westward, and northeastward, a score of miles, are many 
other places which may properly be reckoned suburbs 
of Cincinnati. On the Kentucky side are Covington, 
west of the Licking river, now a considerable city, the 
largest in Kentucky except Louisville, with West Cov- 
ington, Ludlow, and Bromley as suburban places for 
itself and Cincinnati, along the river to the west, and 
Latonia Springs, five miles out, on the Lexington pike, 
as a favorite place of resort and residence. On the 
other side of the Licking, opposite Cincinnati, is New- 
port, with the United States barracks and a considerable 
population; and northeast of it, also on the Ohio river, 
are the villages of East Newport, Bellevue, and Dayton. 
Newport is connected with Covington by a suspension 
bridge across the Licking, and with Cincinnati by the 
Louisville Short Line railroad bridge, which is also used 
for street-cars and other vehicles, and for foot passengers. 
The Cincinnati Southern railway bridge connects Cincin- 
nati and Ludlow ; but it is used only for the purpose of 
the railroad. Between these two bridges is the main 
artery of communication between the two sides of the 
Ohio in this region — the renowned suspension bridge, a 

* American Cyclopaedia. 
•(•King's Pocket-book of Cincinnati. 

mile from the former and a mile and a half from the 
latter, and connecting Cincinnati from near the foot of 
Walnut and Vine streets with Covington. It is not used 
for any steam railroad, but all the Covington lines of 
street-cars, with one line of the Newport horse-cars, cross 
it, with other vehicles and foot passengers in vast num- 
bers. Three ferries also connect Cincinnati with Cov- 
ington, Newport, and Ludlow, respectively; and the 
abundant facilities of access, with other inducements, 
have led to the residence of large numbers of Cincinnat- 
ians in the Kentucky suburbs. In the vicinity of the 
city and suburbs, on both sides of the Ohio, are many 
beautiful drives. 


This part of Cincinnati — that on the plain — is laid out 
quite regularly, somewhat on the Philadelphia plan, and 
with a number of the Philadelphia street names. The 
streets are generally from one and a half to two and a half 
miles long, and fifty to one hundred feet wide. The lat- 
ter is the common width. "West of Central avenue they 
run north from the river and east from Mill creek, while 
east of that avenue their direction from the river is 
slightly west of north. The streets and avenues are 
generally paved or macadamized, many of them being 
adorned with shade trees. The buildings are substantial, 
and chiefly of brick. A grayish buff freestone, for fronts, 
is universally used for large business houses and the 
finest residences in the city proper, though many of the 
residences on the hills are of wood. The prevailing 
height of business buildings is five stories, though many 
are six. Dwellings are generally high and narrow, and 
seldom have front yards. The chief mercantile quarter 
covers about three hundred acres, and lies between Fifth 
street and the river, and Broadway and Smith street. 
Business is not concentrated as in other cities. Manu- 
factories are scattered through all parts of the city and its 
suburbs. Pearl street, which contains nearly all the 
wholesale boot and shoe and dry goods houses, is noted 
for its splendid row of lofty, uniform stone fronts, between 
Vine and Race streets. Fourth street, the fashionable 
promenade, and the most select retail business street 
between Broadway and Central avenue, a mile in extent, 
is noted for its splendid stone-front buildings. Third 
street, between Main and Vine, contains the banking, 
brokerage and insurance establishments, and the at- 
torney's offices; and west of Vine the large clothing 
houses. Within a quarter of a mile of the custom house 
and post office are most of the chief theatres, newspaper 
offices and libraries. In Pike street, in Fourth street 
from Pike to Broadway, and in Broadway between Third 
and Fifth streets, are the mansions of the 'East End'; 
in Fourth street, west of Smith street, in Dayton street, 
and in Court street, between Freeman and Baymiller 
streets, those of the 'West End.' The large district 
north of the Miami canal, which enters the city from the 
northwest, and extends south to the Ohio river, is known 
as 'Over the Rhine.' It is densely populated, almost 
exclusively by Germans; has numerous beer gardens, 
saloons and concert halls, and is thoroughly German in 
its characteristics. In this vicinity are all the great brew- 


eries of Cincinnati. " * About twenty-five thousand per- 
sons occupy this populous district. Some of the beer 
and wine cellars of the quarter will hold half a million 
gallons of liquor. It furnishes many famous places of 
resort, especially for Germans and on Sunday. The 
superb Music hall and Exposition buildings are situated 
here, on the block bounded by Elm, Plum, Fourteenth 
and Grant streets ; also Washington park, opposite Music 
hall, occupying four and one-third acres, and containing 
a bronze bust, heroic size, of Colonel Robert L. McCook, 
one of Cincinnati's dead in the late war. West of 
Music hall, on the other side of the canal, is the im- 
mense Cincinnati hospital — eight buildings in one, oc- 
cupying nearly two squares. #n the old city are, of 
course, all the leading hotels, among which the Burnet, 
the Gibson, the Grand and the Emery are conspicuous; 
also the more costly and elegant church edifices, as St. 
Peter's (Catholic) cathedral, with its peculiarly graceful 
spire, its colonnade of Corinthian columns, and its musical 
chimes, several of the Presbyterian churches, St. Paul's 
Methodist, St. John's Episcopal church, the Hebrew 
temples, and many others; the buildings of St. Xavier's, 
the Wesleyan Female, the Cincinnati, and the several 
medical colleges; the Mechanics' institute, the Public 
library and others ; the great Government building going 
up on Fifth street, near Fountain square; the City build- 
ing and the County Courthouse; the singular Trollopean 
Bazaar, on Third, near Broadway;! several fine club 
houses ; Pike's, Robinson's, and the Grand Opera houses, 
and the Mclodeon and Mozart halls; and a number of 
small parks, as the Washington, the Lincoln, the Eighth- 
street, the City building, and the Water-works parks, all 
small; Fountain square, with the magnificent Tyler- 
Davidson fountain, the most notable work of art in the 
city, forty-five feet high, costing, with .the spacious es- 
planade on which on which it stands, over two hundred 
thousand dollars; the Masonic temple, an imposing free- 
stone-front building in the Byzantine style; the Hughes 
and Woodward high schools, and most of the other pub- 
lic school buildings; and many more interesting and ele- 
gant structures. Most sites of historic interest are in 
this part of the city, as the site of Fort Washington, on 
and near the junction of Third street and Broadway, 
and others. 


Outside the older city, however, is Camp Washington, 
a place of rendezvous and equipment for troops in the 
Mexican war; beyond it is Cumminsville, where "Lud- 
low's Station" was situated during the early years of white 
settlement here; and at the extreme eastern part of the 
city is Columbia, where the first settlement in the Miami 
country was made. Upon the Camp Washington tract 
are the enormous buildings occupied by the Cincinnati 
Workhouse and House of Refuge ; upon the hillside at 
Fairmount, to the southwest, is the former Baptist Theo- 
logical Seminary, now the "Schutzenplatz,'' a German 
club-house, commanding a superb view of the Mill Creek, 

* American Cyclopaedia, 
f Torn down in February, 1881. 

Lick Run and Ohio valleys; and adjoining Cumminsville 
are the Wesleyan and Spring Grove cemeteries, the lat- 
ter of six hundred acres, the largest and otherwise one 
of the finest cemeteries of the country, considered by 
some the most picturesque large cemetery in the world. 
Cumminsville has also the Catholic orphan asylum. On 
the hills are the various large buildings and gardens, con- 
stituting the famous hill-top resorts, one at the head of 
each inclined plane. Many schools of note are on or 
near these heights — as the Cincinnati University, the 
Mount Auburn young ladies' seminary, Mount St. Mary 
seminary, Mount St. Vincent young ladies' seminary, and 
Lane theological seminary; charitable institutions — the 
Cincinnati orphan asylum, German protestant orphan 
asylum, the Widows' and Old Men's home, and others ; 
some fine churches; the Zoological gardens, just beyond 
the city limits; one small park — Hopkins — on Mount 
Auburn, and the two great parks of the city — Burnet 
woods, containing one hundred and sixty-seven acres, 
nearly, with a lake of about three acres, and famous for 
its grand concerts of summer afternoons — also Eden 
park, east of the old town, largest of all the city's parks, 
comprising two hundred and six acres, on which are lo- 
cated the large reservoirs of the city water works, and a 
neat stone building called the Casino or Shelter House, 
from which, as well as from other spots in the park, 
many charming views may be had. At the further end 
of Pendleton, on the bank of the river, is a pleasant, 
finely-improved tract of twelve acres — private property, 
but used much by picnics and pleasure parties — which was 
formerly known as East End garden, but is now called 
Woodland park. 


makes a great bend and two small ones in front of the 
city, and thus affords a very extensive river front. Most 
of this is private property, and is considerably occupied, 
not only for steamboats, but for coal-boats, barges, log- 
rafts, and other water-craft. The city owns the landing 
from near the water-works, east of the Little Miami de- 
pot, to Mill creek, and leases the larger part to steamboat 
lines, ferry companies, and other parties. The Public 
Landing, so-called, which has been such from the earliest 
period of the city's history, extends from the foot of 
Broadway to the foot of Main street; and it is here most 
of the river steamers, some of them very large and ele- 
gantly appointed, are to be found moored. A wharf 
master and wharf register collect dues from vessels for 
the privileges of this landing, and otherwise look after 
the city's interests on the river. 'The Ohio is liable to 
great and sudden freshets, particularly in the spring, when 
it has sometimes risen fifty to fifty-five feet above low- 
water mark, and formerly did immense mischief. The 
flood of 1832 marked sixty-two and a half feet, and that 
of 1848 fifty-seven feet above low-water. These were 
very destructive, and are memorable in the annals of the 
city. About twelve hundred acres in the Mill creek val- 
ley were formerly subject to inundation ; but that tract 
has been considerably narrowed by "making land" above 
high-water mark for manufactories, dwellings, and other 
improvements demanded by the growth of the city. The 



bottom-lands are rendered highly fertile by the annual 
overflows, and are in great request, so far as they are still 
available, for market gardening; also, in the lowest spots, 
for brickmaking. The deposit of fine clay in these 
places from a single inundation is sometimes four inches 
deep, is very smoothly laid, and when removed is almost 
ready, without further preparation, for the mold. The 
river has been, as will be shown further in this volume, 
an extremely important factor in the growth of the city. 


The Miami & Erie cana-l was one of the first projects 
of the kind to be executed in the State. Its history has 
been detailed in the first division of this book. It enters 
the city at Cumminsville, on the east side of Mill creek 
and some distance from it, and proceeds in a winding 
but generally southeasterly course, with a right angle at 
the intersection of Canal street, to the basin at the cor- 
ner of Canal and Sycamore streets. From this point to 
the river, just east of the Little Miami depot, it has been 
abandoned, or rather converted into a huge closed sewer 
called Eggleston avenue sewer, which occupies in part 
the bed of the former Deer creek, and discharges through 
a spacious tunnel into the river at the point named. 
The remainder of the canal, extending to Toledo, is still 
in use. 

The excavation and abandonment of the Whitewater 
canal, the only other canal which Cincinnati has had, 
have been related in the history of Hamilton county. 


The railway connections of Cincinnati are exceedingly 
numerous, far-reaching, and important, as has been seen 
in the chapter on this subject in the previous part of this 
work. The railways entering this city upon their own 
or others' tracks, are the New York, Pennsylvania & 
Ohio (formerly the Atlantic & Great Western), the Balti- 
more & Ohio, the Cincinnati Southern, the Cleveland, 
Columbus, Cincinnati, & Indianapolis (popularly known 
as the "Bee Line"), the Cincinnati, Hamilton, & Day- 
ton, the Marietta & Cincinnati, the Cincinnati & Muskin- 
gum Valley, the Cincinnati, Hamilton, & Indianapolis, 
the Cleveland, Mt. Vernon, & Columbus, the Dayton 
Short Line, the Louisville Short Line, the Little Miami, 
or Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, & St. Louis ("Pan Handle"), 
the Ohio & Mississippi, the Whitewater Valley, the Fort 
Wayne, Muncie, & Cincinnati, the Cincinnati, Wabash, 
& Michigan, the Cincinnati, Richmond, & Chicago, the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana, and the Indianapolis, Cincin- 
nati, & Lafayette; besides the narrow-gauge roads — the 
Cincinnati & Eastern, the Cincinnati & Portsmouth, the 
Cincinnati & Westwood, and the College Hill railways. 
All of these, except the railways from the south, come 
in by the narrow strips of land left in the Ohio valley on 
each side of the old city, or by the Mill Creek valley; 
and most of them enter three depots— the Plum street, 
the "C, H., & D.," at the corner of Fifth and Hoadly 
streets, and the Little Miami, at the corner of Front and 
Kilgour. The Cincinnati Southern has its own depot, 
at the corner of McLean avenue and Gest street. All 
the depots are near "the river, and those in the eastern 

and western parts of the city proper are connected by a 
track for limited use in transferring freight. The Ken- 
tucky Central, which has its northern terminus in Cov- 
ington, may also be considered as in the Cincinnati 


These include four lines to Covington, one of them 
through Newport; another Newport line; the Elm street 
and the Vine street lines, connecting with the Clifton 
line by the inclined plane near the head of Elm street; 
the Main street line, using another incline at the head of 
Main street to reach its track to the Zoological gardens; 
the Baymiller street line, connecting at the foot of Mt. 
Adams with an incline to the summit, up which cars, 
horses and passengers are taken as they drive upon its 
carriage from the street, and at the top connecting with 
the Eden Park, Walnut Hills and Avondale line; the 
Eighth street line, connecting with the inclined railway 
at Price's Hill; the Cumminsville and Spring Grove line, 
which has recently been extended to Fountain Square, 
furnishing the longest ride in the city, between five and 
six miles, for a single fare; the Walnut Hills line up Gil- 
bert avenue; the Third street line; the Seventh street 
line; the John street line, and the Riverside and Sedams- 
ville line. A recent extension on Liberty street gives a 
new line to Brighton by Fourth and Main streets. The 
Elm street line, at' its eastern terminus in Pendleton, 
connects with steam dummy lines for Columbia and 
Mount Lookout. The direct Newport line makes con- 
nection with a dummy line for Bellevue and Dayton. 
All the down-town horse railways start from or near 
Fountain Square. Most of the lines are consolidated, 
so that tickets sold by one line are usable upon others. 


of transportation are abundant. A number of omni- 
buses and stage lines run to points in the country from 
five to thirty miles distant, not reached by the steam or 
horse railways, and several lines of river steamers ply 
between Cincinnati and other points on the Ohio, Cum- 
berland, Mississippi, Arkansas, White and Red rivers. 
The bridges and ferries also supply great public needs 
nearer home. The Miami stockyards, on Eggleston 
avenue, covering three acres, and furnishing accommo- 
dations for ten thousand animals, facilitate the delivery 
of cattle, hogs, and sheep to several of the railroads. 
The United Railroads Stockyard company occupies a 
larger tract, fifty acres on Spring Grove avenue and Mill 
creek, near Cumminsville, where the land and improve- 
ments, affording accommodations for five thousand cat- 
tle, ten thousand sheep, and twenty-five thousand hogs, 
have cost over three-quarters of a million of dollars. 

The completion of the canal at Louisville around the 
falls of the Ohio, some years ago, now allows the largest 
Mississippi river steamers to come up to this city. 


These are sufficiently numerous for all public and pri- 
vate needs. The Western Union and the Atlantic & 
Pacific undertake the far-away communications; the city 
and suburban telegraph association, the board of trade 



telegraph, the police and fire telegraphs, have important 
local uses; as also the Bell telephonic exchange, with 
which the former Edison telephone exchange has been 


We have aimed in this opening chapter of the history 
of Cincinnati to present mainly the things which appear 
outwardly, to give a bird's-eye view of the city. Other 
and less apparent matters, as the city government, the 
police and fire departments, the water and gas works, the 
manufactures, trade and commerce of the city, its re- 
ligious, educational, literary and charitable institutions, 
its newspapers and periodicals, the public libraries, and 
many other subjects, will be set forth under their appro- 
priate heads hereafter. 



Lonely and sad it stands; 

The trace of ruthless hands 
Is on its sides and summit, and around 
The dwellings of the white man pile the ground; 

And, curling in the air, 
The smoke of twice a thousand hearths is there; 

Without, all speaks of life, within, 

Deaf to the city's echoing din, 
Sleep well the tenants of that silent mound, 
Their names forgot, their memories uncrowned. 

Upon its top I tread, 

And see around me spread 
Temples and mansions, and the hoary hills, 
Bleak with the labor that the coffer fills, 

But mars their bloom the while, 
And steals from Nature's face its joyous smile; 

And here and there, below, 

The stream's meandering flow 
Breaks on the view; and westward in the sky 
The gorgeous clouds in crimson masses lie. 

The hammer's clang rings out 

Where late the Indian's shout 
Startled the wild fowl from its sedgy nest, 
And broke the wild deer's and the panther's rest. 

The lordly oaks went down 
Before the ax — the canebiake is a town; 

The bark canoe no more 

Glides noiseless from the shore; 
And sole memorial of a nation's doom, 
Amid the works of art rises this lonely tomb. 

It, too, must pass away; 

Barbaric hands will lay 
Its holy ruins level with the plain, 
And rear upon its site some goodly fane. 

It seemeth to upbraid 
The white man for the ruin he hath made. 

And soon the spade and mattock must 

Invade the sleepers' buried dust, 
And bare their bones to sacrilegious eyes, 
And send them forth some joke-collector's prize. 
— "To the Old Mound," by Charles A. Jones, son of an old Cincin- 
nati family, who died at Cumminsville in 1851. 


The settlers of Losantiville, and afterwards the immi- 
grants to Cincinnati for more than a generation and a 

half, found the plainest indications that a numerous and 
intelligent people had been here before them. The red 
man had left few tokens of his occupancy, and those of 
but the most insignificant character; but beneath the 
deep shades of the luxuriant forest, overgrown by trees 
of centuries' growth, upon both the upper and lower ter- 
races, it is said, were the unmistakable remains of struct- 
ures erected there by a strange, mysterious race, whose 
very name, to say nothing of their history and tribal 
relations, had long been covered by the dust of oblivion. 
As Professor Short remarks, in his North Americans of 
Antiquity : 

The same sagacity which chose the neighborhood of St. Louis for 
these works, covered the site of Cincinnati with an extensive system of 
circumvallations and mounds. Almost the entire space now occupied 
by the city was utilized by the mysterious Builders, in the construction 
of embankments and tumuli built upon the most accurate geometrical 
principles, and evincing keen military foresight. 


Almost every one of the leading classes of Mound 
Builders' remains was represented in the Cincinnati 
works. The chief work was probably a sacred enclosure, 
since it had no ditch, and occupied a position offering 
no special advantages for defence. It was an earth wall 
or embankment, encircling the entire blocks now bound- 
ed by Fourth and Fifth, Race arid Walnut streets, and 
including some fractions of adjoining blocks. Its figure 
was not mathematically exact, and was probably not 
intended to be so. It was a very broad ellipsis, eight 
hundred feet in diameter from east to west, and about 
six hundred and sixty from north to south. An opening 
or gateway ninety feet wide appeared on the east side of 
the wall, upon or near the line of Fourth street. The 
height of the work, as found by the pioneers, was scarcely 
a yard, but the base of the embankment averaged ten- 
yards in thickness. It was heaped up with loam similar 
to that found in its immediate vicinity, and was of quite 
uniform composition throughout, as discovered by subse- 
quent excavation and removal. Nothing found inside 
the main work indicated that manual labor had been 
expended therein, the ground being somewhat irregular 
and uneven, and evidently left by the Builders pretty 
nearly in a state of nature. There was no ditch within 
or without the walls. From each side of the gateway, 
and exterior but contiguous to the wall, stretched away a 
broad elevation or parapet, of somewhat indeterminate 
figure. From that on the line of Fourth street could be 
traced a bank of only twelve inches height, but with a 
nine-foot base. It extended southward fifty to seventy- 
five yards, until within a few yards of the edge of the 
upper plain, or the "hill," as it was then called, when it 
turned to the east, and ended in a mound at the present 
junction of Main and Third streets, about five hundred 
feet distant from the point of departure. No similar 
wall from the other side of the gateway was observable • 
but at a short remove north of it were two other eleva- 
tions, isolated though near each other, over six feet high, 
and probably artificial, though of shapeless form. 

More than four hundred yards east of the work just 
described, between Broadway and Sycamore streets, was 



a bank of about the same dimensions as to height and 
thickness, which reached in a slight curve from Sixth 
nearly to Third. The circle of which it was a segment, 
whether ideal or embodied in earthwork, was an im- 
mense one. "It was evidently," says Judge Burnet, in 
his Notes, from which many of these facts are derived, 
"a segment of a very large circle, with its centre just 
south of the other work described." The remainder had 
been left unfinished, or was leveled after construction. 
From a point_near the south end of the segment formed 
a low wall could be traced to the river, and was found to 
correspond in a remarkable way, in height, extent, and 
direction, with another embankment, about half a mile 
distant, in the western part of the village site. Both of 
these had disappeared by the year 1815. 

Mr. Robert Clarke, in his pamphlet on the Pre-historic 
Remains at Cincinnati, printed in 1876, is not inclined 
to give credence to the story of this extension to the 
river, "as it would extend the works to the bottom-land, 
on which Mound Builder's works are seldom anywhere 
found. It is more probable that this embankment 
turned westward and joined the other embankment at 
the mound." 

Upon the present track of Fifth street, still east of all 
the works mentioned, and about four hundred feet from 
the segment, was a circular enclosure of sixty feet diam- 
eter, bearing evidence of construction by heaping up 
earth from the ground within. It was, when found, but 
one foot high, on a twelve to fifteen-foot base. 

In the north part of the old town, between Elm and 
Vine streets, and six hundred yards from the great ellip- 
sis (now between the canal and Fourth streets), were two 
extensive earth walls, also of convex shape, but not con- 
stituting an enclosure. They were each seven hundred 
and sixty feet long, about two feet high, and ran in exact 
parallels in a general east and west direction, forty-six 
feet apart, measuring from the middle of the embank- 
ment, for two-thirds of the way, when they converged 
slightly to forty feet width, and so continued to the end. 
At about the point where the convergence began, there 
was an opening of thirty feet in the southern bank. 

Many other inequalities of surface, upon sites more or 
less irregular, were observable in the early day ; but by 
the time the attention of antiquaries had been much di- 
rected to them, twenty-five to thirty years after settlement, 
they had become too obscure and ill-defined to warrant 
detailed description. Strange to say, the plains on the 
other side of the river, in Kentucky, did not present, ac- 
cording to Judge Burnet, the slightest vestige of. ancient 


Upon the upper plain on which the principal part of 
Cincinnati is located, were found several large mounds or 
pyramids. The largest of these was due west of the great 
ellipsis, and five hundred yards distant from it. It was 
situated just where the alley between Fifth and Long- 
worth streets intersects the west side of Mound street, 
to which it gave the name ; and was formed, it is believed 
from its composition, simply by scooping earth from the 
surrounding surface and heaping it up smoothly. The 

composition and structure of the mound were thus de- 
scribed by Mr. John S. Williams, editor of the American 
Pioneer, in volume II of that magazine: 

The earth of the mound is composed of light and dark colored lay- 
ers, as if it had been raised, at successive periods, by piling earth of 
different colors on the top. This appearance might have been pro- 
duced by successive layers of vegetation and freezings, which were 
allowed to act on each layer before the mound received a second addi- 
tion to its height. In some parts the layers are completely separated 
by what appears to have been decayed vegetable matter, such as leaves 
and grass, as the earth is in complete contact, except a very thin divis- 
ion by some such substance. In some places through the mound there 
are vacancies, evidently occasioned by the decay of sticks of wood, 
leaving a most beautiful, impalpable powder. Throughout the mound 
there are spots of charcoal, and in some places it is in beds. In one or 
two places which we observed, the action of fire upon the clay had left 
marks of considerable intensity. 

The shape of its base was that of a regular ellipsis, 
with diameters about in the ratio of two to one, and the 
longer diameter in a line about seventeen degrees east of 
north. It is described by one of the early local writers 
as "a considerable mound of great beauty, about fifty [?] 
feet high, constructed with great exactness, and standing 
upon a base unusually small compared with its height." 
The long diameter of the base was about seventy feet; 
the shorter thirty-five. Its circumference was four hun- 
dred and forty feet, and its height was twenty-seven 
feet so lately as 1815, though about eight feet had 
been cut from the top of it in 1794 by General Wayne, 
who posted a sentinel, with a sentry-box, upon it, while 
his army was encamped in the Mill Creek valley. 
From its summit, it is said, a view of the entire plain 
could be commanded; and it is a very interesting f act — 
wholly u«ique, so far as we know, in the history of the 
mounds — that this order of General Wayne restored the 
structure for a time to what was doubtless its ancient 
character and use in part, as a mound of observation. 
Some superficial excavations were early made in this 
mound, resulting in the finding of a few scattered human 
bones, probably from intrusive burials, a branch of deer's 
horn, and a piece of earthenware containing muscle shell. 
Long afterwards (1841) the removal of the mound in the 
grading of the street and alley, brought to light one of 
the most interesting memorials of antiquity ever discov- 
ered, which willl be noticed at some length below. The 
lines "To the Old Mound," quoted at length at 
the beginning of this chapter, were addressed to this 
ancient remain. Three smaller mounds stood in the 
close neighborhood of this, also containing human 
remains. Five hundred feet north and somewhat 
eastward of this work, near the northeast corner of 
Mound and Seventh streets, was another, a platform 
mound, probably about nine feet high, circular, and 
nearly flat on top. In this were found a few fragments 
of human skeletons and a handful of copper beads that 
had formerly been strung on a cord of lint. 

Northeast of this eminence, and several hundred yards 
distant, on the east of Central avenue, opposite Rich- 
mond street, near Court, was another circular mound but 
three feet high, from which were taken unfinished spear- 
and arrow-heads of chert or flint. 

But the most remarkable of this class of the Cincin- 
nati works which did not long survive the advent of the 



white man, was the mound at the intersection of Third 
and Main streets, near the site of the older as well as the 
later First Presbyterian churches. It was the mound 
formerly mentioned as terminating the wall from the 
great ellipsis, and was one hundred and twenty feet long, 
sixty feet broad and eight feet high, of an oval figure, 
with its diameters nearly on lines connecting the oppo- 
site cardinal points of the compass. It was gradually 
destroyed at an early day by the necessity of grading 
Main street to reduce the difficulty of ascent from the 
lower plain to the higher. The strata of which it was 
composed, proceeding from without, were: First, a layer 
of loam or soil like that upon the adjacent natural sur- 
face. The articles found in the tumulus were a little be- 
low this stratum. Second, a layer of large pebbles, con- 
vex, like the outer one, and of uniform thickness. Lastly, 
gravel, considerably heaped up in the centre, and contain- 
ing no remains. Many interesting articles were found in 
the process of excavation and removal — pieces of jasper, 
rock crystal, granite, porphyry, and other rocks, mostly 
cylindrical at the extremes and increasing in diameter 
toward the middle, with an annular groove near one end, 
and all evincing much skill of the Builders in cutting 
and polishing the hardest rocks. Numerous other arti- 
cles, made of cannel coal, argillaceous earth, and bone, 
including the sculptured head of a bird, supposed to be 
intended to represent that of an eagle; bits of isinglass 
or mica, lead ore, and sheet copper, all supposed to be 
used partly for ornament and partly in religious observ- 
ances; with beads of bone or shell, the teeth of some 
carniverous animal, probably the bear, and several large 
marine shells; also a quantity of human bones, appar- 
ently belonging to twenty or thirty skeletons, were found 
in this work. The last mentioned remains were generally 
surrounded by ashes and charcoal, and sometimes were 
found enclosed in rude stone cists or coffins. The stra- 
tum above these seemed to be undisturbed, and had evi- 
dently been laid after the precious deposits were made. 
One of the old writers also mentions among the discov- 
eries in this mound certain other articles, "most proba- 
bly deposited in it after Europeans began to visit here" — 
as pieces of hard brown earthenware; the small image of 
a female holding an infant in her arms and supposed to 
represent the Virgin Mary, finely wrought in ivory but 
somewhat mutilated; and a small, complex instrument 
of iron, greatly corroded, and supposed to be used for 
weighing light articles." The last two statements are de- 
cidedly apocryphal, though Judge Burnet apparently 
gives credence to them and repeats them in his Notes. 

This ancient work was noticed very early by Colonel 
Sargent, secretary of the Northwest Territory, in a letter 
from Cincinnati, dated September 8, 1794, and enclos- 
ing drawings of relics exhumed from a grove near the 
mound. His correspondent, Dr. Benjamin S. Barton, of 
Philadelphia, made them the theme of an elaborate let- 
ter to Rev. Joseph Priestly, the famous Indian theo- 
logian, philosopher and scientist; and the correspondence 
was published, with illustrations, in volumes four and 
five, of the transactions of one of the learned societies 
of the Quaker city. 


In 1874 Dr. H. H. Hill discovered a cluster of an- 
cient graves on the extreme point of Brighton Hill, at 
the west end of the range of hills north of the old city, 
which Mr. Clarke thinks were once covered by a mound 
that has been in the course of the ages washed away by 
the rainfalls to or near the level of the original surface. 
Many loose stones, in groups or piles, had been long ob- 
served at this spot, and had been conjectured to be the 
remains of an ancient stone work. The human remains 
were included within a circular spot about forty feet in 
diameter, and the bones were so greatly decomposed 
that they soon fell to dust. From some indications in 
the position of the bones there is reason to believe that 
Indians were buried here, as well as Mound Builders. 
Many teeth and tusks of animals, fragments of stag-horn, 
with various implements made from bone, pieces of mica, 
stone hammers, gorgets and pipes, spear and arrow-heads, 
copper and bone awls, and fragments of shells with 
traces of carving thereon, were aiso found in the burial- 
place. It was a very interesting find. The mound sup- 
posed to have stood over the remains and relics is that 
designated by Mr. Clarke, in a quotation we shall make 
hereafter, as the "Brighton Hill mound." It was also, 
probably, one of the series of signal-mounds in the Mill 
creek valley. 


Over half a mile north of the ellipsis, which serves as 
a convenient point of departure for distances to the 
other works, was an excavation or "dug-hole," believed 
to be artificial, but not apparently connected with any 
other work. It was nearly fifty feet in diamete"r at the top, 
as measured from the top of the circular bank formed 
by throwing out the earth, and almost twelve feet in 
depth; and was by some of the early settlers supposed 
to be an old, half-filled well. It probably belonged, 
however, to the age of the Mound Builders, and to the 
class of ancient remains known as "dug-holes," origin- 
ally intended as reservoirs for water or store houses of 

a scholar's view. 

General W. H. Harrison, in his instructive address be- 
fore the Historical and Philosophical society of Ohio, in 
1837, published in their transactions, and also in pamph- 
let form, gave the following view of the works, as they 
appeared in the white man's early day here: 

When I first saw the upper plain on which that city stands, it was 
literally covered with low lines of embankments. I had the honor to 
attend General Wayne two years afterwards, in an excursion to examine 
them. We were employed the greater part of a day, in August, 1793, 
in doing so. The number and variety of figures in which these lines 
were drawn, was almost endless, and, as I have said, almost covered the 
plain— many so faint, indeed, as scarcely to be followed, and often for 
a considerable distance entirely obliterated; but, by careful examination, 
and following the direction, they could again be found. Now, if these 
lines were ever of the height of the others made by the same people 
(and they must have been to have answered any valuable purpose), or 
unless their erection was many years anterior to the others, there must 
have been some other cause than the attrition of rain (for it is a dead 
level) to bring them down to their then state. That cause I take to 
have been continued cultivation; and, as the people who erected them 
would not themselves destroy works which had cost them so much labor, 
the solution of the question can only be found in the long occupancy 



and the cultivation of another people, and the probability is that that 
people were the conquerors of the original possessors. To the ques- 
tion of the fate of the former, and the cause of no recent vestige of set- 
tlements being found on the Ohio, I can offer only a conjecture, but 
one that appears to me to be far from improbable. 

The general thought the occurrence of tremendous 
floods, like those of 1793 and 1832, might be sufficient 
to drive off the Builders, "not only from actual suffering, 
but from the suggestions of superstition ; an occurrence 
so unusual being construed into a warning from Heaven 
to seek a residence upon the smaller streams." 


Many were still remaining. Judge Burnet, writing at 
this time, notes them as " numerous here, and consisting 
of two circular banks, mounds, tumuli, etc." A house 
then stood at the corner of Mound and Third streets, 
upon the site of the tumulus there. Several streets were 
intersecting the remains, and they did not long thereafter 
maintain their ground against the march of improvement, 
which in time obliterated the last vestige of the monu- 
ments of ancient civilization, so far as the surface of the 
site of Cincinnati exhibited them. 

THE WORKS IN 1819 AND 1 825. 

The maps prefixed to the first and second directories 
of the city, published in 1819 and 1825, however, take 
notice of the existence and position of the enclosures 
and mounds upon the site of Cincinnati, though not 
precisely as they have been described above. One work, 
the large ellipsis, is delineated as surrounding completely 
the block between Fourth and Fifth, Race and Vine 
streets, except a very small part of the northwest corner, 
about half the next block east, and some parts of the 
adjacent blocks north and south. Adjoining the north- 
east part of it, on the north half of the block bounded 
by Third, Fourth, Vine and Race streets, appears a large 
mound, with a single embankment running almost due 
south to the lower part of the block, and thence across 
the next block eastward to the mound at the northeast 
corner of Main and Third. The enclosure is represented 
as an irregular circle, of about six hundred feet diameter. 
The convex parallel walls between Canal and Twelfth 
are shown as a long enclosure, extending almost diagon- 
ally from a point a trifle east of Vine street across the 
block bounded by that place and the streets before 
named, and about half-way across the block next on the 

Wayne's sentry-post is plainly marked as a large tumu- 
lus at the southeast corner of Fifth and Mound, and the 
others mentioned as being in the west and northwest-part 
of the town are here — the mound upon the upper side 
of Seventh street, below Smith, near fhe rope-walk then 
standing; that on Western Row, nearly at the head of 
Richmond ; one large mound west of Plum, near the old 
corporation line on Liberty street; and also one in the 
eastern part of the city, directly on Fifth street, half a 
block beyond Broadway. The mound on Fourth street 
stood nearly where Pike's Opera house now is. 

Thus it appears that the ancient works upon the site of 
Cincinnati were still so well defined, so late as 1825, as to 

deserve, if not demand, a place upon the map of the city. 


In November, 1841, the large tumulus near the corner 
of Fifth and Mound streets was removed, in order to 
extend Mound street across Fifth and grade an alley. 
A little above the level of the surrounding surface, near 
the centre of the mound, were found a large part of a 
human skull and two bones of about seven inches length, 
pointed at one end. It was undoubtedly the grave of a 
Mound Builder, probably a great dignitary of his tribe. 
Under the fragmentary skull of the buried Builder was a 
bed of charcoal, ashes and earth, and therein a very re- 
markable inscribed stone which, after much discussion, 
including the publication of Mr. Clarke's interesting 
pamphlet in vindication of its authenticity, has been pro- 
nounced a genuine relic of the period of the Mound 
Builders. It is not lettered or inscribed with hieroglyph- 
ics, but is marked with curious, broad lines, curves and 
scrolls. Some have thought they could trace in these the 
outline of a figure, perhaps an idol; but the better con- 
jecture seems to be that it served for a record of calcula- 
tions and a scale of measurement. The following de- 
scription and remarks upon it are extracted from Messrs.' 
Squier and Davis's "Ancient Monuments of the Missis- 
sippi Valley": 

The material is 'fine grained, compact sandstone of a light brown 
color. It measures five inches in length, three in breadth at the ends,, 
and two and six-tenths at the middle, and is about half an inch in thick- 
ness. The sculptured face -varies very slightly from a perfect plane. 
The figures are cut in low relief (the lines being not more than one- 
twentieth of an inch in depth), and occupy a rectangular space of four 
inches and two-tenths long by two and one-tenth wide. The sides of 
the stone, it will be observed, are slightly concave. Right lines are 
drawn across the face near the ends, at right angles, and exterior to 
these are notches, twenty-five at one end and twenty-four at the other. 
The back of the stone has three deep longitudinal grooves and several 
depressions, evidently caused by rubbing — probably produced by sharp- 
ening the instrument used in the sculpture. [Mr. Gest, however, the 
present owner of the stone, does not regard these as tool marks, but 
thinks they have some special significance. J 

Without discussing the singular resemblance which the relic bears to 
the Egyptian cartouch, it will be sufficient to direct attention to the re- 
duplication of the figures, those upon one side corresponding with those 
upon the other, and the two central ones being also alike. It will be ob- 
served that there are but three scrolls or figures — four of one description 
and two of the others. Probably no serious discussion of the question 
whether or not these figures are hieroglyphical, is needed. They more 
resemble the stalk and flowers of a plant than anything else in nature. 
What significance, if any, may attach to the peculiar markings or grad- 
uations at the end it is not undertaken to say. The sum of the products 
of the longer and shorter lines (twenty-four by seven and twenty-five by 
eight) is three hundred and sixty-eight, three more than the number of 
days in the year; from which circumstance the suggestion has been ad- 
vanced that the tablet had an astronomical origin and constituted some 
sort of a calendar. 

We may perhaps find the key to its purposes in a very humble, but 
not therefore less interesting class of southern remains. Both in Mexico 
and in the mounds of Mississippi have been found stamps of burnt clay, 
the faces of which are covered with figures, fanciful or imitative, all in 
low relief, like the face of a stereotype plate. These were used in im- 
pressing ornaments upon the clothes or prepared skins of the people 
possessing them. They exhibit the concavity of the sides to be ob- 
served in the relic in question — intended, doubtless, for greater conveni- 
ence in holding and using it — as also a similar reduplication of the 
ornamental figures, all betraying a common purpose. This explanation 
is offered hypothetically as being entirely consistent with the gen- 
eral character of the mound remains, which, taken together, do not 
warrant us in looking for anything that might not well pertain to a very 
simple, not to say rude„people. 




The following discussion from Mr. Clarke's pamphlet 
may appropriately end this little treatise on the Cincinnati 
works : 

It may be of interest here to examine these pre-historic works in the 
light of Lewis H. Morgan's "pueblo" theory, as set forth in his article 
in the North American Review for July of this year. The great cen- 
tral work, an ellipse eight hundred by six hundred and sixty feet, cor- 
responds with his pueblo or village. Its position gave it a measure of 
security, being on the upper plain, three hundred and fifty feet from its 
edge, and could be completely screened from view from the river by a 
belt or grove of trees. The embankment, three feet high (possibly 
originally higher), with a base of thirty feet, afforded sufficient founda- 
tion for their buildings, occupying the circumference of the ellipse, 
facing inward, presenting a solid timber wall on the outside, with no 
entrance but by the gateway on the east, which may have been pro- 
tected by a palisade of round timbers, with proper openings for ingress 
and egress, and by some structures of the nature of block-houses on the 
higher embankments attached externally at each side of the entrance. 
From the lower of these block-houses, it will be remembered, ran the 
low embankment, one foot high, with nine feet base, southward nearly 
to the edge of the declivity, and then east to the mound on the corner 
of Third and Main streets. This may have been occupied by a high 
timber palisade, or a covered way leading to the mound, which was so 
situated as to command a full view of the Licking river, which enters 
the Ohio on the opposite shore, and was doubtless an important ap- 
proach, which it was necessary should be watched. If I am right in 
supposing that the embankment, of the same dimensions as the last, 
noticed east of Sycamore, running from Sixth street to near Third 
street, turned there and joined the other embankment at the mound, 
and was built upon in the same manner, we would thus have the whole 
front so defended that it would have to be forced or flanked by an 
enemy coming from the.direction of the Licking river. 

East of this high hill, Mount Adams, overlooking the Ohio, and giv- 
ing a clear view up the river for miles, would be a natural outpost on ■ 
which it would not be necessary to erect a mound structure. I have 
never heard of any remains having been found on this hill. 

To the west, the hill next the river was so distant, and from its posi- 
tion did not command an extensive enough view of the river to serve as 
an outlook; so a position was selected near the edge of the plain, about 
five hundred yards west of the closed end of the village, and a large 
mound thirty-five feet high was erected, from which could be had an 
extensive view of the Kentucky shore and of the Ohio, river to the bend 
below the mouth of Mill creek. The Brighton Hill mound would give 
an extensive view of the whole of Mill creek valley, the whole, as be- 
fore mentioned, being part of an extensive series of signal stations. 

The minor mounds and other works on the upper plain may have 
been connected with the supervision and care of their agricultural oper- 
ations on the rich land between the village and the northern hills. 

Thus we have a village judiciously located on a fine, fertile plain, and 
well guarded by the nature of the location and the artificial works 
erected on a carefully arranged plan. 

Mr. Morgan's theory will apply to a large number of the Ohio works. 
The two larger mounds were so situated that we can hardly 
avoid the conclusion, though it is only a supposition, that one object of 
their erection was to serve as outlooks for watching the approaches to 
their village from the Kentucky side of the river by the Licking, and 
from the west by the Ohio. From the description of the structure of 
the mounds and the remains found in them, it is quite certain that they 
were also grave mounds. They may have been originally placed on 
these commanding points so as to be seen from a distance (just as we 
place rhonuments in prominent positions), and afterward used as out- 
looks. Dr. Drake, as quoted above, gives sufficient details of the 
structure and contents of that at the corner of Third and Main streets 
to warrant this conclusion as to that mound. 


Although not strictly belonging to the general topic of 
this chapter, mention may here be fitly made of some 
interesting "finds" that have been made upon the site 
of Cincinnati, belonging to a period of ancient vegetation 
of which many evidences are apparent in Hamilton 
county, as will be seen upon reference to the second chap- 
ter of this book, upon its geology and topography. In 

1802 a well was dug by an ancient settler in the centre of 
one of the artificial enclosures above described, and two 
stumps, of twelve and eighteen inches' diameter, respec- 
tively, were met with at a depth of ninety-three feet, 
standing as they grew, with roots sound and in place. 
From the soil that was thrown out in excavating the well 
mulberry trees grew in large numbers, although none were 
known to exist on the plain before. About the same 
time Mr. Daniel Symmes, while digging another well in 
the eastern part of the town, came upon a large unde- 
cayed log twenty-four feet below the surface. It is said 
that similar discoveries have frequently been made in 
making deep excavations in different parts of the city, 
showing that the ancient level of the plain was once far 
below its present elevation. 



The original site of Cincinnati, platted and surveyed 
under the name of Losantiville, was contracted for before 
the surveys of the Symmes Purchase were made, and the 
conveyance to Mathias Denman simply specified that 
his tract should be located as nearly as possible opposite 
the mouth of the Licking river. When the surveys were 
completed, it was found that he owned the entire section 
eighteen, and the fractional section in seventeen lying be- 
tween that and the river, in township four and the first 
fractional range, as surveyed under the orders of the pros- 
pective patentee, Judge Symmes. The tract covered 
eight hundred acres, and including the outlots as well as 
in-lots laid out upon it, comprised the original site of Cin- 
cinnati. It extended, on a north and south line, from 
the present Liberty street to the river. The eastern 
boundary line ran from the intersection of the old Leb- 
anon road with Liberty street to the Ohio, at a point one 
hundred feet below Broadway; and the western line ran 
from the intersection of Liberty street with the Western 
row (Central avenue) to the river, which is reached just 
below Smith street landing. This tract, a little less than 
one and one-fourth square miles, was not quite one twen- 
ty-second part of the present vast area of Cincinnati. 

The founders of Losantiville found this site nearly or 
quite in a state of nature, save the earthworks which in- 
dicated its occupancy by a people long before departed. 
Mr. E. D. Mansfield says it was the site of an old Indian 
town, and other authorities say that two block-houses had 
been erected hereby the soldiers of an expedition against 
the Indians, only eight years previous ; but the records 
of Losantiville are silent concerning the vestiges of the 
Indian village and the white men's fortifications, if any 
existed at this time. A dense wood covered the appar- 
ently virgin tract. The lower belt of ground was occu- 
pied mainly by beech, buckeye, and sugar trees, loaded 
with grapevines, and interspersed with a heavy under- 
growth of spicewood and pawpaws. The same timber 



prevailed upon the second terrace, with poplars and 
other trees, some of which were very large. Many of 
the beeches were also large, and a cluster of these, near 
"Stonemetz's ford," on Mill creek, was still standing 
sixty years after the settlement, and bore the name of 
"Loring's woods" — the only relics of the primeval forest 
here, except some scattered trees. A group of these trees 
was also called the "Beechen grove" in an early day. 

At the foot of Sycamore street was an inlet of consid- 
erable size, which took the name of "Yeatman's cove," 
from its neighborhood to the tavern and store of Griffin 
Yeatman, but also called the "Stone landing," because 
used for the disembarking of the boatloads of stone 
brought for the building of Fort Washington, at a spot 
near what is now the corner of Sycamore and Front streets. 
At the corner of Ludlow street was another inlet, called 
"Dorsey's cove," and another still higher up, just below 
the mouth of Deer creek. These little harbors were ex- 
ceedingly convenient as landing-places for immigrants, 
and were doubtless used also by the crews of boats con- 
veying the earlier expeditions against the Indians. In 
the shore end of Yeatman's cove the first, little, rude mar- 
ket-house of the village was constructed, to the pillars of 
which boats were usually tied in seasons of high water. 

The north shore of the Ohio, and the ground for some 
way back, as first observed by the whites at this point, 
are described as somewhat resembling in appearance the 
site of Philadelphia. Dr. Daniel Drake, writing twenty 
years after the beginnings, when the physical features of 
the place had not greatly changed, except by the partial 
clearing of the woods, in his "Notices concerning Cincin- 
nati," says: 

Its site is not equally elevated. A strip of land called the Bottom 
(most of which is inundated by extraordinary freshes, though the 
whole is elevated several feet above the ordinary high-water mark), 
commences at Deer creek, the eastern boundary of the town, and 
stretches down to the river, gradually becoming wider and lower. It 
slopes northwardly to the average distance of eight hundred feet, where 
it is terminated by a bank or glacis, denominated the hill, which is 
generally of steep ascent, and from thirty to fifty feet in height. In 
addition to this there is a gentle acclivity for six or seven hundred feet 
further back, which is succeeded by a slight inclination of surface 
northwardly, for something more than half a mile, when the hills or 
real uplands commence. 

These benches of land extend northwestwardly (the upper one con- 
stantly widening) nearly two miles, and are lost in the intervale ground 
of Mill creek. The whole form an area of between two and three 
square miles — which, however, comprehends but little more than a 
moiety of the expansion which the valley of the Ohio has at this point. 
For on the southern side, both above and below the mouth of the Lick- 
ing river, are extended, elevated bottoms. 

The hills surrounding this alluvial tract form an imperfectly rhom- 
boidal figure. They are between three and four hundred feet high; but 
the angle under which they are seen, from a central situation, is only a 
few degrees. Those to the southwest and northwest, at such a station, 
make the greatest and nearly an equal angle ; those to the southeast 
and southwest also make angles nearly equal. .The Ohio enters at the 
eastern angle of this figure, and, after bending considerably to the south, 
passes out at the western. The Licking river entets through the south- 
ern, and Mill creek through the northern angle. Deer creek, an incon- 
siderable stream, enters through the northern side. The Ohio, both 
up and down, affords a limited view, and its valley forms no consider- 
able inlet to the east and west winds. The valley of the Licking af- 
fords an entrance to the south wind, that of Mill creek to the north 
wind, and that of Deer creek (a partial one) to the northeast. The 
other winds blow over the hills that lie in their respective courses. 
The Ohio is five hundred and thirty-five yards wide from bank to bank, 
but at low-water is much narrower. No extensive bars exist, however, 

near the town. Licking river, which joins the Ohio opposite the town, 
is about eighty yards wide at its mouth. Mill creek is large enough for 
mills, and has wide alluvions, which, near its junction with the Ohio, are 
annually overflown [sic\. Its general course is from northeast to north- 
west, and it joins the Ohio at a right angle. Ascending from these 
valleys the aspects and characteristics of the surrounding country are 
various. . . . No barrens, prairies, or pine lands are to be 
found near the town. 

Some notices of the site of Cincinnati in the early 
day have been inserted in the first chapter of this divi- 
sion of our work, and need not be repeated here. A 
glowing paragraph by Mr. J. P. Foote, concerning the 
hills in their pristine freshness, will be particularly re- 
membered. The ground on the "bottom" was quite 
broken and uneven; that on the "hill," or second ter- 
race, was somewhat smoother. The bank which sepa- 
rated them was sharp and abrupt;* and it was a serious 
question with the fathers whether it should be cut 
through by the streets with a steep or gentle gradient. 
Happily for the horses and men employed in the im- 
mense transfer business since that day, the problem was 
solved in the sensible way that might have been expected 
of the founders of the Queen City, although the cost- 
lier. The grade of Main street, for example, was thus 
in process of time extended along three squares, from 
Second to Fifth streets (Third street being about one 
hundred feet north of the original line of the bank), 
with an angle of ascent of but five to ten degrees. The 
constant change of level in the streets, in the progress 
of improvement from year to year, made sad work with 
the relations of sidewalks and pavements (or the spaces 
where pavements ought to have been), and left many 
buildings of the early day far above the streets on which 
they once immediately fronted. Interesting anecdotes 
are related of the foresight of some of the early business 
men, who, at once upon the planning and laying founda- 
tion of their buildings, went low enough with the latter 
to meet the future exigencies of improvement. A writer 
in the first number of Cist's Cincinnati Miscellany, prob- 
ably Mr. Cist himself, making some notes of "city 
changes," says: 

In the early part of the present century, Broadway, opposite John's 
cabinet warehouse, was the center of a pond, three or four acres in ex- 
tent, to which the early settlers resorted to shoot plovers. 
The general level of upper Main street extended as far south as nearly 
the line of Third street, part of the original surface of the ground being 
preserved in some of the yards north of Third street to this date (Oc- 
tober, 1844). It will readily be imagined what an impediment the 
bluff bank overhanging the lower ground to the south, and repeatedly 
caving in on it, must have created to the intercourse between the two 
great divisions of the city — Hill and Bottom. But this statement, if it 
were to end here, would not give an adequate idea how far the brow of 
the hill overhung the bottom region ; for it must be observed that, while 
the hill projected nearly forty feet above the present level where its edge 
stood, the ground on Main street, opposite Pearl and Lower Market 
streets, corresponded with the general level of these streets, which must 
have been between thirteen and fourteen feet below the present grade. 
The whole ground from the foot of the hill was a swamp, fed partly 
from a cove which put in from the Ohio near what is now Harkness' 
foundry, and in high water filled the whole region from the hill to with- 
in about one hundred and fifty yards of the Ohio in that part of the 
city from Walnut to Broadway — in early days the dwelling ground, 

* An interesting remnant of the old bank at the brow of the hill — the 
only one left, we believe — is still to be seen at the northwest corner of 
Third and Plum streets. It is now a back yard, heaped up with old 


principally, of the settlers, as it still is the most densely built-on and 
valuable part of Cincinnati. 

The writer then relates some interesting facts of Casper 
Hopple's old tobacco warehouse, on Lower Market street, 
which was built upon boat-gunnels many years before — 
material obtained by the breaking up of the primitive 
river vessels. In his plan of building, Mr. Hopple had 
the foresight to place the joists of the second story just 
fourteen feet above the sills of the door to the first, say- 
ing that that would be the proper range of the floor, 
when Lower Market should be filled to its proper height; 
which proved, quite remarkably, to be the case, so that 
his second story became a first, and the first a cellar of 
the right depth, as originally planned. 

This entertaining antiquary also makes mention of 
Captain Hugh Moore's building, nearly opposite this, on 
the subsequent site of Bates & Company's hat warehouse, 
which likewise had boat-gunnels for foundation, with 
boat-plank for the inside walls, lined with poplar boards, 
and a clapboard roof. It was, he thinks, perhaps thirty- 
six feet deep and twenty feet front. Captain Moore se- 
cured this building for the sale of his merchandise, it 
being the only one he could secure for the purpose. 
And now comes in the remarkable part of the narrative, 
which makes it germane to this chapter: 

"When he had bargained for the house, which he rent- 
ed at one hundred dollars per annum, and which, with 
the lot one hundred feet on Main by two hundred on 
Pearl street, he was offered in fee simple at three hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, he brought the flat-boat which was 
loaded with his store-goods from the Ohio, via Hobson's 
Choice, not far from Mill creek, up Second or Columbia 
street, and fastened the boat to a stake near the door, as 
nearly as can be judged the exact spot where the Museum 
lamp-post now [1844] stands, at the corner of Main and 
Pearl streets." 

Upon the lower slope was a broad swamp, occupying 
the larger part of the space between Second and Lower 
Market streets, though a part stretched still further to the 



It is said, upon the authority of the late Hon. E. D. 
Mansfield, who makes the remark in his Personal Me- 
mories, that the Indians had anciently a town upon the 
site of Cincinnati. Its natural advantages for the. pur- 
poses of savage as well as civilized man, would of them- 
selves argue that fact, though no other evidence should 
exist in corroboration of the statement. Whatever that 
evidence may be, the history of Indian occupancy at this 
point has faded out as completely as that of the older 
and more civilized Mound Builder in this garden spot of 
the Ohio valley. Neither left a record in literature — not 

even in that of the sculptured monument, if we except 
the remarkable little object known as the "Cincinnati 
stone," discovered in 1841 in the large mound near the 
interse6tion of Fifth and Mound streets; and tradition is 
equally silent, so far as the details of human life in a re- 
moter Losantiville or Cincinnati are concerned. There 
were the earthworks — most of them low and insignificant 
in appearance, as they rose in slight eminence or wound 
their way amid the monarchs of the forest — some so di- 
minutive as to be scarcely distinguishable above the sur- 
face ; and they were all that told of the presence of man 
in congregated communities upon this area until Colonel 
Patterson led his little band to their new homes in the 
wilderness. Except for those, this was the forest prime- 
val. Anything more would certainly have been noted and 
recorded by the shrewd, intelligent men who were the 
founders of the city. 


The statement is made, however, by Mr. Isaac Smucker, 
of Newark, in one of his interesting historical papers 
published by the secretary of State in the official vohlmes 
of Ohio Statistics (that for 1877 containing this), that 
Colonel George Rogers Clark, with an army of about 
one thousand men, all Kentuckians, "in 1780 crossed 
the Ohio at the mouth of the Licking, and erected two 
block-houses on the first day of August, upon the ground 
now occupied by Cincinnati." Clark lTad organized the 
expedition during the previous month, to march against 
the Indian villages on the Little Miami and the Mad 
rivers, to punish the Shawnees for their marauding in- 
roads into the Kentucky settlements. After the reputed 
erection of the block-houses — which must have been very 
rapidly accomplished — he resumed the march, and on 
the fifth day thereafter struck the Indian towns at the site 
of Old Chillicothe, on the Little Miami. The Indians 
had anticipated Clark's arrival, however, and themselves 
applied the torch to their village, leaving little mischief 
for the Kentuckians to do, except to destroy the ripening 
corn. But at Piqua, a larger town and the birthplace of 
the renowned Tecumseh, on the Mad river, about five 
miles west of the present Springfield, the savages made a 
stand, preparing an ambuscade in the high grass of a 
prairie adjoining their lodges, and opened an unexpected 
and deadly fire upon the invaders. The latter speedily 
rallied and charged the Indians, who, after a desperate 
fight, fled the field, losing about twenty dead, and the 
Kentucky volunteers as many. The village and several 
hundred acres of standing corn were laid waste. Colonel 
Clark then returned to the mouth of the Licking, and 
disbanded his force. 

One member, and but one, we believe, of that band of 
Indian fighters has left express testimony to the building 
of the block-houses. Mr. Thomas Vickroy, who was 
afterwards an assistant in the survey of the site of Pitts- 
burgh, was out in this expedition. He says: 

In April, 1780, I went to Kentucky, in company with eleven flat- 
boats with movers. We landed, on the fourth of May, at the mouth of 
Beargrass creek, above the falls of Ohio. I took my compass and 
chain along to make a fortune by surveying, but when we got there the 
Indians would not let us survey. In the same summer Colonel Byrd 


came from Detroit with a few British soldiers and some light artillery, 
with Simon Girty and a great many Indians, and took the forts on the 
Licking. Immediately afterward General Clark raised an army of 
about a thousand men, and marched with one party of them against 
the Indian towns. When we came to the mouth of the Licking we 
fell in with Colonel Todd and his party. On the first day of August, 
1780, we crossed the Ohio river and built the two block-houses wheus 
Cincinnati now stands. I was at the building of the block-houses. 
Then, as General Clark had appointed me commissary of the cam- 
paign, he gave the military stores into my hands and gave me orders to 
maintain that post for fourteen days. Heleft with me Captain Johnson 
and about twenty or thirty men, who were sick and lame. 

Nothing more is said in history, so far as the writer of 
these pages is aware, of these block-houses. The use of 
the structures, during Clark's brief campaign to the 
northward, is sufficiently indicated in Mr. Vickroy's 
statement. As his force was not regularly recruited and 
paid by the United States or any other constituted au- 
# thority, there is not the least probability that a garrison 
was left in it when his march was done and he recrossed 
the Ohio. In that case the red men would make short 
work of the obnoxious buildings as soon as they obtained 
access to them. Such works were not commonly suf- 
fered to remain upon lands unoccupied and undefended, 
as defiant monuments of the hated "Long Knife." Fire 
would speedily cause them to vanish in air, and the lapse 
of more than eight years, with floods probably inunda- 
ting their sites repeatedly, would so cover them with soil 
and nature's tangled wildwood that the very clearings 
made for them could not be recognized. We do not 
learn that there is the faintest clue to the exact locality 
of these block-houses. But the brief story of them is 
exceedingly interesting, as that of the first occupancy in 
houses of the site of Cincinnati by the white man, 
August 1, 1780. 


The fact that another block-house stood upon the site 
of Cincinnati, more than six years before the Ludlow 
and Patterson party came, seems to be clearly established 
by similar testimony; not only that of a single person — 
Mr. John McCaddon, for many years a respected citizen 
of Newark, in this State, who was present at its building 
— but also by that of two persons of far greater renown, 
no less personages than General Simon Kenton and Major 
James Galloway. General Clark was then making a sec- 
ond expedition against the Miami towns, to avenge the 
defeat of the Kentuckians at the battle of the Blue Licks 
August 15, 1782. That disaster had aroused a fierce de- 
sire for reprisals upon the Ohio Indians; and, as soon as a 
force could be collected from the widely scattered settle- 
ments, it marched in two divisions, under Colonels Lo- 
gan and Floyd, for the., mouth of the Licking. Clark 
crossed here with one thousand and fifty men, threw up a 
block-house rapidly, and marched with such speed one 
hundred and thirty miles up the Miami country, that the 
Indians were thoroughly surprised. The principal Shaw- 
nee town was destroyed November 10th; also the British 
trading post at Loramie's store, in the present Shelby 
county — the same locality visited by^hristopher Gist in 
1752 — and he destroyed a large quantity of property and 
some lives, with little loss. It was a very effective expe- 
dition, especially as relieving Kentucky against formida- 
able invasion. 

Fifty years afterwards an address issued by the vener- 
able pioneers and Indian fighters, Kenton and Galloway, 
to call their comrades together for the semi-centennial 
celebration of theis occupation opposite the Licking, con- 
tained these words : 

We will no doubt all recollect Captain McCracken. He commanded 
the company of light horse, and Green Clay was his lieutenant. The 
captain was slightly wounded in the arm at Piqua town, when within a 
few feet of one of the subscribers, from which place he was carried on a 
horse litter for several days ; his wound produced mortification, and he 
died in going down the hill where the city of Cincinnati now stands. 
He was buried near the block-ho^se we had erected opposite the mouth 
of Licking, and the breastworks were thrown over his grave to prevent 
the savages from scalping him. 

We have also the separate confirmatory testimony of 
Major Galloway, who was of the party of 1782, and re- 
sided long afterwards in Greene county. Ht was well 
known to many old citizens of Cincinnati. In a letter 
written to acknowledge the receipt of an invitation to at- 
tend the fifty-fifth anniversary of the settlement of Cin- 
cinnati, in 1833, he says: 

In October, 1782, I accompanied General Clark on an expedition 
against Pickaway and Loramie's town, and was within a few feet of the 
lamented William McCracken when he received the wound of which he 
died on his return, while descending the hill near which Cincinnati now 
stands, and was buried near a block-house opposite the mouth of 

These cumulative testimonies would seem to place the 
question of a pre-Losantiville block-house here in 1782 be- 
yond doubt or cavil. But if further testimony was needed, 
it is supplied by Mr. McCaddon, the old resident of New- 
ark before mentioned, who was vouched for by the editor 
of the American Pioneer as "a man of sterling integrity." 
He wrote a letter to thai: magazine May 16, 1842, in 
which he gives some account of the second expedition 
of General Clark against the Miami Indian towns, and 

At the place where Cincinnati now is, it was necessary to build a 
block-house, for the purpose of leaving some stores and some wounded 
men we got of McGary's company. I may therefore say that, although 
I did not cut a tree or lift a log, I helped to build the first house ever 
built on that ground, for I was at my post in guarding the artificers 
who did the labor of building. When this was done we penetrated 
into the interior in search of Indians. 

Mr. McCaddon's letter has especial value, as showing 
the immediate purpose of the block-house. It is to be 
regretted that neither he nor either of the other eye-wit- 
nesses of its construction gives any hints of its location 
upon the terraces of Cincinnati, nor any intimation that 
he saw vestiges of the block-houses of 1780, or even the 
spots where they stood, which must, within little more 
than two years after their erection, have been easily rec- 
ognizable. It is not a pleasant thought, also, that the 
grave of Captain William McCracken, the brave soldier 
who died of his wounds while being borne in a rude lit- 
ter over the height afterward known as Key's Hill, and 
later Mount Auburn, has remained wholly unmarked and 
unrecognizable for near a hundred years. Somewhere 
along the river front of Cincinnati rest his bones ; unless, 
indeed, they have been disturbed by the excavating and 
unsparing hand of city improvement, .and thrown out 
undistinguished from the Indian and Mound Builder re- 
mains, which command simply the curiosity and specu- 
lation of the antiquary. The concealment of his re- 


mains, to prevent their desecration by the ruthless toma- 
hawk or scalping knife, no doubt aided in the consign- 
ment to oblivion of the place of his sepulture. But it 
is singular that the "breastworks" noted by General 
Kenton as having been thrown over his grave were not 
remarked by the first colonists here nor by the subse- 
quent inquirers; since they must have been of a charac- 
ter quite distinct from the remains of the Mound Build- 
ers. They were probably but slight, and may soon have 
become obliterated by the action of rain and flood. 

Captain McCracken, wheff at this point bn his way 
northward with the command, believed he had a clear 
presentiment of approaching death in a remarkable 
dream the night before he left the spot, and desired all 
his associates who might be living fifty years from that 
date, in case he should be killed on that expedition, to 
meet at the same place, and celebrate their brief occupa- 
tion as a mark of respect to his memory, and mark the 
wonderful changes which would probably then have oc- 
curred. It was agreed to by nearly all present; and an 
attempt was made in 1832, as we have seen, to get -the 
surviving comrades together for the celebration; but it 
was the cholera year in Cincinnati and elsewhere in the 
west, and only a few old men gathered, under circum- 
stances of depression and sorrow, to honor the memory 
of the departed soldier. They, however, banqueted at 
one of the hotels, at the expense of the corporation, and 
spent a few hours with interest in the interchange of 
reminiscences and notes of more recent personal expe- 


probably occurred somewhere upon or near the site of 
Losantiville three years later — a very brief and unim- 
portant one just here, but more prolonged and of con- 
siderable consequence elsewhere within the bounds of 
Hamilton county. As the story forms a very interesting 
episode in pre-Losantiville annals, it may well be told 
here, although most of it has little immediate relation to 
the famous site opposite the mouth of the Licking. 

In the early fall of 1785, General Richard Butler, of 
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, one of the commissioners of the 
United States Government (Generals Samuel H. Parsons 
and George Rogers Clark being the others) appointed 
to make treaties with the western and northern Indians, 
left his home, under instructions to proceed to the Mi- 
amis and negotiate a treaty there. He kept a full diary 
of his journey, which has been preserved, and is thor- 
oughly entertaining and valuable in all parts. He left 
Carlisle in company with "the Hon. Colonel James 
Monroe, a member of Congress from the State of Vir- 
ginia, a gentleman very young for a place in that honor- 
able body, but a man well-read, very sensible, highly im- 
pressed with the consequence and dignity of the Federal 
Union, and a determined supporter of it in its fullest lat- 
itude." The world heard something more of this young 
"Hon. Colonel" afterwards. He continued with the 
general's party in the voyage down the Ohio until Lime- 
stone was reached, where he obtained horses and went 
to Lexington. They got on prosperously in the pleasant 
autumn weather, and in due time neared the Miami 

country. The following extracts are from General But- 
ler's entries of Friday, October 21st: 

Sailed at half-past two o'clock; passed the mouth of the little Mi- 
amis at three o'clock. It is so low there was no water running [!]; 
above the sand-bank, which is off its mouth, the land is quick, and the 
little water which issues from it passes through the sand. The bottoms, 
both above and below, is very flat and low, and I think inundated with 
small floods. About two miles below is a piece of high ground, which 
I think will be the site of a town, as will be the case at the mouths of 
all the principal rivers and creeks of this great country. 
Below the mouth of this little river about two miles is a very large bank 
of sand, at which Mr. Zane came in for people to bring in two deers. 

Pushed on to the mouth of Licking creek, which is a pretty stream; 
at the mouth, both above and below, is very fine bottoms. The bottom 
below' the mouth [the site of Covington] seems highest and most fit to 
build a town on; it is extensive, and whoever owns the bottoms should 
own the hill also. Passed this at five o'clock; and encamped two miles 
below on the north side [of course far within the present limits of Cin- 
cinnati. This was the most distinguished company this locality had so 
far had the honor to entertain.] 

There is great plenty of limestone and coal appears on every strand 
[what could the general have mistaken for coal here?]. Here is a very- 
fine body of bottom land to a small creek four miles below Licking 
creek. [This may have been Mill creek; but, if so, the general was far 
out in his reckoning of distance. . If his measure is to be taken with 
approximate exactness, the stream was of course Bold Face creek, 
which enters the river at Sedamsville.] 

A noteworthy bit of local tradition, relating to the 
Kentucky side, comes here in Butler's journal: 

I am informed that a Captain Bird [Colonel Byrd], of the British, 
came in the year 1780 from Detroit, down the big Miamis, thence up 
the Ohio to the mouth of Licking creek, thence up= it about fifty miles 
with their boats. At this place they took their artillery, and cut a road 
fifty miles into the country, where they attacked several places, and 
took them; they then carried off the poor, distressed people with their 
little ones to Detroit in triumph. 

This was the expedition spoken of by Vickroy, of six 
hundred Canadians and Indians, with six cannon, in the 
summer of r78o, against RiiddelFs Station, below the. 
mouth of Hinkston fork, on the south fork of the Lick- 
ing. It was mainly remarkable for its approach to the 
station, cutting its way through the dense woods for twelve 
days, without the advance being noticed by the garrison. 
The post was surrendered, on condition that the British 
should protect the prisoners from the Indians, which 
they were unable to do, as the savages, at once after 
possession was given, rushed upon the hapless people, 
and divided them as captives among themselves. So dis- 
gusted was Colonel Byrd by their conduct that he refused 
to move against Martin's Station, unless they would leave 
all prisoners taken there to him. They agreed to this, 
and for once kept their word, upon the surrender of the 
station without resistance. It was intended also to at- 
tack Bryant's Station and Lexington; but Byrd, who 
seems to ha\ce been a humane and brave man, decided 
to end the expedition without their capture. It was the 
seizure of Riiddel's and Martin's Stations, however, with 
the carrying of a large number of men, women and chil- 
dren into Indian captivity, that prompted Clark's first 
expedition against the Miami towns. 

To return to General Butler's party. The banks of 
the Licking were afterwards a favorite resort for the hunt- 
ers of the party, to hunt buffalo. Further up the Ohio 
an enormous beast of this kind had been killed. Gen- 
eral Butler writes that its head weighed one hundred and 
thirty-five pounds, that in life it must have stood over 



six feet high, and that its total weight was at least fifteen 
hundred pounds. 

The country between a point six miles below the Lick- 
ing and the mouth of the Great Miami is thus described; 

"On»mile from this is a bar of sand in the middle of 
the river; the channel is on the north shore. Here are 
the dreadful effects of a tornado on the hill ; on the north 
side, from the top down, every tree and the surface of 
the earth has been washed or blown off. On the south 
shore there is about four acres of land, the timber of 
which is totally blown down, which I think will be suffi- 
cient for mills part of the season, as it comes out of a 
hilly country; it has thrown out a great body of gravel, 
etc., which forms a kind of Presque Isle, on the south 
side of the river. . . Two miles below this 
comes in a small creek, just above which is most excel- 
lent land on the face of a beautiful hill. The river is 
beyond description, deer and turkey sporting before and 
on each side in great abundance — saw above twenty 
deers before twelve o'clock. Put in to dine about eleven 
o'clock about twelve miles below Licking creek. 

"Sailed at half past one o'clock, the wind ahead. 
Here is some very fine lands covered with pine, ash, and 
other rich timber. Pushed on to the Great Miami, above 
the mouth of which I ordered the whole to encamp 
about five o'clock in the evening. I went out with Ma- 
jor Finney to examine the ground for a post." 

The general was instructed by a resolution of Congress 
to plant a military station at any eligible point between 
the Miami and Muskingum rivers; and although recom- 
mended by General Clark, who was at a little fort a few 
miles below, to select a site beyond the Great Miami, he 
preferred to remain on the east side, in accordance with 
his instructions, and chose a spot on the higher ground, 
afterwards on the farm of the Hon. John Scott Harrison, 
which was cleared, and the erection of four blockhouses 
and a quadrangular work begun October 25, 1785. 
Within three days two block-houses were "in a tolerable 
state of defense, and a third well forward." The party, 
and the troops with it, commanded by Major Finney and 
Lieutenant Doyle, were subsisted mainly on bear's meat, 
buffalo and other game October 30 one Captain John- 
ston, a settler from below, proposed to have a road marked 
from Lexington to the fort, which Generals Clark and 
Butler warmly seconded. A store-house was presently 
built for the goods brought to facilitate negotiations with 
the Indians. Chimneys were built of stones picked up 
in the neighborhood. November 13th General Parsons, 
another of the commissioners for Indian affairs, arrived 
from above, with a boat-load of salt provisions; and 
there were several other arrivals the same day, of people 
bound to the falls of the Ohio and other points. 

The fort here erected was called "Fort Finney," in 
honor of the gallant major who commanded the garrison. 
The following description of it, by Judge Hall, though 
probably colored somewhat, for his Romance of Western 
History, is no doubt sufficiently near the facts to warrant 
its quotation here: 

In the eye of a military engineer the fort would hardly have deserved 
that name, as it was a temporary structure, intended only to protect its 

small garrison against a sudden attack by an Indian force. It was 
composed of a series of log houses opening upon an interior area or 
quadrangle, with a block house or citadel in the centre, while the outer 
sides, closely connected, permit a square inclosure or rampart, without 
apertures, except a single entrance and a few loop-holes from which to 
discharge fire-arms. The whole presented the appearance of a single 
edifice, receiving light from the centre and forming barracks for the gar- 
rison, as well as breastworks against a foe. The forest was cleared 
away for some hundreds of yards around, leaving an open vista ex- 
tending to the water's edge, while a few acres enclosed in a rude fence 
and planted with corn and garden vegetables, for the use of the soldiers, 
exhibited the first rude attempt at agriculture in that wild and beautiful 

A council-house was put up to accommodate the 
Indians, who gradually gathered in and about it; and, 
while awaiting the arrival of others to hold a pow-wow 
over the proposed treaty, and being supplied with rum 
and whiskey by the commissioners, they soon became 
drunken and troublesome, and importunate in their 
demands. Finally, by the last of January, after a great 
deal of difficulty, the representatives of various tribes 
were got together at the fort, in numbers reported by 
General Butler as forty-seven Delawares, eighty-three 
Wyandots, and three hundred and eighteen Shawnees, . 
four hundred and forty-eight in all, counting all ages and 
sexes. It was a large number to be dependent mainly 
on the supplies of the Government. No Wabash Indians 
were present, on account of hostility inspired by the 
British. The American traders and the Kentucky peo- 
ple, strange to say, seemed also opposed to a treaty, and 
did what they could to prevent it. Those Indians who 
came were in bad temper, and at times haughty and dis- 
respectful. Out of an incident arising from this spirit 
Judge Hall, the voluminous and entertaining writer, 
formerly of Hamilton county, has woven a romantic 
story, which is thus prettily told in a chapter of his 
Romance of Western History, entitled, The War Belt: 
A Legend of North Bend: 

An apartment in the fort was prepared as a council-room, and at 
the appointed hour the doors were thrown open. At the head of the 
table sat Clark, a soldier-like and majestic man, whose complexion, 
eyes, and hair all indicated a sanguine and mercurial temperament. 
The brow was high and capacious, the features were prominent and 
manly, and the expression, which was keen, reflective, and ordinarily 
cheerful and agreeable, was bow grave almost to sternness. 

The Indians, being a military people, have a deep respect for martial 
virtue. To other estimable or shining qualities they turn a careless eye 
or pay at best but a passing tribute, while they bow in profound venera- 
tion before a successful warrior. The name of Clark was familiar to 
them : several brilliant expeditions into their country had spread the 
terror of his arms throughout their villages and carried the fame of his 
exploits to every council-fire in the west. Their high appreciation of 
his character was exemplified in a striking as well as an amusing manner 
on another occasion, when a council was held with several tribes. The 
celebrated Delaware chief, Buckinghelas, on entering the council-room, 
without noticing any other person, walked up to Clark, and as he shook 
hands cordially with him exclaimed, " It is a happy day when two such 
men as Colonel Clark and Buckinghelas meet together." 

Such was the remarkable man who now presided at the council-table. 
On his right hand sat Colonel Richard Butler, a brave officer of the 
Revolution, who soon after fell, with the rank of brigadier general, in 
the disastrous campaign of St. Clair. On the other side was Samuel 
H. Parsons, a lawyer from New England, who afterwards became a 
judge in the Northwestei n Territory. At the same table sat the secre- 
taries, while the interpreters, several officers, and a few soldiers, sat 

An Indian council is one of the most imposing spectacles in savage 
life. It is one of the few occasions in which the warrior exercises his 
right of suffrage, his influence and his talents, in a civil capacity ; and 



the meeting is conducted with all the gravity and all the ceremonious 
ostentation with which it is possible to invest it. The matter to he con- 
sidered, as well as all the details, are well digested beforehand, so that 
the utmost decorum shall prevail and the decision be unanimous. The 
chiefs and sages, the leaders and orators, occupy the most conspicuous 
seats ; behind them are arranged the younger braves, and still further 
in the rear appear the women and youth, as spectators. All are equally 
attentive. A dead silence reigns throughout the assemblage. The 
great pipe, gaudily adorned with paint and feathers, is lighted and 
passed from mouth to mouth, commencing with the chief highest in 
rank, and proceeding, by regular gradations, to the inferior order of 
braves. If two or three nations be represented, the pipe is passed from 
one party to the other, and salutations are courteously exchanged, be- 
fore the business of the council is opened by the respective speakers. 
Whatever jealousy or party spirit may exist in the tribe, it is carefully 
excluded from this dignified assemblage, whose orderly conduct and 
close attention to the proper subject before them might be imitated with 
profit by some of the most enlightened bodies in Christendom. 

It was an alarming evidence of the temper now prevailing among 
them and of the brooding storm that filled their minds, that no pro- 
priety of demeanor marked the entrance of the savages into the coun- 
cil-room. The usual formalities were forgotten or purposely dispensed 
with, and an insulting levity substituted in their place. The chiefs and 
braves stalked in with an appearance of light regard, and seated them- 
selves promiscuously on the floor, in front of the commissioners. An 
air of insolence marked all their movements, and showed an intention 
to dictate terms or to fix a quarrel upon the Americans. 

A dead silence rested over the group; it was the silence of dread, dis- 
trust, and watchfulness, not of respect. The eyes of the savage band 
gloated upon the banquet of blood that seemed already spread out be- 
fore them ; the pillage of the fort and the bleeding scalps of the Ameri- 
cans were almost within their grasp; while that gallant little band saw 
the portentous nature of the crisis and stood ready to sell their lives 
as dearly as possible. * 

The commissioners, without noticing the disorderly conduct of the 
other party or appearing to have discovered their meditated treachery, 
opened the council in due form. They lighted the peace-pipe, and, 
after drawing a few whiffs, passed it to the chiefs, who received it. 
Colonel Clark then rose to explain the purpose for which the treaty 
was ordered. With an unembarrassed air, with the tone of one accus- 
tomed to command, and the easy assurance of perfect security and 
self-possession, he stated that the commissioners had been sent to offer 
peace to the Shawanoes; that the President had no wish to continue 
the war; he had no resentment to gratify ; and that, if the red men de- 
sired peace, they could have it on liberal terms. "If such be the will 
of the Shawanoes," he concluded, "let some of their wise men speak." 

A chief arose, drew up his tall person to its full height, and assum- 
ing a haughty attitude, threw his eye contemptuously over the com- 
missioners and their small retinue, as if to measure their insignificance, 
in comparison with his own numerous train, and then, stalking up to 
the table, threw upon it two belts of wampum of different colors — the 
war and the peace belt. 

The chiefs drew themselves up, in the consciousness of having 
hurled defiance in the teeth of the white men. They had offered an 
insult to the renowned leader of the Long Knives, to which they knew 
it would be hard for him to submit, while'they did not suppose he would 
dare to resent it. The council-pipe was laid aside, and those fierce, 
wild men gazed intently on Clark. The Americans saw that the crisis 
had arrived; they could no longer doubt that the Indians understood 
the advantage they possessed, and were disposed to use it; and a com- 
mon sense of danger caused each eye to be turned on the leading com- 
missioner. He sat undisturbed, and apparently careless, until the chief 
who had thrown the belts on the table had taken his seat; then, with a 
small cane which he heldin his hand, he reached as if playfully towards 
the war-belt, entangled the end of the stick in it, drew it towards him, 
and then, with a twitch of the cane, threw the belt into the midst of the 
chiefs. The effect was electric. Every man in council, of each party, 
sprang to his feet; the savages with a loud exclamation of astonishment, 
"Hugh!" the Americans in expectation of a hopeless conflict against 
overwhelming numbers. Every hand grasped a weapon. 

Clark alone was unawed. The expression of his countenance 
changed to a ferocious sternness, and his eye flashed; but otherwise he 
was unmoved. A bitter smile was slightly perceptible upon his com- 
pressed lips, as he gazed upon that savage band, whose hundred eyes 
were bent fiercely and in horrid exultation upon him, as they stood like 
a pack of wolves at bay, thirsting for blood, and ready to rush upon 
him whenever one bolder than the rest should commence the attack, 

It was one of those moments of indecision when the slightest weight 
thrown into either scale will make it preponderate; a moment in which 
a bold man, conversant with the secret springs of human action, may 
seize upon the minds of all around him and sway them at his will. 
Such a man .was the intrepid Virginian. He spoke, and there was no 
man bold enough to gainsay him — none that could return 4he fierce 
glance of his eye. Raising his arm, and waving his hand towards the 
door, he exclaimed; ' Dogs/ you may go I' The Indians hesitated for 
a moment, and then rushed tumultuously out of the council-room. 

The decision of Clark on that occasion saved himself and his com- 
panions from' massacre. The plan of the savages had been artfully 
laid; he had read it in their features and conduct, as plainly as if it had 
been written upon a scroll before him. He met it in a manner which 
was unexpected; the crisis was brought on sooner than was intended; 
and upon a principle similar to that by which, when a line of battle is 
broken, the dismayed troops fly before order can be restored, the new 
and sudden turn given to these proceedings by the energy of Clark con- 
founded the Indians, and before the broken thread of their scheme of 
tieachery could be reunited, they were panic-struck. They had come 
prepared to browbeat, to humble, and then to destroy; they looked for 
remonstrance and altercation ; for the luxury of drawing the toils gradu- 
ally around their victims; of beholding their agony and degradation, 
and of bringing on the final catastrophe by an appointed signal, when 
the scheme should be ripe. They expected to see, on our part, great 
caution, a skillful playing-off, and an unwillingness to take offence, 
which were to be gradually goaded into alarm, irritation and submis- 
sion. The cool contempt with which their first insult was thrown back 
in their teeth, surprised them, and they were foiled by the self-posses- 
sion of one man. They had no Tecumthe among them, no master- 
spirit to change the plan, so as to adapt it to a new exigency; and 
those braves who, in many a battle, had shown themselves to be men of 
true valor, quailed before the moral superiority which assumed the 
vantage-ground of a position they could not comprehend, and there- 
fore feared to assail. 

This is a very neat romance, but unhappily it is not 
historic truth. Judge Hall doubtless based his account 
upon the narrative of the event in the old Encyclopaedia 
Americana, which in turn rests upon the notes of an old 
officer, who is said to have been present. These, how- 
ever, simply say that the Indian spokesman, "a tall, raw- 
boned fellow, with an impudent and villainous look,' 7 
presented "a black and white wampum, to signify they 
were prepared for either event, peace or war. Clark ex- 
hibited the same unaltered and careless countenance he 
had shown during the whole scene, his head leaning on 
his left hand and his elbow resting upon the table. He 
raised his little cane and pushed the sacred wampum off 
the table, with very little ceremony.'' 

Another officer who was in the garrison of Fort Finney 
at this time, but who may not have been in the council- 
room on this occasion, gives in his diary a slightly differ- 
ent narrative. This was Ensign (afterwards Major) Ebe- 
nezer Denny, whose military journal was published by 
the Historical society of Pennsylvania in i860. He re- 
cords, under date of January 27, 1786: 

Shawnees met in council house. . . The Ohio river they 
would agree to, nothing short ; and offered a mixed belt, indicating 
peace or war. None touched the belt— it was laid on the table ; Gen- 
eral Clark, with his cane, pushed it off and set his foot on it. Indians 
very sullen. . . Council broke up hastily. Some commotion 
among the Shawnees. Returned same afternoon and begged another 
meeting, when their old king, Molunthy, rose and made a short speech, 
presented a white string, doing away all that their chief warrior had 
said, prayed that we would have pity on women and children. 

This account is repeated- in most particulars by the re- 
port made by Ensign Denny to Colonel Harmar ten days 
afterwards; though in this he says nothing of Clark's con- 
nection with the incident. He writes in a long letter 
under date of February 8th : 



The commissioners did not attempt to touch the string which was 
given, and without rising determined on an answer. . . Coun- 
cil was not broke up more than fifteen minutes when a message came 
for the commissioners. After they had assembled, the chief took a 
white string and destroyed the whole of his former speech. 

The exact truth is undoubtedly told in the journal of 
General Butler, who was really the chief personage in 
these transactions. It is a simple, straightforward, sol- 
dierly account, bearing every aspect of truth. According 
to this, after a rather defiant speech by Kekewepelletry, 
refusing hostages and other demands of the commission: 
ers, he closed by throwing upon the table a black string 
of wampum. The commissioners then held a confer- 
ence, and Butler stepped forward to reply, which he did 
at some length, concluding as follows : 

We plainly tell you that this country belongs to the United States — 
their blood hath defended it, and will forever protect it. Their propo- 
sals are liberal and just ; and you, instead of acting as you have done, 
and instead of persisting in your folly, should be thankful for the for- 
giveness and the offers of kindness of the United States, instead of the 
sentiments which this string imparts and the manner in which you 
have delivered it. (I then took it up and dashed it on the table. ) We 
therefore leave you to consider of what hath been said, and to determine 
as you please. 

No such dramatic scene as the eulogists of General 
Clark have depicted appears to have occurred. The In- 
dians were, however, brought to terms only with difficulty, 
and after much negotiation and many presents; but at 
length, on the second of February, 1786, a treaty was 
signed which compelled the Shawnee Indians to acknowl- 
edge the supremacy of the United States over all the ter- 
ritory ceded by England at the close of the Revolution, 
allotted and defined the reservation of the Shawnees, 
and provided for hostages and the return of white cap- 
tives. Two whites named Pipe and Fox, and a little boy, 
were given up, and six young men of the Indians were 
left as hostages for the punctual fulfillment of the treaty. 

croghan's visit. 

The whites, however, as is well known to students of 
local history, were on the river and casually at this point 
many years before the military and diplomatic expedi- 
tions whose story is told. 

In 1765 Colonel George Croghan came down the Ohio 
on an errand to Vincennes and Detroit, as commissioner 
for Sir William Johnson, to visit the French inhabitants 
at those points, and enlist their sympathies in behalf of 
the English, in the hope of obviating further Indian 
wars. He left an interesting journal of his voyage. Set- 
ting off from Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh) on the fifteenth of 
May, in that year, with two batteaux and a considerable 
party of white men and Indians, he in a few days reached 
the region and made the following entries in his record. 

29th. We came to the Little Miame river, having proceeded sixty 

miles last night. 

30th. We passed the great Miame river about thirty miles from the 
little river of that name, and in the evening arrived at the place where 
the Elephant's bones are found [Big Bone lick], where we encamped, 
intending to take a view of the place next morning. This day we 
came about seventy miles. The country on both sides level, and rich 
bottoms well watered. 

In penning the last remark Croghan had doubtless in 
mind a lively recollection of the broad, beautiful Cincin- 
nati basin which he had that day passed. He was taken 

by the Indians nine days after the last entry cited, and 
carried by them to Vincennes. 


Some years after this, it is related that three brothers, 
James, George and John Medfee, of Botetourt county, 
Virginia, set their longing eyes upon the Miami country, 
intending, if they found it as desirable in all important 
respects as was described to them, to settle the wild but 
very hopeful tract of which they had heard, opposite the 
mouth of the Licking — otherwise they would go on to 
the settlements on the Salt river, in Kentucky, where 
they had acquaintances from the Old Dominion. About 
the beginning of June, 1773, they set out for the wilder- 
ness west. Procuring canoes at the Kanawha, they 
floated down that stream with considerable velocity by 
reason of an enormous freshet — twelve feet, as the tradi- 
tions relate, above the great inundations of 1832 and 
1847. It is supposed that it was this flood the height of 
which was marked, by these visitors or the Indians, upon 
a tree standing below Fort Washington, and which was 
pointed out by the latter as indicating the reach of the 
greatest height of the river they had known, either by 
personal experience or by tradition. Rushing out from 
the Kenawha upon the broad bosom of the Ohio, they 
were borne rapidly down that also. The mighty valley 
of the Beautiful River was full, almost from bluff to bluff; 
and when they arrived at the site of the future Losanti- 
ville and Cincinnati scarcely any tracts were in sight, 
below the heights, except water lots. Dismayed with 
the appearance of things, and not having the patience 
to wait for a more favorable season, they pushed on 
to their Kentucky friends, and, after a brief visit to their 
homes in Virginia, settled in the former State and became 
the heads of prominent Kentucky families. Such was 
the first abortive attempt at colonizing the Miami coun- 
try that is on record. 

In 1780, the father of General William Lytle — who 
(the general) became afterwards a citizen of Williams- 
burgh and then of Cincinnati, lived here in very honor- 
able prominence for many years, and died in this city 
March 8, 1 831— came down the river with the largest 
fleet of boats and company of immigrants that had been 
known to that time. It comprised sixty-three of the 
primitive craft then navigating the Ohio, conveying a 
number of men capable of bearing arms said to have 
been equal to one thousand, besides their women and 
children. About ten o'clock in the forenoon of the 
twelfth of April, the occupants of the boats which were 
leading espied an encampment of Indians on the north 
side of the stream, opposite the debouchure of the Lick- 
ing. Intelligence of danger was at once conveyed back 
to the fleet, and three large boats were directed to land 
above the camp, in a concerted order. Half the fighting 
men were to leap ashore the moment the boats should 
touch; and, stopping only to form in .column, they 
charged the Indian village. The latter, however, in 
number variously estimated at one hundred and fifty to 
five hundred, did not wait for actual contact with their 
enemies, but incontinently fled, in their haste and disor- 



der abandoning many of their poor valuables. They 
were pursued to Mill creek and up the valley to a point 
beyond the present locality of Cumminsville. Several 
Indians were mounted, and got away easily; the others 
were suffered to escape. The whites returned to their 
boats, and moved on to the mouth of Beargrass creek, 
now Louisville, where their projected settlement was 

The relation of Mr. John McCaddon, afterwards a res- 
ident of Newark, in this State, avers that he sailed down 
the Ohio in May of the same year, and afterwards, at 
Louisville, joined the expedition of George Rogers 
Clark against the Shawnees. Below the site of Cincin- 
nati a detachment of their force, which had chosen to 
march on the north side of the river, on account, they 
said, of more abundant game, while the main body kept 
to the Kentucky shore, became alarmed at the fresh 
signs of Indians, and took to their boats, intending to 
cross the river and rejoin their fellows, who had kept 
abreast of them. They had, however, got but a few 
yards from the bank when they were -fired upon and 
thrown into confusion by a party of Indians ; but before 
they reached the shore they heard the "scalp halloo'' 
from the top of the hill, and knew that the Indians 
were in full retreat. It is probable that the wounded 
men of McGary's company, mentioned by Mr. McCad- 
don in his letter concerning the block-house, were hurt 
in this affair, since it was his command that was thus 

In 1785, a party which included William West, John 
Simons, John Seft, a Mr. Carlin, and their families, also 
John Hurdman, all of Washington county, Pennsylvania, 
visited this region with a view to settlement. Passing 
the site of the Queen City to be, they landed at the 
mouth of the Great Miami, it is thought in April, and 
explored its valley as far as the subsequent site of Ham- 
ilton. They made improvements at sundry points where 
they found bottom lands finer than the rest; but do not 
appear to have remained permanently in the country. 
In the fall Hurdman came down the river, and found at 
its mouth Generals Clark, Butler, and Parsons, with Ma- 
jor Finney and his soldiers, about to construct the fort 
and make a treaty with the Indians. Almost the only 
matter which connects him or this incident closely with 
the history of Cincinnati is the, fact that he was with the 
party of Symmes, three years afterwards, when there 
wandered away to his death John Filson, one of the pro- 
prietors of Losantiville. 

In September of 1788 five gentlemen, from a station 
near Georgetown, Kentucky, came in two canoes to the 
mouth of Deer creek, up the bank of which they pro- 
ceeded on foot about one hundred and fifty yards, when 
they were fired upon by a concealed savage, and one of 
them, named Baxter, was killed. He was buried at a 
spot just below the mouth of the creek, where, many 
years afterwards, a skeleton was found by a party of boys, 
the skull of which had a bullet rattling inside of it. It 
is some satisfaction to record that the Indian who shot 
poor Baxter was pursued by the rest of the party and 
brought down. 


The last mention of the Cincinnati region by a geo- 
graphical designation, before the incoming of Denman's 
colony, was doubtless by Judge Symmes, in his letter to 
Dayton, from Limestone (Maysville), October 12, 1788, 
referring to the unlucky expedition in which Filson was 
lost. The judge says: "On the twenty-second ult. I 
landed at Miami, and explored the country as high as 
the upper side of the fifth range of townships." The 
point at which he stepped ashore, and to which he casually 
and temporarily gave the general name of the region, was 
undoubtedly the Losantiville site, since here he met the 
party of Kentuckians, led by Patterson and Filson, who, 
in accordance with the public notice about to be set out in 
full in the next chapter, had "blazed" a road through the 
deep woods between Lexington and this place. They 
made up the major part of the escort which accompanied 
Symmes in the exploration that immediately followed into 
the interior. 



By this time the reader who has followed patiently the 
pages of this volume will have no difficulty in under- 
standing the considerations that probably determined the 
settlement of Losantiville. Probably no intelligent trav- 
eller had ever passed down the Ohio without noting the 
eligibility of this beautiful and otherwise singularly fa- 
vored spot as the site of a settlement which might be- 
come a great city. The Mound Builder and the Indian , 
had, each in his own time, realized its advantages of 
residence in clusters of homes; and very early the adven- 
turous and speculative white man, as we have seen, 
turned with longing, eager eyes to the fertile tract oppo- 
site the mouth of the Licking, as the most hopeful spot 
spot in all the Miami country whereon to plant a colony. 

Mr. James Parton, in his article on Cincinnati in the 
Atlantic Monthly for June, i867,8suggests that the loca- 
tion of the place was determined^ by considerations of 
safety, as this point was the best in this region for the 
posting of a garrison. He also calls attention to the 
facts that this is the only site on the Ohio river where 
one hundred thousand people could live together with- 
out being compelled to climb very high and steep hills, 
and that it is also about midway between the source and 
the mouth of the river^-that is, near the centre of the 
great valley of the OhioA 

Be these things as t\wy may — whether such thoughts 
entered the minds of the founders of Losantiville or not 
— it is certain that almost as soon as the proposal for the 
Miami Purchase had been mooted, long before Judge 
Symmes or the ostensible proprietors of the village were 
able to give valid title deeds, the conditional purchase of 
the tract " upon which the town was laid out had been 
made, and the site had been surveyed and settled. The 



men whose names, in the first instance, must forever be 
identified with the initial steps of this enterprise, which 
has eventuated in such wonderful results as are to be 
seen in the present city on the shore, were Matthias 
Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, John Filson and 
Israel Ludlow. 


Of him, the original hero of the Losantiville venture, 
least of all is known. He was, like Symmes, Dayton 
and others of the company making the famous purchase 
between the Miamis, a Jerseyman, residing at Spring- 
field, Essex county, in that State, to which he returned, 
and where he remained so late as 1830, at least, after his 
colony had been firmly planted upon the tract he bought 
from Symmes. He was in that year visited in his home 
at Springfield by the father of Mr. Francis W. Miller, 
author of Cincinnati's Beginnings. That he was a man 
of some intelligence, enterprise and energy, may be in- 
ferred from the incidents of his connection with this en- 
terprise in the then wilderness west; but we do not learn 
that he attained to any special distinction in his own 
State, or even where he was born or when he died. 


Colonel Robert Patterson, a leading spirit in the pro- 
jecting and founding of Losantiville, was a native of 
Pennsylvania, born near Cove mountain, March 15, 
1753, of Irish stock, at least on his father's side. At 
twenty-one years of age he served six months on the 
frontiers of that State defending it against Indian incur- 
sions. The same year (1774) he and six other young 
adventurers, with John McLelland and family, made their 
way to the Royal spring, near Georgetown, Kentucky, 
where they lived until April, 1776, when they removed 
to the subsequent site of Lexington. Patterson, how- 
ever, a few months afterwards assisted in the defence of 
McLelland's station, at Royal spring, when attacked by 
Indians; and was severely wounded by the savages in a 
night attack upon his party, while on their way to Pitts- 
burgh shortly after, to procure necessaries, and was under 
a surgeon's care for a year. In April, 1778, at Pittsburgh, 
he joined the expedition of Colonel George Rogers Clark 
against the Illinois country, returning to Kentucky in 
September, and settling at Harrodsburgh. Early the 
next year, being then an ensign in the Kentucky militia, 
he proceeded under orders, with twenty-five men, to his 
former residence north of the Kentucky river, built and 
garrisoned a fort, and in April laid off the town of Lex- 
ington. In May he participated in the movement of 
Colonel Bowman against the Shawnee towns on the Little 
Miami, and then, probably, for the first time, passed over 
the wilderness tract that marked the future seat of the 
Queen City. In August, 1780, he was again here, with 
the expedition under Colonel Clark against the Indian 
towns on the Little Miami and Mad rivers; and once 
more, in the latter part of September, 1782, when Clark 
marched on his campaign of destruction between the 
Miamis, to avenge the defeat of the whites at the Lower 
Blue Licks in August — in which Patterson, now colonel 
and second in command to Boone, had a very narrow 

escape from capture. He must thus have come to know 
well the advantages of the site opposite the mouth of the 
Licking, years before the arrangement with Denman arid 
Filson was made. In T786, Colonel Patterson seems to 
have made his last visit here, in another expedition against 
the Shawnees, under General Logan (in which he was 
badly wounded), before he came with the party in Sep- 
tember, 1788, to "blaze" a road from Lexington to the 
mouth of the Licking, in preparation for the settlement 
of Losantiville. As is well known, he never resided per- 
manently with his colony here; but returned to Lexing- 
ton after a month's stay. In 1804 he removed from that 
place to a farm near Dayton, in this State, where he sur- 
vived until August 5, 1827, dying there and then at the 
advanced age of seventy-four years. Says the author of 
Ranck's History of Lexington: 

In person Colonel Patterson was tall and handsome. He was gifted 
with a fine mind, but, like Boone, Kenton, and many others of his 
simple hunter and pioneer companions, was indulgent and negligent in 
business matters, and, like them, lost most of his extensive landed prop- 
erty by shrewder rascals. 


John Filson was a Kentucky schoolmaster and sur- 
veyor (although he says in the preface to his book, "I 
am not an inhabitant of Kentucky"), of some literary 
ability, as is evinced by the articles appended to A Topo- 
graphical Description of the Western Territory of North 
America, by George Imlay, a captain in the continental 
army during the Revolution, and afterwards several years 
in Kentucky as a self-styled "commissioner for laying out 
lands in the back settlements." His work was published 
in London in three editions, 1792-7; and the appendix 
contains the following entitled articles, "by John Filson," 
one of our Losantiville projectors: 

1. The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucky, and 
an Essay towards the Topography and Natural History of that Impor- 
tant Country. 

2. The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boone, one of the First Set- 
tlers, comprehending every Important Occurrence in the Political His- 
tory of that Province. 

3. The Minutes of the Piankashaw Council, held at Port St. Vin- 
cents, April 15, 1784. 

4. An Account of the Indian Nations inhabiting within the limits of 
the Thirteen United States, their Manners and Customs, and Reflec- 
tions on their Origin. 

Filson had already published, in 1784, at Wilmington, 
Delaware, in an octavo volume of one hundred and 
eighteen pages, the papers named in the first two titles; 
and they, with three others, were republished in New 
York in 1793, as a supplement to an American edition of 
Imlay's book, and all attributed to Filson. They include 
a report of the Secretary of State (Jefferson) to the Pres- 
ident of the United States (Washington), on the quantity 
and situation of unsold public lands; also Thoughts on 
Emigration, to which are added Miscellaneous Observa- 
tions relating to the United States, and a short account 
of the State of Kentucky — the whole making up a unique 
and in some respects valuable book. Filson was thus the 
first to publish a History of Kentucky. 

His Adventures of Boone appears to have been written 
at the dictation of Boone himself, Filson supplying merely 
the phraseology, with perhaps an occasional reflection. 
The following document, signed by Boone and others, 



is printed as an endorsement and advertisement in Fil- 
son's work on Kentucky: 

Advertisement.— We, the subscribers, inhabitants of Kentucky, 
and well acquainted with the country from its first settlement, at the 
request of the author of this book have carefully revised it, and recom- 
mend it to the public as an exceeding good performance, containing as 
accurate a description of our country as we think can possibly be given, 
much preferable to any in our knowledge extant; and think it will be 
of great utility to the public. Witness our hands this twelfth of May, 
Anno Domini 1784. 

Daniel Boone, 
Levi Todd, 
James Harrod. 
Part of Filson's preface is as follows : 

When I visited Kentucky, I found it so far to exceed my expecta- 
tions, though great, that I concluded it was a pity that the world has not 
adequate information of it. I conceived that a proper description of it 
was an object highly interesting to the United States; and, therefore, 
incredible as it may appear to some, I must declare that this perform- 
ance is not published from lucrative motives, but solely to inform the 
world of the happy climate and plentiful soil of this favored region. 
And I imagine the reader will believe me the more easily when I inform 
him that I am not an inhabitant of Kentucky, but having been there 
some time, by my acquaintance in it am sufficiently able to publish the 
truth, and from principle have cautiously endeavored to avoid every 
species of falsehood. The consciousness of this encourages me to hope 
for the public candour, where errors may possibly be found. 

Filson receives the following notice in Collins' History 
of Kentucky: 

The second teacher [in Fayette county] was John Filson, in or before 
1784; adventurer, surveyor, fanciful writer of the autobiography of 
Daniel Boone, and author of the first printed book about Kentucky — 
first published in 1784 in Wilmington, Delaware; in 1785 translated 
into French and published in Paris, France; in 1792, 1793, and 1797, 
thrice republished in London, with additions by Gilbert Imlay, a sur- 
veyor of Jefferson county, Kentucky, to satisfy the cravings of restless 
minds in England for information about the newest part of the Old 
World. [Mr. Collins had apparently not heard of the New York edition.] 
He was one of the original proprietors, drafted the first plan, and 
coined the pedagogical name of the projected town of Losantiville, etc. 

In a subsequent part of this history, Judge Collins 

His fanciful name for the intended town was adopted — Losantiville, 
which he designed to mean "the village opposite the mouth," Le-os- 
ante-ville, but which more really signifies, ' ' the mouth opposite the 
village," — who, or what induced the change from such a pedagogical 
and nonsensical a name to the euphonious one of Cincinnati is un- 
known [ ! ] ; but in the name of the millions of people who live in or 
within reach of it, or visit it or do business with it, we now thank the 
man and the opportunity. The invention of such a- name was posi- 
tively cruel in Mr. Filson; we hope it had no connection with his early 
death. Perhaps that is reason enough why no street in Cincinnati is 
named after him. 

Judge Collins seems also not to have heard that Plum 
street, in this city, is designated as "Filson street" upon 
Joel Williams' plat of the original town site, to be seen 
in the books of the recorder's office. Certainly, to the 
honor of the real founders and pioneers of Losantiville, 
the people of Cincinnati have not been neglectful in the 
matter of street names. There is a Ludlow street, a 
Ludlow avenue, and a Ludlow alley; Patterson has two 
streets, and Denman two; McMillan has an avenue; Bur- 
net both street and avenue; while St. Clair, Gano, and 
many other early names, have not been forgotten in the 
street nomenclature. It is true, however, that the mem- 
ory of Filson has not yet thus been permanently honored. 

According to Collins, when Denman visited Lexing- 
ton in the summer of 1788, he saw "the double power" 
of Filson as a surveyor and writer, and enlisted him in 

the venture with himself and Patterson, on the north side 
of the Ohio. 

Mr. George W. Ranck's history of Lexington notes of 
Filson that he "was an early adventurer with Daniel 
Boone, and after the discoverer of Kentucky returned to 
Lexington in October [1784], from the Chillicothe towns, 
Filson wrote, at his dictation, the only narrative of his 
life extant from the pioneer's own lips. This narrative 
was endorsed at the time by James Harrod, Levi Todd, 
and Boone himself. Filson taught in Lexington for sev- 
eral years, and did no little to secure the early organiza- 
tion of Transylvania seminary." 

Filson, it will be remembered, was killed by the In- 
dians in the Miami country, before the location was made 
at Losantiville. The circumstances of his death are nar- 
rated in chapter V, Part I, of this work. 

Professor W. H. Venable, one of the latest and best of 
Cincinnati's songsters, thus, in his June on the Miami 
and other Poems, sings of our hero : 

John Filson was a pedagogue — 

A pioneer was he; 
I know not what his nation was 

Nor what his pedigree. 

Tradition's scanty records tell 

But little of the man, 
Save that he to the frontier came 

In immigration's van. 

Perhaps with phantoms of reform 

His busy fancy teemed, 
Perhaps of new Utopias 

Hesperian he dreamed. 

John Filson and companions bold 

A frontier village planned 
In forest wild, on sloping hills, 

By fair Ohio's strand. 

John Filson from three languages 

With pedant skill did frame 
The novel word Losantiville, 

To be the new town's name. 

Said Filson: "Comrades, hear my words; 

Ere three-score years have flown 
Our town will be a city vast." 

Loud laughed Bob Patterson. 

Still John exclaimed, with prophet-tongue, 

" A city fair and proud, 
The Queen of Cities in the West." 

Mat Denman laughed aloud. 

Deep in the wild and solemn woods, 

Unknown to white man's track, 
John Filson went one autumn day, 

But nevermore came back. 

He struggled through the solitude 

The inland to explore, 
. And with romantic pleasure traced 
Miami's winding shore. 

Across his path the startled deer 

Bounds to its shelter green; 
He enters every lonely vale 

And cavernous ravine. 

Too soon the murky twilight comes, 

The night-wind 'gins to moan ; 
Bewildered wanders Filson, lost, 

Exhausted and alone. 

By lurking foes his steps are dogged, 
A yell his ear appalls 1 



A ghastly corpse upon the ground, 
A murdered man he falls. 

The Indian, with instinctive hate, 

In him a herald saw 
Of coming hosts of pioneers, 

The friends of light and law ; 

In him beheld the champion 

Of industries and arts. 
The founder of encroaching roads 

And great commercial marts; 

The spoiler of the hunting-ground, 

The plower of the sod, 
The builder of the Christian school 

And of the house of God. 

And so the vengeful tomahawk 

John Filson's blood did spill, — 
The spirit of the pedagogue 

No tomahawk could kill. 

John Filson had no sepulchre, 

Except the wildwood dim ; 
The mournful voices of the air 

Made requiem for him. 

The druid trees their waving arms 

Uplifted o'er his head; 
The moon a pallid veil of light 

Upon his visage spread. 

The rain and sun of many years 

Have worn his bones away, 
And what he vaguely prophesied 

We realize to-day. 

Losantiville the prophet's word, 

The poet's hope fulfils— 
She sits a stately Queen to-day 

Amid her royal hills! 

Then come, ye pedagogues, and join 

To sing a grateful lay 
For him, the martyr pioneer, 

Who led for you the way. 

And may my simple ballad be 

A monument to save 
His name from blank oblivion 

Who never had a grave. 


Colonel Israel Ludlow, the successor of John Filson 
as the holder of a third interest in the site of Cincinnati, 
was born upon the Little Head farm, near Morristown, 
New Jersey, in 1765. In his early twenties he came to 
the valley of the Ohio", to exercise his talents as a practi- 
cal surveyor, and was here appointed by the geographer 
of the United States, to survey the Miami Purchase and 
that of the Ohio company, which he mainly accom- 
plished by the spring of 1792, in the face of many diffi- 
. culties and dangers, being generally without any escort 
of troops, in a country swarming with Indians. Taking 
the interest of Filson in the Losantiville venture after 
the death of the latter, he became the surveyor of the 
town site and the principal agent in disposing of the 
lots. After the treaty of Greenville he was employed by 
the Government to run the boundary lines for the Indian 
country established by treaty, and successfully completed 
the work, though amid many perils, and sometimes in 
imminent danger of starvation. He was the only one 
of the original proprietors who fixed his home at or near 
Cincinnati, establishing in 1790 Ludlow Station as a cit- 

adel of defence against the savages upon a spot within 
the present limits of Cumminsville, the block-house 
standing at the intersection of Knowlton street with the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton railroad. It is claimed 
by his biographers (see Biographical Encyclopedia of 
Ohio, etc.,) that he gave the name to Cincinnati, in 
honor of the society of which his father, Commodore 
Ludlow, was a member. December 12, 1794, he laid 
out the town of Hamilton as a proprietor; and in No- 
vember of the next year, in union with Governor St. 
Clair, Hon. Jonathan Dayton, and William McMillan, 
he planted the town of Dayton. November n, 1796, 
he was married to Charlotte Chambers, of Chambers- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, a quite extraordinary woman, who is 
made the subject of a beautiful biography by one of her 
grandsons. He died at home in January, 1804, after but 
four days' illness, and was buried in the graveyard adjoin- 
ing the First Presbyterian church, Cincinnati, in . the 
front wall of which was afterward fixed a tablet in honor 
to his memory. He was buried with Masonic honors, 
and an oration was pronounced upon the occasion by 
Judge Symmes. 


Denman, as a Jerseyman and perhaps a member of 
the East Jersey company, was early cognizant of the proj- 
ect of Symmes and his associates to secure the Miami 
Purchase; and in January, 1788, he located, among 
other tracts, the entire section eighteen and the frac-' 
tional section seventeen, lying between the former sec- 
tion and the river, upon which Losantiville was founded in 
the closing days of the same year. The present boun- 
daries of the tract are Liberty street on the north, the 
Ohio river on the south, an east line from the Mount 
Auburn water works to the river a few feet below Broad- 
way, and a west line from a point a very little east of the 
intersection of Central avenue and Liberty street to the 
river just below the gas works. 

The agreed price was the same as the company was to 
pay the Government — five shillings per acre, or sixty-six 
and two-thirds cents; which for the seven hundred and 
forty acres of the tract paid for would have amounted to 
four hundred and ninety-three dollars and thirty-three 
cents. (This does not include sixty acres which were in 
dispute — the entire tract, as finally surveyed, containing 
eight hundred acres — and which Symmes claimed were 
not paid for.) But the purchase money, it is said, was 
paid in Continental certificates, then worth only five shil- 
lings on the pound, but turned into the treasury of the 
company at par; so that the actual cost of the entry to 
Denman, under this arrangement, was a little less than 
one hundred and twenty-five dollars. Some conjectures 
have been made that the entire eight hundred acres, now 
comprising by far the most valuable property in the city, 
did not cost Denman more than fifty dollars. Jonathan 
Dayton, one of the company, seems to have been fearful 
of the negotiation with Denman; for, after Symmes had 
gone out to the Purchase, he urged him by letter not to 
allow the "Losantiville section" to be covered by any 
warrant, except one bought from Symmes or from Day- 
ton as his agent, for six shillings threepence, or seven 



shillings sixpence, to aid in making the second payment 
on the purchase. As a matter of fact, the section eigh- 
teen was not covered by one of Symmes' warrants until 
May, 1790, and the fractional section not until April of 
the next year; and the old belief was that Denman se- 
cured both at a very low rate — for a mere song, as we 
should say now. 

denman's movements. 

In the summer of 1788 Mr. Denman found his way 
westward, and made a personal visit to his purchase op- 
posite the mouth of the Licking, being thereby confirmed 
in his previous intentions of founding a station and ferry 
there, and leading a colony to the spot. On his way 
back he stopped at Limestone, and is said there to have 
fallen in with Colonel Patterson, and soon afterwards, at 
Lexington, with the schoolmaster Filson. Broaching his 
project to them, he found them eager listeners, and pres- 
ently agreed to take them into joint partnership with him. 
In this arrangement Denman appears to have undertaken 
the chief conduct of the business, while Filson was to do 
the surveying and staking off of the tract and superintend 
the sales of lots, and Patterson was to be the main agent 
in obtaining purchasers and settlers. Denman was un- 
derstood to be responsible for all matters relating directly 
to the purchase from the East Jersey company; Filson 
was already pretty well acquainted with the Miami coun- 
try; and Patterson was the most influential man in stir- 
ring up people to the point of removal to the new land 
of promise. It was thus a very judicious and hopeful ar- 

Soon afterwards, probably at Lexington, the following 
contract was executed between the parties : 

A covenant and agreement, made and concluded this twenty-fifth day 
of August, 1788, between Matthias Denman, of Essex county, State of 
New Jersey, of the one part, and Robert Patterson and John Filson, of 
Lexington, Fayette county, Kentucky, of the other part, witnesseth : 
That the aforesaid Matthias Denman, having made entry of a tract of 
land on the northwest side of the Ohio river, opposite the mouth of the 
Licking river, in that district in which Judge Symmes has purchased 
from Congress, and being seized thereof by right of entry, to contain 
six hundred and forty acres, and the fractional parts that may pertain, 
does grant, bargain, and sell the full two-thirds thereof by an equal, 
undivided right, in partnership, unto the said Robert Patterson and 
John Filson, their heirs and assigns ; and upon producing indisputable 
testimony of his, the said Denman's, right and title to the said prem- 
ises, they, the said Patterson and Filson, shall pay the sum of twenty 
pounds Virginia money, to the said Denman, or his heirs or assigns, as 
a full remittance for moneys by him advanced in payment of said 
lands, every other institution, determination, and regulation respecting 
the laying-off of a town, and establishing a ferry at and upon the prem- 
ises, to the result of the united advice and consent of the parties in cov- 
enant, as aforesaid ; and by these presents the parties bind themselves, 
for the true performance of these covenants, to each other, in the penal 
sum of one thousand pounds, specie, hereunto affixing their hands and 
seals, the day and year above mentioned. 

Matthias Denman, 
Signed, sealed, and delivered R. Patterson, 

in the presence of— John Filson. 

Henry Owen, , 

Abr. McConnell. 

The Virginia pound of those days was equivalent to 
three dollars and thirty-three cents in Federal specie, so 
that, since Denman sold two-thirds of his tract for sixty- 
six dollars and sixty-seven cents, the cash value he ap- 
parently put upon the whole was but one hundred dollars. 


The general plan of the town was agreed upon, and 
Filson was to proceed as quickly as possible to get a. plat 
made, and all things in readiness for early settlement and 
sale. It was also agreed to call the new place Losanti- 
ville. This extraordinary designation was undoubtedly 
the product of the Kentucky schoolmaster's pedantic 
genius. An analysis of the word soon discovers its 
meaning. "L" is sometimes supposed to be simply the 
contraction of the French le, making the entire name to 
read "the town opposite the mouth." It is more gener- 
ally believed, however, to have been intended by Filson 
as an abbreviation for Licking, leaving the article before. 
ville in construction to be understood. Os is the Greek 
word for mouth, anti Latin for opposite, and ville French 
for town or city. The whole term would thus signify 
the town opposite the mouth of the Licking. It fur- 
nishes a remarkable instance, not only of an eccentric, 
polyglot neologism, but of the power of synthetic lan- 
guages to express in one word what an analytic language 
like ours must express in a much longer circumlocution 
and with somewhat numerous words. It has been doubted 
whether the village was ever really so called, except in 
the original plans of Filson, Denman, and Patterson; but 
there can be no doubt in the mind of one who looks well 
into the question, that the plan and village had that title 
continuously from the day they were agreed to, in August, 
1788, to the day, January 2 or 4, 1790, when Governor 
St. Clair changed it to Cincinnati, "so that," as Judge 
Symmes wrote, " Losantiville will become extinct." 
There was never a post office or municipality here of that 
name; but letters were written from here under it; the 
town seems to have been familiarly so designated in 
correspondence and conversation ; it has come down in 
almost unquestioned tradition associated with that title; 
and, to crown the evidence, it so appears upon some of 
the earliest maps of Ohio, and one of the plats recorded 
fifteen years after the settlement, while bearing the name 
Cincinnati, is also remarked in the explanations as 
"formerly called Losanterville." The orthographic 
blunder nqted suggests the spelling adopted by Mr. 
Julius Dexter in his prefatory historic note to King's 
Pocket-book of Cincinnati, and which may occasion- 
ally be seen in print elsewhere — " Losanteville, " for which 
there are some good arguments to adduce. The name 
appears originally to have been written with considerable 
carelessness, since among the papers of Patterson, after 
his death, was found a copy of the "conditions" present- 
ly to be recited, though not in his handwriting, in the 
heading of which the name appears as " Losantiburg. " 
It was probably the heedless work of some clerk of Pat- 
terson's. The right name appears in the nomenclature of 
Cincinnati only in "Losantiville Hall," a place of as- 
sembly on Front street, many years ago, north of Deer 
Creek bridge, mentioned in the Cincinnati Almanac for 
1 85 o. Nothing else like it appears in all the geographical 
nomenclature of the world, except in a single instance— 
the name of the postoffice at Losantville, Randolph 
county, Indiana, probably named from a pioneer settler 
or proprietor. 




After the execution of the agreement, Denman re- 
turned to Limestone to meet Judge Symmes, leaving an 
understanding with his partners that they were soon to 
"blaze'' a road through the wilderness in the direction of 
their purchase and establish a ferry across the Ohio there, 
if practicable. The former part of this arrangement ap- 
pears conspicuously in the following advertisement, in- 
serted by Patterson and Filson in the Kentucky Gazette, 
published at Lexington, for the sixth of September, 1788 

Notice. — The subscribers, being proprietors of a tract of land op- 
posite the mouth of the Licking river, on the northwest side of the 
Ohio, have determined to lay off a town on that excellent situation. 
The local and natural advantages speak its future prosperity, being 
equal, if not superior, to any on the bank of the Ohio, between the 
Miamis. The in-lots to be, each, half an acre, the out-lots four acres, 
thirty of each to be given to settlers upon payment of one dollar and 
fifty cents for the survey and deed of each lot. The fifteenth of Sep- 
tember is appointed for a large company to meet in Lexington and 
mark a road from there to the mouth of the Licking, provided Judge 
Symmes arrives, being daily expected. When the town is laid off lots 
will be given to such as may become residents before the first day of 
April next. Matthias Denman. 

Robert Patterson. 
John Filson. 

A company was gathered without much difficulty in 
those restless and adventurous days. It was, probably, 
not large, but sufficient for the purpose, and did not in- 
clude Judge Symmes, who was proceeding to "Miami" 
by way of the river. Without waiting for him, the party 
found its way to the Ohio — doubtless aided much of the 
way by old Indian trails and military traces — and must 
have arrived there in a few days, since it there met Den- 
man and Judge Symmes, who records that he "landed 
at Miami" on the twenty-second of September. Fil- 
son is rather doubtfully said to have spent a day or 
two here, marking out streets through the dense forest. 
He, with the rest of the Kentuckians, accompanied 
Symmes on the exploring expedition up the Miami 
country, which they penetrated "as high as the upper 
side of the fifth range of townships,'' as the judge after- 
wards wrote. The adventures of this party, and the un- 
happy death of Filson, have been related in our chapter 
on the Miami Purchase. While Symmes and Patter- 
son were absent on this excursion," Denman, Ludlow — 
who happened to be with the party, though not yet.a 
proprietor — and others, followed the meanderings of the 
Ohio between the Miamis, and pushed their way about 
ten miles up one of the Miami rivers. 


After the death of Filson and the return of the explor- 
ing party to the Ohio, Denman and Patterson went with 
Symmes back to Limestone, where they decided upon 
just the individual needed to take the place of Filson in 
the partnership, in the person of the young surveyor, 
Israel Ludlow; and an arrangement was made in Octo- 
ber by which he should take Filson's interest in the Lo- 
santiville enterprise. The latter's plan of the town had 
perished with him. His brother, who was with the party 
of Kentuckians when John • Filson was killed, consider- 
ing that he had yet paid nothing and had established lit- 
tle valid claim upon the property, informed the surviving 

partners that the legal representatives of the deceased 
would demand nothing under the contract of August 2 2d. 
Ludlow prepared a new plan of the village, differing, it is 
supposed, in some important respects from Filson's, par- 
ticularly as to the public square to be donated for church 
and school purposes, the common or public landing, and 
the names of streets. It is quite possible that some of 
these differences appear in the discrepancies observable 
between the recorded plats of Ludlow and of Joel Wil- 
liams, which will be presently noted. The drafting of 
plans, the gathering of a colony, and other preparations 
for the settlement, employed the time of the proprietors 
at Limestone and elsewhere for many weeks, and they 
were further hindered for a time by the same obstacles 
which delayed Symmes, as recited in our chapter on the 
Purchase. At length, on the day before Christmas, in 
the year of grace 1788, the courageous founders of Lo- 
santiville and Cincinnati packed themselves in the rude 
flat or keel-boats and barges of the time, took leave of 
the party still at Limestone that was shortly to settle 
North Bend (the Columbia adventurers had been gone 
more than a month), and swept out on the broad bosom 
of the Ohio, now swelled beyond its usual limits, and 
covered thickly with floating ice. 

They were all men, twenty-six in number. The fol- 
lowing, by the best authorities, is the 


Noah Badgeley, Samuel Blackburn, Thaddeus Bruen, 
Robert Caldwell, Matthew Campbell, James Carpenter, 
William Connell, Matthew Fowler, Thomas Gizzel (or 
Gissel), Francis Hardesty, Captain Henry, Luther Kitch- 
ell, Henry Lindsey, Israel Ludlow, Elijah Martin, Wil- 
liam McMillan, Samuel Mooney, Robert Patterson, John 
Porter, Evan Shelby, Joseph Thornton, Scott Traverse, 
Isaac Tuttle, John Vance, Sylvester White, Joel Williams. 

The list given in the Cincinnati Directory of 1819, 
which is usually repeated as the roll of founders, does not 
include the names of Ludlow and Patterson, which is ob- 
viously incorrect; nor of Henry, Matthew Campbell, or 
Elijah Martin. It includes the name of Ephraim Kibby, 
who was subsequently of the Columbia colony, and was 
very likely of this party, as also Daniel Shoemaker, who 
is not on the list of 1819, but appears, like Kibby among 
the original proprietors of donation lots. Martin and 
Campbell were also such proprietors; but not Henry. 
The names of all the others appear in the list of those 
who drew donation lots, except those of the proprietors 
of the town and of Bruen, Caldwell, Connell, Fowler, 
Hardesty, Shelby, and Tuttle. The fact is, not all who 
came with the party staid as colonists, while others arrived 
subsequently to share in the distribution of the donation 
lots. Tuttle, Henry, and probably others, joined Symmes' 
voyagers to North Bend in February; Kibby and Shoe- 
maker, though drawing lots at Losantiville, were with 
Stites' party at Columbia, and at least Kibby subsequently 
removed there; one other at least, Mr. Hardesty, went 
elsewhere, probably on the Kentucky shore, since there 
were Hardestys in Newport; and others drifted away 
without making permanent settlement here. 



Judge Symmes' account of the voyage of the Losanti- 
ville argonauts from Limestone was communicated to his 
fellows of the East Jersey company, in a letter from North 
Bend, about five months afterwards. It is as follows: 

On the twenty-fourth of December last, Colonel Patterson of Lexing- 
ton, who is concerned with Mr. Denman in the section at the mouth of 
the Licking river, sailed from Limestone in company with Mr. Tuttle, 
Captain Henry, Mr. Ludlow, and about twelve others, in order to form 
a station and lay out a town opposite Licking. They suffered much 
from the inclemency of the weather and floating ice, which filled the 
Ohio from shore to shore. Perseverance, however, triumphing over 
difficulty, they landed safe on a most delightful high bank of the Ohio, 
where they founded the town of Losantiville, which populates consid- 
erably, but would be much more improved by this time, if Colonel Pat- 
terson or Mr. Denman had resided in the town. Colonel Patterson 
tarried about one month at Losantiville, and returned to Lexington. 

The time of the departure from Limestone is indispu- 
table; the date of arrival at "Miami" has been much 
disputed. For many years the twenty-sixth of Decem- 
ber was celebrated as the anniversary of the landing; 
and to this day the city directory notes that as the day 
observed by the Cincinnati Pioneer association, though 
we are informed that their practice in this particular has 
changed. It does not seem at all probable that, in the 
face of difficulties experienced, the voyage from Lime- 
stone to Yeatman's cove, sixty-five or more miles, was 
accomplished in two days. An English traveller, noting 
his arrival here in 1806, records that "travelling is so 
very good between Limestone and the town, a distance 
of sixty-eight miles, that I descended in two short days' 
run, without meeting with any obstacles.'' Bad weather 
and other hindrances, as floating ice, which Symmes says 
"filled the Ohio from shore to shore," would undoubtedly 
delay the trip beyond two days, and very probably until 
the day now generally accepted as the true date — De- 
cember 28, 1788. William McMillan, a man of native 
talents and classical education, of strong memory and 
clear, judicial brain, testified years afterwards, in a chan- 
cery case involving the right of property, as between the 
city and Joel Williams, in the Public Landing, that he 
landed here with the party on that day. Denman also, 
in another case, testified that they came "late in Decem- 
ber," though he could not remember the precise day; 
while Patterson and Ludlow thought the landing was 
early in January, which is quite certainly too late. Mr. 
McMillan's testimony, we think, now commands general 
acceptance. The tradition is probably correct that the 
party, occupied in completing the preparations, did not 
get away from Limestone until somewhat late in the day, 
and made but nine miles before tying up for the night • 
that the third day they sighted Columbia, but were una- 
ble to reach it or stop on account of the ice; that the 
same cause prevented their landing here upon arrival 
opposite the spot on the evening of the same day, but 
that, after remaining in or near the mouth of the Licking 
through the night of the twenty-seventh, they effected a 
crossing with their boats the next morning, and trium- 
phantly entered the little inlet at the foot of Sycamore 
street, afterwards known as Yeatman's cove. Fastening 
their frail barks to the roots and shrubs along the bank, 
they step ashore, collect driftwood and other dry frag- 
ments, strike the steel and flint, and provide themselves 

with their first necessity to comfort and cookery — ample 
fires. Very likely, the fatigues of the voyage over, they 
soon realize, even long before night, the graphic picture 
drawn by Dr. Daniel Drake more than sixty-three years 
afterwards: "Setting their watchmen around, they lay 
down with their feet to the blazing fires, and fell asleep 
under the music of the north wind whistling among the 
frozen limbs of the great sycamores and water maples 
which overhung them." 

It was no time for prolonged rest or sleep, however. 
The depth of winter is not the season for open-air bivou- 
acs, when shelters are at hand. The readiest expedient 
for the supply of material for dwellings — one already sug- 
gested' by the practice of the boatmen of the age in 
breaking up their vessels and selling their constituent 
parts when the destination was reached— naturally occur- 
red to the newly arrived, and their first cabin was con- 
structed of boat-planks and other breakage from the craft 
in which they came. This is the statement of Judge 
Burnet, in the historical preface he wrote in Mr. George 
Henry Shaffer's Business Directory of 1840, and which 
Mr. Shaffer, who is still living, assures us is trustworthy 
in every particular. If so, the picture of the first cabin 
(represented as a log one, standing below the cove), used 
in a mayor's message some years ago as an advertisement 
'■ for a forthcoming History of Cincinnati, must be revised 
1 and reconstructed in the light of this fact. The first 
was built on the present Front street, a little'east of Main, 
and of course northwest of the cove or place of landing; 
and others soon put up, two or three in number, were in 
the immediate vicinity, where the dense, wild forest bor- 
dered upon the surging waters. 


While his companions occupied themselves in build- 
ing, hunting, scouting, and other employments, Ludlow, 
doubtless assisted by Badgeley, who was one of Symmes' 
surveyors, and other trusty aids, engaged in the survey of 
the town, which was substantially completed by the 
seventh of January, 1789, when the drawing took place 
for the donation lots. The survey extended from the 
river to Northern row, now Seventh street, and from 
Eastern (now Broadway) to Western row (Central ave- 
nue), with out-lots of tour acres each, or a present square, 
beyond Northern row to the north limits of the Losanti- 
ville purchase, at Liberty street. The out-lots numbered 
eighty-one. The street corners were marked upon the trees. 
There was and is, as everybody remarks, an interesting 
association between the two. The Jerseymen and Penn- 
sylvanians of the party had clearly in mind, in the regu- 
larity with which the town was laid off and the names 
they gave its avenues, their favorite Quaker City— 

Where the streets still re-echo the names of the trees of the forest, 
As if they fain would appease the Dryads whose haunts they invaded. 
The survey was not recorded until April 29, 1802, when 
the law of the Territory required it, under heavy penalties. 
The entry may be found in Book E — 2, pages 62-63. 
The following documents, on page 60, introduce and ex- 
plain it: 

References to the plan of the Town of Cincinnati, in page No 62 
exhibited by Colonel Israel Ludlow (as one of the proprietors), on the 


< <: , /, 



fore-noon of the twenty-ninth day of April, 1802, and recorded agree- 
ably thereto. 

N. B. — The following certificate is attached to the original: 
This may certify that I consider myself as having been one of the 
original proprietors of the Town of Cincinnati, and hereby authorize 
Israel Ludlow to make or copy a plan according to the original plan or 
intention of the firm, and cause to be recorded as such, agreeably to 
the Laws of the Territory in that case made and provided. 
November 20, 1801. 

Matthias Denman. 

P. P. Stewart, 
D. C. Cooper. 

The following notes from another Nota Bene may be 
of interest : 

The lots in the regular squares of the town contain seventy-two 
square perches, are twelve poles in length and six poles wide. The 
out-lots, which are entire, contain each four*acres, are in length from 
east to west six chains and fifty links. 

The six long squares between Front and Water streets contain lots 
ten poles long and six poles wide. 

All the streets in the town are four poles wide, excepting Seventh 
street * and the Eastern and Western row, which are but two poles 

The corners of the streets are north sixteen degrees west, and others 
crossing at right angles south seventy-four degrees west. — Streets 
through the out-lots four poles wide. 

Then, on pages 62-3 of the record, follows the Ludlow 
plat. The streets thereon are named as now, except East- 
ern row (Broadway) and Western row (Central avenue). 
The name of Plum street is spelt " Plumb." None of the 
alleys or narrower streets now existing within the tract 
platted were in this survey. The space now occupied by 
the Public Landing is left blank, except for the well known 
cove of that day, which is figured as extending to the 
south line of Front street, a little east of the foot of Syca- 
more, and a little wider at its junction with the river than 
it was long. Colonel Patterson, in a deposition made in 
1803, in the suit between Williams and the town of Cin- 
cinnati, said that this ground "in front of Front street 
was declared at that time a public common for the use of 
the citizens of the said town, excepting and reserving 
only, for the benefit of the proprietors, the privilege of 
establishing a ferry on the bank of the Ohio on said com- 

All lots in the south half of the squares between Sec- 
ond and Third streets, and all below them, are laid out 
lengthwise north and south; all others in an east and west 
direction. Lots one hundred and fourteen to seventeen, 
and one hundred and thirty-nine to forty-two, are indi- 
cated in Ludlow's appended notes, and by a boundary of 
red ink in the plat, as "given to public uses." They con- 
stitute the block bounded by Fourth and Fifth, Walnut 
and Main streets, which' was afterwards divided between 
the First Presbyterian church, the Cincinnati college, and 
the county of Hamilton. 

East of Eastern row, between extensions of Third and 
Fifth streets, were sixteen in-lots, and immediately north 
of these was the first range of out-lots, numbered from one 
to eight. The ranges of out-lots on the northwest, two 
in number, began also north of Fifth street. Some in- 
truding hand has marked "canal" upon the north line of 
the third range of out-lots, above Seventh street, then the 

♦This was undoubtedly originally designated as Northern row, 

narrow, two-rod street forming the north boundary of the 

Another and rival plat, surveyed by whom we know 
not, was exhibited to the recorder by Joel Williams, on 
the same day, "at six o'clock p. m.," of "the town of Cin- 
cinnati (formerly called Losanterville)," by Samuel Free- 
man and Joel Williams, assignees of Matthias Denman 
and Robert Patterson. It was also recorded by the ac- 
commodating register of that official term, immediately 
after the Ludlow and Denman plat. The general changes 
in the names of streets, as indicated by letters upon this 
map, referring to notes prefixed, possess special interest, 
and exhibit the most pointed difference between the two. 
The present Water to Seventh streets are thus designated, 
in order : Water, Front, Columbia [Second], Hill [Third], 
High [Fourth], Byrd [Fifth], Gano [Sixth], and Northern 
row. At least one of these names, Columbia, prevailed 
in the local usage for many years. The intersecting 
streets, from Eastern row (which retained its name, west- 
ward, were Sycamore, Main, Cider [Walnut], Jefferson 
[Vine], Beech [Race], Elm, Filson [Plum], Western row. 
The space devoted by the original proprietors to a pub- 
lic landing is shown as filled with in-lots, numbered four 
hundred and sixty-one to four hundred and sixty-eight. 
The numbers of other lots and the general features of the 
survey are the same as in the other plat. The same 
square, bounded by Main, Cider, High, and Byrd streets, 
is marked and noted as "reserved for a court house, a 
jail, a church, and school." There is also some differ- 
ence observable in the boundary lines of sections. 

This was made, as the appended affidavit of Williams 
shows, in the absence from the territory of Denman and 
Patterson, "the two other original proprietors of said 
town" — other than Filson, Colonel Ludlow not being 
recognized in the affidavit — and Williams' consequent be- 
lief, as he swore, "that they had no intention of recording 
in person the plat of said town, agreeable to a late act 
of the said territory, entitled 'an act to provide for the 
recording of town-plats.'" The affidavit goes on to aver 
that " this deponent further saith that he possesses, 
as he believes, sufficient information in the premises to 
enable him to make a plat of said town of Cincinnati, 
agreeable to the original plat, design, and intentions of 
the aforesaid original proprietors of said town, in man- 
ner and form as the same was originally laid out and de- 
clared by the proprietors aforesaid; and this deponent 
further saith that the within is a true and accurate map or 
plat of the said town of Cincinnati, agreeable to the or- 
iginal plat, planj" etc. The divergences from Ludlow's 
survey are thus partly accounted for. Williams' claims, 
under this plat, made without any reference to Colonel 
Ludlow, the original surveyor, who was still living and 
readily accessible within five miles of the Cincinnati of 
that day, were subsequently made the subject of litigation 
between himself and the public authorities, in which his 
plat was invalidated and his case lost. The property in- 
volved in the determination of this case was that which 
Williams' plat covers with town lots, but which has been 
continuously occupied, save a small part on the west side 
once covered with a building or buildings, as a public 


landing. This tract Williams had bought in 1800 from 
Judge Symmes, who made the usual guarantee of his 
right to sell it, and gave Williams some color for his 
claim. As to the comparative correctness of the two plats, 
it is worth notice that Colonel Patterson, in his deposi- 
tion of 1803, declared that he had examined both plats, 
and believed "the one recorded by Israel Ludlow to be 
agreeable to the original plan." 

Some years before this, in 1794 or 1795, Williams had 
come into possession by assignment of Denman's remain- 
ing interest, and claimed as an original proprietor. The 
remainder of Patterson's third, about the • same time, 
passed by assignment to Samuel Freeman. The colonel 
remained here but a short time, and then returned; while 
Denman, who did not even come with the colony in De- 
cember, did not remove from New Jersey. Of the four 
worthies originally associated with the founding of Cin- 
cinnati, only Colonel Ludlow became identified with the 
place as a resident; and he lived at his station some miles 
out. To all.intents, however, he was a Cincinnatian. 


Losantiville was now ready for regular settlement. It 
remained for the proprietors to fulfil their generous 
pledges of free in-lots and out-lots to the expectant 
colonists. The survey having been completed, or suf- 
ficiently advanced for the purpose, by the seventh of 
January, the proprietors, represented by Colonel Ludlow, 
promulgated the following: 


on which the donation lots in the town Losantiville are held and settled. 
The first Thirty town and out lots to so many of the most early ad- 
venturers shall be given by the proprietors, Messrs. Denman, Patterson, 
& Ludlow, who for their part do agree to make a deed free and clear of 
all charges and incumbrances excepting that of surveying and deeding 
the same, so soon as a deed is procured from Congress by Judge 

The lot-holders for their part do agree to become actual settlers on 
the premises; plant & attend two crops successively & not less than One 
Acre shall be cultivated for each crop & that within the term of two 
years— each person receiving a donation lot or lots shall build an house 
equal to Twenty feet square, One Storey & half high, with a brick, 
stone, or clay Chimney, which shall stand in front of their respective 
in lots and shall be put in tenantable repair within the term of two 
years from the date hereof. 

The above requisitions shall be minutely complyed with under pen- 
alty of forfeiture, unless Indian depredations render it impracticable. 
Done this seventh day of January Qne thousand seven hundred & 
Eighty Nine. Israel Ludlow. 

The lottery for the distribution of the lots was held 
the same day, under the personal direction of Patterson 
and Ludlow, with the result indicated below. The 
original proprietors of some of the most valuable lots in 
the city are thus shown. The orthography of the 
original record, now in the possession of the Ohio His- 
torical and Philosophical society, has been followed, there 
being no difficulty in recognizing the names: 

Out- In- Out- In- 

lots. lots. lots. lots. 

Joel Williams 3 79 Ephraim Kibby 4 59 

John Porter 2 77 John Vance 24 4 

David McClure 6 26 Jesse Fulton 23 6 

Samuel Mooney 14 33 Henry Bechtel 16 56 

Sylvester White 15 2 Isaac , Freeman 20 51 

Joseph Thornton 28 3 Samuel Blackburn 29 1 

James Carpenter 1 32 Scott Traverse 9 52 

Matthew Cammel 8 28 Elijah Martin 26 7 

Noah Badgeley 22 31 Archibald Stewart 12 57 

Luthar Kitchel 13 58 James McConnel 5 30 

James Cammel 21 34 " Davison 19 27 

Jesse Stewart 30 54 James Dument n 5 

Benjamin Dument 25 53 Jonas Menser 10 29 

Isaac Van Meter .. : 18 8 Thomas Gizzel 17 9 

Daniel Shoemaker 27 79 Harry Lindsay 7 76 

William McMillan 31 James Campbell 154 

By this record thirty-one out-lots and thirty in-lots 
were given away. There are thirty-two names of donees, 
but Mr. McMilllan drew no in-lot, and in-lot number 
seventy-nine seems to have been drawn by both Joel Wil- 
liams and Daniel Shoemaker. The latter, however, ob- 
tained lot seventy-eight, as appears by the diagram 
below, so that the record, as originally made, is probably 
erroneous, and thirty-one lots each, of in-lots and out-lots, 
were donated, which would just comprise the four dona- 
tion blocks of in-lots, save only the one lot presently to be 
noted. The in-lots given embraced the entire blocks be- 
tween Front and Second, Main and Broadway, Second 
and Third, Broadway and Sycamore, and the east half 
of the block bounded by Second and Third, Main and 
Sycamore, except lot fifty-five, on the northwest corner of 
Second and Sycamore, which was then reckoned of little 
value, on account of the position of part of it in the 
swamp which was for years about the intersection of 
Sycamore and Second streets. The lots which faced or 
adjoined the Public Landing were accounted the most 
valuable. Some of the settlers preferred not to be limited 
to these blocks in their selections, and declined to receive 
as donees, preferring to have a free range for purchase, 
which could then be effected at an exceedingly low rate. 
The original price of either class of lots is not certainly 
known, but is supposed to have been two dollars for an 
in-lot on the "Bottom," and four dollars for one on the 
"Hill." All evidence goes to show that prices were 
very cheap. Colonel Ludlow, for example, having one 
hundred dollars due him on his bill of surveying, chose 
to take a tract of one hundred and twenty acres seven 
miles from the village, rather than accept the offer made 
him instead, of four out-lots and a square through which 
now .runs Pearl street, and which is worth millions of 
dollars. Several years afterwards, though prices had 
much advanced, lots in the principal streets could yet be 
had for less than one' hundred dollars. About 1805 
town property rose rapidly, from the large influx of popu- 
lation, but advanced more slowly till 1811, when another 
rapid appreciation set in, continuing until 1815, when 
some lots on Main street, between Front and Third, com- 
manded as much as two hundred dollars per front foot, 
and one hundred dollars from Third to Sixth. Property 
on lower Broadway, Front, and Market streets, could 
then be had for eighty dollars to one hundred and twenty 
dollars per foot; elsewhere in the business quarter, ten 
dollars to fifty dollars, according to situation and local 
advantages for trade. Out-lots still adjoining the town, 
and neighboring tracts of country property, commanded 
five hundred dollars to one thousand dollars an acre in 

Settlement in Losantiville still needed stimulating; 
and a large number of additional lots were given away by 



the proprietors, mostly in May, 1789, to other newcom- 
ers. The following list has been preserved of lots given 
away by the proprietors on the same conditions as the 
first thirty donation lots: 

No. of Lot. No. of Lot. 

Robert Caldwell 83, 84 Robert Benham 17, 62 

John Cutter 92 Joshua Findlar 37 

Seth Cutter 89 Henry Bechtle, jr 57 

James Millan 94 Robert Benham 63 

Levi Woodward 33, 34 Joseph Kelly 113 

Thaddeus Bruen 32 Isaac Bates 60 

Nathaniel Rolstein 30 James Campbell 154 

William Rolstein 65 Dr. John Hole 227 

Jonathan Fitts 61 Jabith Philips 91 

William Cammel 85 John Cummings 106 

Abraham Garrison 86 Captain Furguson 13 

Francis Kennedy 151 

Lutner Kitchel 80 

David Logan 263 

Mr. Wick Malign Baker 138 John Covert 85 

Cobus Lindsicourt 114 Enoch McHendry 67 

Richard Benham 90 James Dument 108 

William McMillan, esq 27 John Terry, sr., 116 

Same (out-lot) 53 Joel Williams 126 

Henry Reed 88 J oseph McHendry 79 

John Ellis 129 James Cunningham 128 

Captain [before Lieut.] Ford. .9, n Samuel Kitchel 209 or 205 

Levi Woodard 34 Colonel Robert Patterson 127 

We have corrected the orthography of this list in many 
places, to correspond with known spelling. These lots 
seem all to have been in-lots, save one of those noted as 
a grant to Mr. McMillan. 

The following is a diagram of one of the blocks in the 
first donation parcel, with memoranda of actual settlers 
who drew the several lots, January 7, 1789: 

Lieutenant Mahlon Ford . . . 

Elijah Martin 82 

Samuel Kennedy 112 

Joel Williams. 

Jesse Stewart. 



D. Shoemaker. 

Benjamin -Dumont. 





99 ft. 










5 « 
< 10 




^ H 



Many other names appear on Ludlow's record as the 
original purchasers of lots in Losantiville, mostly dur- 
ing 1789. They have been collected by the industry 
of Mr. Robert Clarke, in his privately printed pamphlet 
on Losantiville, and we subjoin the list, striking there- 
from only the names already given as those of proprie- 
tors of donation lots: 

Dr. Adams, George Adams, John Adams, Henry Atchison, Stephen 
Barns, Daniel Bates, William Beazley, William Bedell, Thomas Black 
James Blackburn, John Blanchard, Truman Bostwick, Thomas Brown, 
Brunton & Dougherty, Moses Burd, James Burns, Garret Cavender, 

John Cheek, Thomas Cochran, Ephraim Coleman, James Colwell, 
Peyton Cook, Daniel C. Cooper, John Coulson, Joseph Cutter, Mat- 
thew Danalds, Edward Darling, Jonathan Davis, Elijah Davis, William 
Devin, William Dillan, William Dorrough, Russel Farnum, Elijah 
Finley, Benjamin Flinn, Jacob Fowler, Samuel Freeman, Adam Funk, 
John Gaston, Uriah Gates, James Goald, William Gowen, Archibald 
Gray, George Greves, John Griffin, Joel Hamblin, Hezekiah Hardesty, 
Uriah Hardesty, William Harris, James Harway, William Hedger, 

Heooleson, Robert Hinds, Daniel Hole, Darius Hole, William 

Hole, Zachariah Hole, Edward Holland, Jerum Holt, Israel Hunt, 
Nehemiah Hunt, Nicholas Johnson, David Joice, Nicholas Jones, John 
Kearsey (or Kearney), William Kelley, Rev. James Kemper, Lieuten- 
ant Kingsbury, Bethuel Kitchell, Daniel Kitchell, John Love, James 
Lowrey, John Ludlow, James Lyon, Daniel McClure, George McClure, 
John McClure, Mary McClure, William McClure, William McCoy, 
James McKnight, Henry McLaughlin, John McLaughlin, James Mar- 
shall, Isaac Martin, Margaret Martin, Samuel Martin, Luke Mellon, 
Jonathan Mercer, James Miller, Moses Miller, Jacob Mills, Alexander 
Moore, Robert Moore, Dr. Morrel, Jesse Mott, Captain John Munn, 
George Murfey, John Murfey, Mr. Neelson, George Niece, Christopher 
Noon, Darius C. Orcutt, Andrew Parks, Culbertson Parks, Presley Peck, 
Thomas Persons, Matthew Pierson, Samuel Pierson, Enos Potter, Cap- 
tain Pratt, James Pursley, Jacob Reeder, Stephen Reeder, Thomas Rich- 
ards, John Riddle, Abraham Ritchison, Reuben Rood, Asa Root, Jona- 
than Ross, John Ross, John Ross, jr., Moses Ross, William Ross, Wil- 
liam Rusk, Colonel Winthrop Sargent, Levi Sayre, David Scott, James 
Scott, Obediah Scott, John Seaman, Jonas Seaman, Niles Shaw, Casper 
Sheets, Ziba Stibbins, Captain Strong, Dennis Sullivan, Jacob Tapping, 
Henry Taylor, Enos Terry, Robert Terry, John Tharp, Judge George 
Turner, Benjamin Valentine, Benjamin Van Cleve, John Van Cleve, 
Jacob Van Doran, -John Van Eton, Cornelius Van Nuys, James Wal- 
lace, Jacob Warwick, David Welch, Samuel Whiteside, John Wiant, 
Winters, Amos Wood. 

All deeds had still to be given by Symmes, as the pro- 
prietors of the town had yet no valid title from him ; and 
he himself, for that matter, had not been able to obtain 
his patent from the Government. 

annals of losantiville. 

January was spent mainly in surveying and in laying 
off in-lots. Improvements were begun on the outlots, 
and continued as the weather permitted, in order to get 
them ready for crops in spring, and some were pretty well 
cleared in the course of the year, especially on the "Bot- 
tom," between Walnut street and Broadway. A great 
many trees were cut down this year, but they mostly re- 
mained on the ground, where some of them were to be 
seen for years afterwards. Still, the main reliance for 
food the next fall and winter was upon the settlers at Co- 
lumbia, who had much of the fertile Turkey bottom under 
cultivation, without whose aid there would have been pos- 
itive suffering at Losantiville, and perhaps abandonment 
of the fort by the garrison. The Indians did not come 
in and manifest friendship; but did no great amount of 
harm the first year. About twenty log cabins and one 
frame dwelling were built during the year, principally on 
lots adjacent to the Public Landing.* There were but 
one or two stone chimneys among them all. They were, 
in general, surrounded by standing timber, stumps, and 
great butts of timber too difficult to split, and so left to 
decay or be burned. 

It is not certainly known when the first family came. 
As early as the eighth of February Francis Kennedy was 
on the ground with his wife Rebecca and children to the 
perfect number of seven; but his may or may not have 
been the first entire family. It is known that he found 

* Major Fowler, however, thought there were forty or fifty cabins by 
the close of 1789. 



three women already here — Miss Dement, daughter of 
James Dement; Mrs. Constance Zenes, afterwards Mrs. 
William McMillan; and Mrs. Pesthal, a German woman, 
with some small children. He said he found but three 
little cabins when he came, all without floors. On the 
tenth of April Mr. McHenry came, with two grandsons 
and as many granddaughters; also Mrs. Ross with a 
small family. Kennedy's family lived in the boat in 
which it came, until the ice in the river began to run, 
when he built a cabin right in the middle of Water street, 
which was not yet opened. He established the first ferry 
to the Kentucky shore at this point, Thomas Kennedy 
attending it upon the other side, and had a great deal to 
do, especially during the campaigns against the Indians. 
He was drowned near the close of the Indian wars, while 
ferrying over cattle for the army, and Joel Williams next 
obtained the ferry license. 

Thomas Kennedy, the ferryman beyond the flood, was 
a Scotchman who came first to Losantiville in the spring, 
and then removed to the other shore, where Covington 
now stands, which from him and his vocation long bore 
the name of "Kennedy's Ferry." 

In April of this year arrived Thomas Irwin and James 
Burns, two young men from Pennsylvania, who had come 
to push their fortunes in the Miami country. They 
stopped first at Columbia. Mr. McBride, in his Pioneer 
Biography, sketch of Mr. Irwin's life, thus narrates their 
further movements and observations : 

Messrs. Irwin and Burns remained at Columbia during the day, ex- 
amining the place. Mr. Irwin said there were quite a number of fami- 
lies residing there at the time, scattered over the bottom lands, and, 
as he thought, very much exposed. They offered great inducements 
to the young adventurers to locate themselves at Columbia; and, 
though they informed them of another sm.ill settlement eight miles 
further down the river, opposite the mouth of the Licking river, they 
gave them no encouragement to go there. 

They remained in their boat during the night, and the next morning 
left it in the care of the man opposite whose house they had landed, 
and taking their guns, started down the river-bank in quest of the set- 
tlement below. The bank was narrow, and there was no road or 
traces ; the woods were thick, and the way much obstructed by under- 
brush and vines; — so that the travelling was very tedious. Opposite the 
mouth of the Licking river, they came to a double shanty occupied by 
seven men. These men, all but two of them, had been employed with 
the surveyors in surveying Symmes' Purchase during the preceding 
winter. Their names were David Logan, Caleb Reeves, Robert 
[James?] McConnell, Francis Hardesty, Mr. Van Eaton, William Mc- 
Millan and John Vance. Joel Williams was also there, and had been 
with the surveyors a part of the time, and was with Israel Ludlow 
when he surveyed and laid out the town in February [January] previ- 
ous [1789], marking the lines of the streets and corners of lots on the 
trees. This shanty had been built by these persons for their accom- 
modation, immediately after they laid out the town. It was the first 
improvement made in the place, and these persons were the first set- 
tlers of Cincinnati. Joel Williams assisted them to build the shanty, 
and remained with them some time, until, with their assistance, he built 
a cabin on his own lot near the foot of Main street. He had the plat 
of the town, was an agent for the proprietors, and encouraged Irwin 
and Burns to settle themselves at that place. 

In the evening of the same day they returned to Columbia, remain- 
ing on board their boat all right. The next day they floated down the 
river, and landed at the shanty opposite to the mouth of Licking river. 
This was about the tenth day of April. The next day was spent in 
examining the place, and, being pleased with the situation, they con- 
cluded to remain. Mr. Burns located one town-lot and one out-lot. 
The out-lot contained four acres. Irwin also obtained a town-lot. 
They cleared one acre of ground, which they planted with corn. . . 

The double shanty, before mentioned, occupied by Logan, McMillan, 
and others, was situated about the head of Front street. Irwin and 

Burns located themselves near to it, and put up a temporary shanty, 
which they occupied during their stay that summer. The other settlers 
were scattered principally between Sycamore and Main streets. 

According to Irwin's recollections, the first hewed log 
house in the place was put up by Robert Benham about 
the first of June on a lot below Main, and between Front 
street and the river. All the settlers of the village helped 
him at the raising. 

Mr. Irwin did not settle permanently in Cincinnati. 
He was an ensign in Harrnar's unfortunate campaign, re- 
mained at the village the next winter and summer, went 
out as a wagoner in St. Clair's expedition, and remained 
in Cincinnati a few years longer, in January, 1793, mar- 
rying Miss Ann Larimore, and settling finally about four 
miles east of Middletown, Butler county. He was a 
major in the War of 181 2, and afterwards represented 
his county repeatedly in both branches of the State legis- 
lature, and was a colonel in the militia He lived to the 
age of eighty-one, dying on his farm October 3, 1847. 

Another notable arrival of that spring was James Cun- 
ningham, from Beargrass creek, now Louisville. The latter 
part of May, however, he pushed out beyond the present 
site of Reading, where he established Cunningham's Sta- 
tion or settlement, and was the first white man to settle 
in Sycamore township. The names of some others, re- 
corded in the list of purchasers of lots, are undoubtedly 
those of actual settlers this year. 

In December came Colonel John Bartle, one of the 
earliest and best known merchants in the place, who 
spent the remainder of his days here, dying December 9, 
1839, aged ninety-five. 

By the close of 1789 eleven families and twenty-four\ 
unmarried men were residents of the village. Among] 
the men of family were Drs. Morrell and Hoel, Stephen I 
and Jacob Reeder, Daniel Kitchell, Samuel Dick, Messrs. 
Garrison, Blackburn, and others. There were also the 
troops of the garrison, which were numerous after the 
arrival of General Harmar with his reinforcement. An 
account of the building of the fort, which occurred this 
year, and of the fort itself, with its subsequent history, 
will be given in the next chapter. 


The tragedy of the year was the drowning of Noah 
Badgeley, an immigrant from Westfield, New Jersey, who 
was one of the surveyors employed by Judge Symmes. 
He had been up the Licking river, in a time of high water, 
for a supply of bread-corn, had been successful in his 
mission, and was returning when his canoe was overturned, 
he drowned, and three other men of Losantiville placed 
in imminent danger of drowning. They fortunately se- 
cured a refuge in a tree-top, but in the midst of the rag- 
ing waters, where they remained for many hours before 
relief came. 


t— t 







Judge Burnet, in his Notes on the Northwestern Ter- 
ritory, has put on record an entertaining but probably 
apocryphal tradition concerning the establishment of 
Fort Washington at Losantiville, rather than North 
Bend; upon which, in some small measure, it is rea- 
sonable to believe, turned the subsequent and widely dif- 
ferent fortunes of the two villages. Ensign Luce (Gen- 
eral Harmar spelled this Luse), the officer dispatched, 
after most urgent and repeated solicitations by Judge 
Symmes, from the garrison at Louisville to North Bend, 
for the protection of the settlers, had no definite instruc- 
tions as to the spot he should fortify. It was expected 
by the judge that he would build a permanent work at 
the place he had come to occupy; instead of which he 
erected but a single, and not very strong, blockhouse, 
and presently moved on with his force of twelve soldiers 
to Losantiville, where he joined Major Doughty in the 
construction of the more elaborate works that were after- 
wards named Fort Washington. Now, says Judge Bur- 

About that time there was a rumor prevailing in the settlement, said 
to have been endorsed by the Judge [Symmes] himself, which goes far 
to unravel the mystery in which the removal of the troops from the 
Bend was involved. It was said, and believed, that while the officer in 
command was looking out very leisurely for a suitable site on which to 
build the block-house, he formed an acquaintance with a beautiful 
black-eyed female, who called forth his most assiduous and tender 
attentions. She was the wife of one of the settlers at the Bend. Her 
husband saw the danger to which he would be exposed if he remained 
where he was. He therefore resolved at once to remove to Cincinnati, 
and very promptly executed his resolution. As soon as the gallant 
commandant discovered that the object of his admiration had changed 
her residence, he began to think that the Bend was not an advanta- 
geous situation for a military work, and communicated that opinion to 
Judge Symmes, who strenuously opposed it. His reasoning, however, 
was not as persuasive as the sparkling eyes of the fair Dulcinea now at 
Cincinnati. The result was a determination to visit that place and 
examine its advantages for a military post; which he communicated to 
the Judge, with an assurance that if, on examination, it did not prove 
to be the most eligible, he would return and erect the fort at the Bend. 
The visit was quickly made, and resulted in a conviction that the Bend 
could not be compared with Cincinnati as a military position. The 
troops were accordingly removed, to that place, and the building of a 
block-house commenced. Whether this structure was on the ground on 
which Fort Washington was erected by Major Doughty, can not now 
be decided. That movement, produced by a cause whimsical and 
apparently trivial in itself, was attended with results of incalculable im- 
portance. It settled the question whether North Bend or Cincinnati 
was to be the great commercial town of the Miami country. 

Thus we see what unexpected results are sometimes produced by 
circumstances apparently trivial. The incomparable beauty of a Spar- 
tan dame produced a ten years' war, which terminated in the destruc- 
tion of Troy; and the irresistible charms of another female transferred 
the commercial emporium of Ohio from the place where it had been 
commenced to the place where it now is. If this captivating American 
Helen had continued at the Bend, the garrison would have been erected 
there; population, capital, and business would have centred there; and 
there would have been the Queen City of the West. 

This is a very pretty story, and its narration gives a 
beautiful tinge of romance to the local coloring of these 
annals. But the well-ascertained and authenticated facts 
are against it. There is no other evidence than this gos- 
sipy tradition that Ensign Luce built anything at Losanti- 
ville, prior to the beginnings of Fort Washington, or that 

he had any voice in the selection of a site for the fort. 
On the other side, it is perfectly well known that he did 
build a work of some permanence and strength (though 
Symmes, in a letter of July 17, 1789, calls it a "little 
block-house, badly constructed ") at North Bend, and re- 
mained there for several months, perhaps until after 
Major Doughty had begun the work at Losantiville ; and 
that his transfer to that station was determined, not by 
an affaire de cceur, but by military considerations solely. 
The check which the progress of North Bend received in 
1789 was the result of previous Indian murders and 
scares, and not merely of the transfer of a handful of 
troops. The pretty story, as veritable history, must be 
given up. The genesis of Fort Washington, as we shall 
presently show, is now perfectly well known ; and Ensign 
Luce (or Luse) had nothing whatever to do with it. 
Luce, it may be added, resigned in March of the follow- 
ing year, and Harmar, in forwarding his resignation to 
the Secretary of War, seemed particularly anxious that it 
should be accepted. 


The determination to plant a fort opposite the mouth 
of the Licking, and the commencement of work upon it, 
are usually set down for June or July of 1789. We first 
hear of the project, however, in Major Denny's Military 
Journal, under a date later than either of these. Writing 
in his quarters at Fort Harmar, he records : 

Aug. 9th [1789J. — Captain Strong, with his two subalterns, Lieuten- 
ant Kingsbury and Ensign Hartshorn/ and a complete company of 
seventy men, embark for the Miamis. 

nth. — Captain Ferguson joined us with his recruits. Major Doughty 
follows Captain Strong for the purpose of choosing ground and laying 
out a new route intended for the protection of persons who have settled 
within the limits of Symmes' Purchase. 

Sept. 4th. — Ferguson with his company ordered to join Strong in 
erecting a fort near the Miami. Lieutenant Pratt, the quartermaster, 
ordered to the same place. 

Major Doughty, the senior officer of the troops thus 
dispatched to the Miami country, had evidently dis- 
cretionary powers as to the location of the fort; for a 
letter from' General Harmar, written from Fort Harmar 
September 12, 1789, to General Knox, Secretary of War, 
contains the following: 

Major Doughty informs me, in his letter dated the twenty-first ulti- 
mo, that he" arrived at the Little Miami on the sixteenth, and after 
reconnoitring for three days from thence to the Big Miami, for an eligi- 
ble situation whereon to erect the works for headquarters, he had at 
length determined to fix upon a spot opposite Licking river, which he 
represents as high and healthy, abounding with never-failing springs, 
etc. , and the most proper position he could find for the purpose. 

Work, then, was pretty certainly begun upon Fort 
Washington about the twentieth of September, 1789. 

The site selected was a little east of Western row, or 
Broadway, between that and the present Ludlow street, 
just outside the village limits, as then surveyed. It was 
upon the hill, but not far removed from the brow of it as 
the second terrace then existed — right upon the line of 
Third street, pretty nearly around the location of the 
Trollopean Bazaar for more than fifty years, and extend- 
'ng near sixty feet on each side of the present extension 
of Third street. The entire reservation, as subsequently 
made by the Government for the purpose in the patent to 



Symmes, was fifteen acres, upon which the fort stood 
near the west and north sides. The position which it 
occupied, with reference to present blocks and streets, 
may be readily seen by reference to the old maps of Cin- 
cinnati, in the books descriptive of the city in the early 

In February, 1841, Mr. Samuel Abbey, then a resi- 
dent of New England, but a sergeant in Doughty's com- 
mand at the time of the erection, revisited the site while 
on a visit to Cincinnati, and emphatically identified the 
spot between Broadway and Ludlow streets, where Third 
street begins to change direction northwardly, as the sta- 
tion of the flagstaff of the fort. Mr. Abbey had reached 
the advanced age of seventy-five years, but his faculties 
were still in vigorous action, and his recollections of 
persons and places in the early day of Cincinnati seemed 


of the fort was square in shape, a simple fortification of 
hewed and squared timbers, about one hundred and 
eighty feet long on each side, with barracks two stories 
high, connected at the corners by means of high and 
strong pickets with bastions, or more properly block- 
houses. These were doubtless the "four block-houses" 
spoken of in one of Timothy Flint's books as observable 
here in the early day; though it is singular that he does 
not speak of the fort as an entirety. They were also of 
hewed timbers, and each projected about ten feet in 
front of the sides of the fort, so as to command com- 
pletely, by the direct and raking fire of cannon and mus- 
ketry, every wall and front of the fortification. In the 
centre of the south side, upon the main front of the fort, 
was its principal gateway, about twelve feet wide and ten 
feet high, secured by heavy wooden doors of correspond- 
ing dimensions. This passage into the fort was through 
the line of barracks. Upon the north side of the work 
and somewhat without it, but connected with it by high 
palisades extending to the block-houses at the northeast 
and northwest corners, was a small triangular space filled 
with workshops of artificers attached to the garrison. 

Harmar's own description of the fort, as it existed 
when he occupied it as his headquarters, though in an 
unfinished state [January 14, 1790], is as follows: 

This will be one of the most solid, substantial wooden fortresses, when 
finished, of any in the Western Territory. It is built of hewn timber, a 
perfect square, two stories high, with four block-houses at the angles. 
The plan is Major Doughty's. On account of its su- 
perior excellence, I have thought proper to honor it with the name of 
Fort Washington. The public ought to be benefited by the sale of 
these buildings whenever we evacuate them, although they will cost 
them but little. 

The general was led to make this remark by the fact 
that much of the material of the fort was made up, con- 
trary to the usual impression and statement, not of green 
logs from the woods, but of the already seasoned and 
sawed or hewed timbers and boat-boards from the fiat or 
"Kentucky boats" then navigating the Ohio. He says in 
the same letter: 

About forty or fifty Kentucky boats have begun and will complete it. 
Limestone is the grand mart of Kentucky ; whenever boats arrive there 
they are scarcely of any value to the owners ; they are frequently set 
adrift in order to make room for the arrival of others. I have con- 

tracted for the above number for the moderate price of one to two dol- 
lars each ; thus much for the plank work. All other expenses (wagon- 
hire, nails, and some glass excepted) are to be charged to the labor of 
the troops. The lime we have burned ourselves, and the stone is at 


An enclosure of some size, separate from the fort and 
at no great distance from it, toward the river and a little 
east of Broadway, just in front of the site of the great 
nine-story steam-mill so well known here in the early 
day, was called the Artificers' Yard, in which were 
materials for their work, sheds for working and the pro- 
tection of articles from the weather, and a pretty good 
dwelling, the residence of Captain Thorp, head of the 
quartermaster's department at the fort. Between the 
fort and the yard, on the Government reservation, near 
the southeast corner of Second street and Broadway, 
were several log houses, occupied as barracks by a part 
of the soldiers. 

A spacious and smooth esplanade, about eighty feet 
wide, stretched along the entire front of the fort, and was 
bordered by a handsome paling on the river side, at the 
brow of the hill, which then sloped about thirty feet to 
the lower bottom adjoining the stream. The exterior of 
the buildings and stockade was whitewashed, and pre- 
sented from a distance an imposing and really beautiful 
appearance, notwithstanding the rudeness of the material 
that mainly entered into it. The officers of the garrison 
had their gardens upon the fertile grounds east of the 
enclosure, ornamented with elegant summer-houses and 
finely cultivated, yielding in the season an abundance of 


One object of the new post between the Miamis was 
to furnish an eligible headquarters for the army, nearer 
that part of the Indian country likely to cause the settlers 
fear and annoyance. As early as September 28, 1789 — 
probably at once upon receiving Major Doughty's letter 
of the twenty-first — Harmar wrote to General Butler at 
Pittsburgh : 

Your humble servant is a bird of passage. Some time the latter part 
of next month or beginning of November, I shall move down the river, 
bag and baggage (leaving Ziegler's and Heart's companies at the post 
for the protection of our New England brothers), and shall fix my head- 
quarters opposite Licking river. 

He was delayed, however, probably by the unfinished 
condition of the fort; for, November 10th of the same 
year, we find Major Denny making the following entry in 
his journal : 

The general intends removing to headquarters very shortly, to the 
new fort building by Major Doughty, opposite the mouth of Licking 

He did not then get away from the Muskingum until 
the twenty-fourth of December, when he left Fort Har- 
mar with a small fleet of boats and three hundred men 
with whom he landed safely at Losantiville on the twenty- 
eighth, and settled his officers and men as best he could 
in and about the fort. It is a coincidence of some inter- 
est that the first colonists here in like manner left their 
point of embarkation December 24th, just two years pre- 

* Substantially from Cist's Cincinnati in 1841. 



viously, were also four days upon the voyage — though 
they had only about one-fifth the distance to traverse, 
being delayed by ice in the river — and similarly landed 
on the twenty-eighth. Upon the general's arrival, be took 
command at the fort, relieving Major Doughty, who be- 
came commandant of the small force left at Fort Har- 
mar. Fort Washington was now the headquarters of the 
United States army. 


This was the most important and extensive military 
work in existence at that period in any of the territories 
of the United States. It made a conspicuous figure in 
the Indian wars of the closing decade of the last century. 
Here, in the summer and fall of 1790, the first year after 
its construction, rendezvoused the three hundred and 
twenty regular troops and eight hundred and thirty-three 
Kentucky and Pennsylvania militia of General Harmar's 
ill-starred command, from which they marched Septem- 
ber 30th of the same year, to their disastrous defeat near 
St. Mary's. Upon the retreat, the exultant savages fol- 
lowed their broken columns until they were almost under 
the guns of the fort. Hither, too, in the middle of the next 
May, came the confident St. Clair with his legions, burn- 
ing for revenge upon the red-skinned and red-handed en- 
emy, and remained here and at Ludlow's station, recruit- 
ing and equipping his forces, until the seventeenth of the 
succeeding September, when it likewise marched away to 
defeat. Lively times, also, the frontier garrison saw in 
1 793 — the "bloody '93" of the French Revolution — 
while the forces of Mad Anthony Wayne lay at " Hob- 
son's Choice," in the Mill creek valley, preparing most 
effectually to reverse the fortunes of war by its trium- 
phantly successful campaign against the Indians of the 
Miami and Maumee valleys. Soon after its departure a 
terrible visitation of small-pox swept off nearly one-third 
of the garrison remaining, as well as of the citizens of 
the village. 

To Fort Washington, also, April 3, 1792, came Major 
Trueman, of the United States army, as a commissioner 
from President Washington to negotiate a treaty with the 
western Indians. He brought instructions from the Sec- 
retary of War, and reported formally to Colonel Wilkin- 
son, then commanding at the fort. The colonel detailed 
Colonel Hardin to proceed with him into the Indian 
country, for which they left some time in June. During 
the summer information was received by the comman- 
dant at Vincennes from a Wea chief that four white men, 
who were approaching the Indians under a flag of truce, 
had been fired upon, three of them killed, and the fourth, 
who was bearing the flag and had on his person the cre- 
dentials and other papers of the expedition, had been 
taken a prisoner and barbarously murdered the next day. 
On the third of July Colonel Vjgo brought the intelli- 
gence from Vincennes to Cincinnati. The sad news was 
soon confirmed, and the party identified as that of True- 
man and Hardin, by prisoners escaping from the Indians 
and coming in to Fort Washington. Colonel Hardin, 
before his departure, had told a friend in Cincinnati, 
Captain James Ferguson, that his presence in the party 

would prompt the savages to violate the flag and assas- 
sinate him, whom they had long feared and hated. One 
of the attendants of the officers was a son of Mr. A. 
Freeman, one of the pioneers of Cincinnati. His story 
has further notice in the first division of this history. 
This incident has been made the groundwork of one of 
the most interesting sketches in Benjamin Drake's Tales 
of the Queen City. 


In the fall of 1789, even before the entire completion 
of the fort, there was danger that the troops would be 
forced to abandon it, on account of the scarcity of food. 
In this exigency Colonel John S. Wallace, a noted hunter 
and Indian fighter, came forward and made a contract 
with the military authorities to supply the garrison with 
wild meat. He was assisted by two hunters named 
Drennan and Dement, and, about ten miles below Cin- 
cinnati, on the Kentucky side, they found game in great 
quantity — buffalo, deer, and bear — which enabled them 
without special difficulty to fulfil their engagements. At 
one hunt they secured enough to keep the seventy men 
then in the garrison supplied with this kind of food for 
six weeks. The troops were also kept in good heart by 
a sufficient supply of corn from Columbia, where the 
crop of the year was abundant, and contributed largely, 
as is elsewhere noted, to the safety of Losantiville and 
the fort. 

Major Jacob Fowler and his brother Matthew ar.e also 
said to have had a contract to furnish the garrison, as 
well as the village, with the spoils of the chase, from the 
establishment of the fort till some time after St. Clair's 
arrival there. They received twopence per pound for 
buffalo and bear meat, and two and half for venison — in 
Pennsylvania currency, seven shillings and sixpence to 
the dollar. They hunted some in Mill Creek valley, 
where the game was reputed good, but extended their 
hunting grounds ten to fifteen miles into Kentucky. The 
skins of animals killed were sold to a man named Archer, 
who kept a tannery in or near the town. After a time 
the authorities got behindhand in their payments, and 
the hunters would sell only to the citizens and the offi- 
cers of the garrison. 

Writing of the currency of the times, it is worth noting 
that the soldiers at Fort Washington were paid in bills of 
the old Bank of the United States — a currency locally 
called "oblongs," especially at the gambling tables, which 
were much frequented by the officers, as well as the 
enlisted men and hangers-on of the garrison. A three- 
dollar bill was at that day sufficient for the monthly pay 
of a private soldier. 


The troops at Fort Washington naturally ' were some- 
what at feud with the citizens of the village, notwithstand- 
ing their mutual dependence, to some extent, upon each 
other. Record will elsewhere be made of a serious af- 
fray in the early years of the settlement, in which a party 
of soldiers participated. It is very likely that there were 
some cases of insolence and tyranny in the conduct 
of the officers and their subordinates toward the civilians, 



and that in various ways there were reprisals from the 

villagers. In 1790, at all events, Governor St. Clair 

thought fit to issue a proclamation declaring the existence 

of martial law for some distance about the fort; which, 

with other alleged high-handed acts, is thus sharply dealt 

with in one of the letters of Judge Symmes to his friend 

and associate Dayton : 

The governor's proclamations have convulsed these settlements be- 
yond your conception, sir, not only with regard to the limits of the 
Purchase, but also with respect to his putting part of the town of Cin- 
cinnata [sic\ under military government. Nor do the people find their 
subordination to martial law a very pleasant situation. A few days ago 
a very decent citizen, by the name of [Knoles] Shaw, from New Eng- 
land (and one, too, who lived with his family a considerable distance 
beyond the limits assigned by proclamation round Fort Washington, 
for the exercise of the law martial), was put in irons, as I was yesterday 
credibiy informed, his house burned by the military, and he banished 
the Territory. I hear his charges are that of purchasing some of the 
soldiers' clothing and advising in some desertions ; but of this he was 
no otherwise convicted (for he asserts his innocence), than by the sol- 
dier's accusation after he had deserted and been retaken, which he 
might do in order to shift the blame in some degree from himself in 
hopes of more favor. There are, indeed, many other acts of a despotic 
complexion, such as some of the officers, Captain Armstrong, Captain 
Kirkwood, Lieutenant Pastures, and Ensign Schuyler, very recently, 
and Captain Strong, Captain Ford, Captain Ashton, and Ensign Harts- 
horn, while General Harmar commanded, beating and imprisoning cit- 
izens at their pleasure. But here, injustice to the officers generally of 
the levies, I ought to observe that, as yet, I have heard no complaint 
of any severity or wantonness in them. The violences of which I 
speak are found among the officers of the regular troops, who, in too 
many instances, are imperiously haughty, and evidently affect to look 
down on the officers of the levies. I hear there are several officers with 
their corps arrived at headquarters, but I have not seen any of them, as 
I had left Cincinnata a day or two before their arrival, and have not 
been there since. It really becomes a very unpleasant place to me, for 
I have always had something in my nature which was shocked at acts 
of tyranny, and when at that place my eyes and ears are every day sa- 
luted with more or less of those acts which border hard on it. 


The first commandant of Fort Washington was its 
founder and builder, Major Doughty, who was super- 
seded, of course, by his superior officer, General Har- 
mar, upon the arrival of the latter late in December. 
Harmar named the fort, which had theretofore been with- 
out special designation, upon the arrival of Governor St. 
Clair in January, at the same time Hamilton county and 
Cincinnati were named — Judge Symmes and St. Clair 
having, respectively, the privilege of naming these. Gen- 
eral Wilkinson assumed command after Harmar's de- 
feat, continuing the fort as headquarters of the army. 
Captain William Henry Harrison, whose earliest military 
life was identified with the fort, was in command from 
1795 until his resignation, three years thereafter. Cap- 
tain Edward Miller was commandant in May and June, 
1799; but how long before and after we have been unable 
to ascertain. The next year Lieutenant Peter Shiras 
"held the fort," and he is the last of the post comman- 
ders of whom we have certain information, though Major 
Zeigler doubtless came near him as post commandant, 
either before or after that date. 


One of General Harmar's letters, dated June 9, 1790, 
furnishes a full roster of the commissioned officers then 
at the fort. They were: General Harmar, Captain 
Ferguson, Captain Strong, Captain M'Curdy, Captain 

Beatty, Lieutenant Armstong, Lieutenant Kerney (Kear- 
sey?), Lieutenant Ford, Lieutenant Pratt, Lieutenant 
Denny, Ensign Sedam, Ensign Hartshorn, Ensign Thomp. 
son, Doctor Allison. Some of these, as Sedam, Allison, 
and one or two others, will be recognized as well known 
names in the annals of Cincinnati. 


In 1803 the United States acquired, by gift and pur- 
chase, from General James Taylor, a part of the ground 
upon which Newport barracks were built and now stand. 
General Charles Scott acted for the Government, took 
the deed and paid the purchase money. The barracks 
were ready for the reception of the troops the next year, 
when Fort Washington was evacuated and its garrison 
transferred to the opposite shore. The history of Fort 
Washington is thenceforth quite uneventful, though some 
noted citizens of Cincinnati, as Dr. William Goforth and 
his promising young student, Daniel Drake, from time to 
time occupied rooms or dwellings in it. 


In 1808, in pursuance of an order of Congress, the 
military reservation at Cincinnati was condemned and 
ordered to be sold with the structures thereon. General 
Jared Mansfield, then surveyor-general of the Northwest, 
was directed to supervise the sale. He had the tract of 
fifteen acres subdivided into lots and sold in early March 
through the land office at Cincinnati. The old site of 
the fort, near the Trollopean Bazaar, is now among the 
most thickly built districts of the city. The demolition 
and sale of the buildings took place on St. Patrick's 
Day, March 17, was at public vendue and attended by 
the entire population of the city and vicinity, who made 
a gala-day of the event. Little of the material was 
valuable except for firewood, and much of it was sold for 
this purpose. Colonel Stephen McFarland, father of 
the venerable Isaac B. McFarland, who is still residing 
on Park street and well remembers this day, lived 
adjacent to the fort, and bought the logs of the cabins 
between it and Artificers' Yard, which fed his fires for 
some years. Mr. Joseph Coppin, of Pleasant Ridge, late 
president of the Cincinnati Pioneer association, was also 
present at the sale and thus describes a ludicrous inci- 
dent of it: 

During the taking down of the fort, two men got into a fight, and 
upset a barrel of soft soap. Here they were down in soap, and then in 
the dirt; and when the people thought they had fought enough and 
were fit for the river, they marched them down to the tune of the 
"Rogue's March," and in the river they had to go and wash off in 
presence of the crowd that followed. 


The first well in Cincinnati was dug at the fort in 
1 79 1, by an eccentric wanderer calling himself John 
Robert Shaw, who afterwards published a little book in 
Kentucky, giving an account of his adventures,, with rude 
illustrations, probably designed and executed by himself. 
He was called by the early settlers "the water-witch," 
from his skill in divining water by the forked rod, and 
was sent for from long distances to find it. 

So late as 1802, a book published in Paris, entitled 
Voyage a la Louisiane, par B D , gives Fort 

O/J c 



ashington a place by name upon the map prefixed, but 
no Cincinnati appears, nor either of the Miami rivers. 
Upon other old maps Fort Washington is sometimes 
given as a locality in the neighborhood of Cincinnati, 
which is also set down, but generally in its proper place. 

In 1789 two soldiers, named John Ayers and Matthew 
Ratmore, were shot at the southeast corner of the fort, 
for desertion. These were the first executions in the 

In a description of Cincinnati, as he first saw the vil- 
lage in February, 1791, the Rev. Oliver M. Spencer in- 
cludes the following notice of the fort: 

On the top and about eighty feet distant from the brow of the second 
bank, facing the river, stood Fort Washington, occupying nearly all 
the ground between Third and Fourth streets, and between Ludlow 
street and Broadway. This fort, of nearly a square form, was simply 
a wooden fortification, whose four sides or walls, each about one hun- 
dred and eighty feet long, were constructed of hewed logs, erected into 
barracks two stories high, connected at the corners by high pickets, 
with bastions or block-houses, also of hewed logs and projecting about 
ten feet in front of each side of the fort, so that the cannon piaced 
• within them could be brought to rake its walls. Through the centre of 
the south side or front of this fort was the principal gateway, a passage 
through this line of barracks about twelve feet wide and ten feet high, 
secured by strong wooden doors of the same dimensions. Appended 
to the fort on its north side, and enclosed with high palisades extend- 
ing from its northeast and northwest corners to a block-house, was a 
small triangular space; in which were constructed shops for the accom- 
modation of the artificers. Extending along the whole front of the fort 
was a fine esplanade, about eighty feet wide and enclosed with a hand- 
some paling on the brow of the bank, the descent from which to the 
lower bottom was sloping, sbout thirty feet. The front and sides of 
the fort were whitewashed, andat a small distance presented a handsome 
and imposing appearance. On the eastern side were the officers' gar- 
dens, finely cultivated, ornnmented with beautiful summer houses, and 
yielding in their season abundance of vegetables. * 

Judge Burnet gives the following account of the fort, 
as he remembered seeing it first in 1795 : 

In Cincinnati, Fort Washington was the most remarkable object. 
That rude but highly interesting structure stood between Third and 
Fourth streets produced, east of Eastern row, now Broadway, which 
was then a two-pole alley, and was the eastern boundary of the town, 
as originally laid out. It was composed of a number of strongly 
built, hewed log cabins, a story and a half high, calculated for soldiers' 
barracks. Some of them, more conveniently arranged and belter fin- 
ished, were intended for officers' quarters. They were so placed as to 
form a hollow square of about an acre of ground, with a strong block- 
house at each angle. It was built of large logs, cut from the ground 
on which it stood, which was a tract of fifteen acres, reserved by Con- 
gress in the law of 1792, for the accommodation of the garrison. 

The Artificers' Yard was appended to the fort, and stood on the bank 
of the river, immediately in front. It contained about two acres of 
ground, enclosed by small contiguous buildings, occupied as work- 
shops and quarters for laborers. Within the enclosure there was a 
large, two-story frame house, familiarly called the 'yellow house,' which 
was the most commodious and best-finished edifice in Cincinnati. On 
the north side of Fourth street, immediately behind the fort, Colonel 
Sargent, secretary of the Territory, had a convenient frame house and 
a spacious garden, cultivated with care and taste. On the east side 
of the fort Dr. Allison, the surgeon-general of the army, had a plain 
frame dwelling in the centre of a large lot, cultivated as a garden and 
fruitery, and which was called "Peach Grove.". 

The anniversary of Washington's birthday, February 
22, 1791, was celebrated by a ball at the fort, preceded 
by an exhibition of fireworks, the booming of cannon, 
discharge of rockets, and other demonstrations of joy 
and honor. 

The rule at the fort must have been at times pretty 

*This is undoubtedly the source from which Mr, Cist drew his de- 

severe, if one may judge from the closing part of a letter 
written by General Wilkinson, May 11, 1792, while he was 
commandant of the fort, to' Captain John Armstrong, 
commanding at Fort Hamilton. He thus instructs 
Armstrong : 

Should any men desert you, the scouts are to take the track, pursue, 
overtake, and make prisoners of them ; and for every one so appre- 
hended and brought back, you may engage them twe nty dollars, If 
the deserter is discovered making for the enemy, it will be well for the 
scout to shoot him and bring his head to you ; for which allow forty 
dollars. One head lopped off in this way and set upon a pole on the 
pajade might do lasting good in the way of deterring others. 

ViSociety in the infant Cincinnati largely took its tone 
from the official society in Fort Washington. Here, it 
must be remembered, were quartered, at various 
times, four eminent commanders of the American 
army, under the President — Generals Harmar, St. Clair, 
Wayne and Wilkinson. In the staffs of these men, and 
in more immediate command of the troops, were officers 
of culture and polished manners, some of European 
education, many of luxurious habits. The living at the 
officers' mess tables was generous. It is shrewdly sus- 
pected that St. Clair's defeat was due quite as much to 
his gastronomic indulgences as to any misconduct of 
his men or officers; for he was so afflicted with the gout 
during his campaign that he had to be carried in a litter 
to the fatal fiekl, and was quite incapable of the most 
efficient action.]* General Wilkinson, who succeeded him, 
was a gentlemlm and scholar who delighted in surround- 
ings of beauty and refinement; and in the schemes for 
adornment and social pleasure he was ably and cordially 
seconded by his wife. Here, in the wilds of the west, 
besides frequent balls and other festivities at the fort, 
Wilkinson had a superb barge built and decorated as a 
pleasure-boat, upon which he gave banquets and other 
entertainments to his officers and friends. Mr. H. M. 
Brackenridge, author of Recollections of Persons and 
Places in the West, saw this barge in its heyday, and 
thus writes of it: 

The general's lady and several ladies and gentlemen were on board 
of the boat, which was fitted up in a style of convenience, and even 
magnificence, scarcely surpassed by-the present steamboats. It was 
propelled against the stream by twenty-five or thirty men, sometimes 
with the pole, by the cotdelle, and often by the oar. There was also a 
band of musicians on board, and the whole had the appearance of a 
mere party of pleasure. My senses were overpowered — it seemed an 
Elysium! The splendor of the furniture, the elegance of the dresses, 
and then the luxuries of the table, to a half-starved creature produced 
an effect which cannot easily be described. Every repast was a royal 
banquet, and such delicacies were placed before me as I had never seen, 
and in sufficient abundance to satiate my insatiable appetite. 

The general's countenance was continually lighted up with smiles, 
and he seemed the /acre le bouheur of all around him. It seemed to 
be his business to make every one happy. 

And Herr Klauprecht writes, in his German Chronicle 
of the History of the Ohio Valley: 

His lady, a charming being, assisted her husband in a truly estim- 
able manner, by enlivening the entertainments with the sprightliness 
and grace of her amiable soul. 

Judge Burnet also writes, in his Notes on the Settle- 
ment of the Northwestern Territory : 

During a large portion of the year!" they had to endure the fatigues 
and privations of the wilderness; and as often as they returned from 
those laborious excursions, they indulged most freely in the delicacies 
of high living. Scarcely a day passed without a dinner-party, at which 



the best of wine and of other liquors, and the richest viands furnished 
by the country and by commerce, were served up in great profusion 
and in fine taste. Genteel strangers who visited the place, were 
generally invited to their houses and their sumptuous tables. 
Atone of those sumptuous dinners, given by Angus Mcintosh, the bot- 
tom of every wine-glass on the table had been broken off, to prevent 
what was called heel-taps; and during the evening many toasts were 
given, which the company were required to drink in bumpers. 





(The great local events which opened this year were 
the visit of -Governor St. Clair, the consequent erection 
of Hamilton as the second county in the Northwest 
Territory, and the re-christening of the chief town of the 
Miamis as its county-seat and the prospective capital of 
the Territory.! Let it be borne in mind, however, that 
Hamilton county was not in being, and that Cincinnati 
was LosantivTTle, so far as public knowledge, at least, was 
concerned, during the first three days of this year. 
The testimony is express to the effect that the Gov- 
ernor arrived at Fort Washington January 2d, sent for 
Judge Symmes to North Bend the next day, and on the 
fourth issued his proclamation erecting " this Purchase 
into a county," as Symmes said, at the same time that he, 
as the judge put it in another letter, "made Losantiville 
the county-town by the name of Cincinnata, so that Lo- 
santiville will become extinct." It is altogether probable 
that while St. Clair left to Symmes the designation of the 
county (and the judge, in a letter cited below, seems also 
to claim the re-christening of Losantiville), he assumed 
himself the entitling of its seat of justice, the Queen City 
to-be, . and named it from the famous society of which 
both himself and Colonel- Hamilton were members — 
that society which, in the old words, was " instituted by 
the Officers of the American Army at the Period of 
its Dissolution, as well to commemorate .the great event 
which gave Independence to North America, as for the 
Laudable Purpose of inculcating the Duty of laying 
down in Peace Arms assumed for public Defence, and of 
uniting in Acts of brotherly affection and Bonds of Per- 
petual Friendship the members constituting the same.'' 
This society received its name, as is well known, from 
Cincinnatus, the noble Roman agriculturist who, 458 
b. c, was called from his plow to become the Dictator of 
Rome, in a great public emergency. Its honors are still 
shared by a few citizens of the metropolis whose greatness 
has helped to give its name renown — gentlemen who 
have the blood of Revolutionary heroes. Only seven 
other places in the United States or in the world bear the 
same title — in Washington county, Arkansas; Pike coun- 
ty, Illinois; Greene county, Indiana; Appanoose county, 
Iowa; Ralls county, Missouri; Pawnee county, Nebraska; 
and Walker county, Texas; — all wholly unimportant 
places, except for their great name. There is also a Cin- 
cinnatus in Cortland couny, New York. 

A paragraph may well enough be given here to Judge 
Symmes' spelling of the word as Cincinnata. He retained 
this in the date-line of such of his letters as wsre written 
from this place, and in other of his writings, for some 
years, when he adopted the orthography which has always 
been standard. His letters of 1795 bear the heading 
"Cincinnati." Long before this he was troubled with 
doubts as to the word, whose spelling seems to have been 
the result of his own reasonings and inventions, prompted 
by his classical knowledge, rather than to rest upon any 
recognized authority. In a letter of his, dated June 19, 
179T, having written the word once in his epistle, he 
diverges from his topics of business into the following 

Having mentioned Cincinnata, I beg, sir, you will inquire of the liter- 
ati in Jersey whether Cincinnata or Cincinnati be most proper. The 
design I had in giving that name to the place was in honor of the Order 
of Cincinnati, and to denote the chief place of their residence; and, so 
far as my little acquaintance with cases and genders extends, I think 
the name of a town should terminate in the feminine gender where it is 
not perfectly neuter. Cincinnati is the title of the order of knighthood 
and cannot, I think, be the place where the knights of the order dwell! 
I have frequent combats in this country on this subject, because most 
men spell the place with ti, when I always do with ta. Please to set me 
right, if I am wrong. You have your Witherspoons and Smiths, and 
indeed abound in characters in whose decision I shall acquiesce. 

Well reasoned, no doubt, from the. standpoint of the 
linguist and the expert in geographical nomenclature; 
but the voice of the vast majority, he confesses, was 
against him, and the usage in favor of Cincinnati soon 
became too strong for him to resist. 
( January 4, 1790, Losantiville was no more, and Cin- 
cinnati, as a "name to live," began. The wheels of civil 
government were soon in motion ; the courts of justice 
began to sit; the little community came readily under 
the forms of law and order; and the great career of the 
Queen City, in a humble way, was opened.] The gov- 
ernor remained at the fort during three days, received 
the compliments and respects of such of the citizens as 
chose to call and pay them, completed his schedule of 
civil and military appointments, and then re-entered his 
barge and went on his tedious way to Marietta. 

One day before St. Clair issued his proclamation estab- 
lishing the county of Hamilton, Benjamin VanCleve be- 
came a resident of Cincinnati, remaining here until his re- 
moval to Dayton early in 1796. He was a prominent and 
valued citizen, and has left important contributions to the 
memoirs of his times, in the clear and well-written mem- 
oranda he then made, some of which have been published 
in the second volume of the American Pioneer. He thus 
notes the arrival here, wfth other items of interest: 

We landed at Losantiville, opposite the mouth of Licking river, on 
the third day of January, 1790. Two small, hewed-log houses had been 
erected, and several cabins. General Harmar was employed in building 
Fort Washington, and commanded Strong's, Pratt's, Kearsey's, and 
Kingsbury's companies of infantry, and Ford's artillery. A few days 
after this Governor St. Clair appointed officers, civil and military, for 
the Miami country. His proclamation, erecting the county of Hamil- 
ton, bears date January 2,* 1790, on the day of his arrival. Mr. Tap- 
pan [Tapping], who came down with us, and who remained only a 
short time, and William McMillan, esq., were appointed justices of the 
peace for this town, of which the governor altered the name from Lo- 
santiville to Cincinnati. 

Mr. Van Cleve served in the quartermaster's depart- 

* It was not issued, however, until the fourth. 



ment in St. Clair's unfortunate campaign; but, contrary 
to the custom of quartermasters' employes, fought bravely 
in the action, and got away with much difficulty, though 
unharmed. The next spring he was sent by Colonel 
Wilkinson, on horseback, as an express to the seat of 
government at Philadelphia by way of Lexington and 
"the Crab Orchard," reckoned in his instructions as "the 
most direct route to Philadelphia," whence he brought 
dispatches from General Knox, Secretary of War, to 
General Wayne, then at Pittsburgh. He was at Dayton 
in November, 1795, when the place was laid off by Colo- 
nel Ludlow, and drew town lots for himself and several 
others in a lottery held by the proprietors, engaging to 
move thither the next spring, which he did, reaching there 
with several other persons, including two families, in a 
large pirogue from Cincinnati. He says in his diary: "I 
raised a good crop of corn this year. In the meantime 
flour cost me nine dollars a barrel, and corn meal a dol- 
lar a bushel in Cincinnati, and the transportation to Day- 
ton was two dollars and a half per hundred weight." In 
April, 1797, he removed to Little Beaver creek, seven 
miles from Dayton. In 1801 he was appointed to take 
returns of all taxable property in Dayton township, which 
then included a large tract, as elsewhere noted. In the 
War of 1812-15, he commanded a company of riflemen, 
and received orders direct from Governor Meigs, May 26, 
1812, to march to the frontiers west of the Miamis, and 
assist the frontier inhabitants in erecting block-houses 
and otherwise preparing for their defense. He never re- 
turned to reside in Cincinnati. 

I On St. Patrick's day of this year, March 17th, by a tra- 
oitien generally received, the first white child was born here 
— William Moody, son of a baker from Marietta — in a 
cabin on the southwest corner of Fourth and Main streets. J 
He is so considered by Mr. Julius Dexter, secretary of the 
Historical society, in his introductory note to King's 
Pocket-book of Cincinnati; and when he was sergeant- 
at-arms to the city council, he was always mentioned in 
the city reports and the Directory as "the first white 
child born in Cincinnati." He died in the early spring of 
1879, shortly after passing his eighty-ninth year, and was 
made the subject of the following remarks in the mayor's 
message of that year: 

Within a few days has died, on Barr street, William Moody, who, as 
extraordinary as it may appear, was generally accredited with being the 
first white child born in this city. Mr. Moody was born in a log cabin 
which stood not far from the corner of Fourth and Main streets. Cin- 
cinnati, or Los-anti-ville, as it was* then called, consisted of a few log 
cabins mostly located south of Third street, and had a population of 
less than two hundred people, the soldiers stationed in Fort Washington 
included; yet this child grew to manhood and lived long enough to see 
Cincinnati become the Queen City of the West, teeming with an active, 
energetic, thrifty population of over three hundred thousand people. 
How hard it is to realize the fact that such wonderful, marvelous 
changes could take place within the lifetime of a single citizen. 

Mr. Moody did not wear the honor unchallenged, 
however. Claims have been put forward in behalf of 
another, of whom, in a public address, after remarking 
that the infant village, in its first year, began to be a vil- 
lage of infants, Dr. Drake said: "The eldest-born, of a 
broad and brilliant succession, was David Cummins, 
whose name is appropriately perpetuated in our little 

neighbor Cumminsville, the site of which was then a 
sugar-tree wood, with groves of papaw and spice-wood 
bushes." He was born in a log cabin, in front of the 
present site of the Burnet house; but at what date we 
know not. He is probably the same one who is men- 
tioned in Timothy Flint's Indian Wars of the West as 
John Cummins, and as the first white born here. It is 
also claimed in Nelson's Suburban Homes, published in 
1873, that the first child born of white parents here was 
she who became Mrs. Kennedy, aunt of Mrs. Dunn of 
Madisonville, and daughter of Samuel Kitchell. Judge 
Carter, too, in his late book on the Old Court House, in 
a paragraph devoted to Major Daniel Gano, so long clerk 
of the courts here, avers that "he was, I believe, among 
the first white children, if not the very first white child, 
born in the city of Cincinnati." It is not probable the 
person lives who can definitely decide this knotty ques- 
tion of precedence. 

The first marriage ceremonies in Cincinnati were per- 
formed this year by 'Squire William McMillan. He 
united two couples in 1790, and several more in 1791. 
His first marriages were Daniel Shoemaker and Miss Elsy 
Ross (called Alice Ross in Flint's book), Darius C. Or- 
cutt and Miss Sally McHenry. The next wedded couple 
were Peter Cox and Miss Francis McHenry. Mr. Cox 
was killed soon after by the Indians. The records of 
the general court of quarter sessions of the peace, to 
which transactions of such grave importance to the State 
were then required to be reported, do not exhibit these 
unions, but do set out the weddings of Benjamin Orcutt 
and Ruth Reynolds, of Columbia, by Judge McMillan, 
March. 17, 1790; and of Joseph Kelly, of Cincinnati, 
and Keziah Blackford, of Columbia, April 22d, by 
'Squire John S. Gano; besides two Columbia couples 
wedded through the agency of the latter. It was a very 
hopeful beginning for Hymen in the little hamlet. 

On the Fourth of July, a national salute of thirteen 
guns was fired from the fort, and there was a special mili- 
tary parade in honor of the day. 

In September came Samuel Dick, his wife and two 
small children, from Washington county, Pennsylvania. 
He was one of the party that marched to relieve Dun- 
lap's station the next January, when beleaguered by the 
Indians. He purchased the lot at the northeast corner 
of Front and Walnut, and built himself a residence upon 
it. He also bought other lots and various property, 
opened a grocery, engaged afterwards in forwarding sup- 
plies to Fort Hamilton and other forts in the interior, 
and also kept a tavern in his house. He did not, how- 
ever, become a permanent resident, but in 1801 removed 
to Indian Creek, Butler county, where he died August 
4, 1846. 

In October, from Stony Hill, New Jersey, came Eze- 
kiel Sayre and family — four sons and two daughters — 
one of whom, Huldah, afterwards became the wife of the 
esteemed Colonel John S. Wallace, and survived until 
November 29, 1850, being at the time of her death the 
oldest continuous resident of Cincinnati. Mr. Sayre ul- 
timately removed to Reading, in this county. He was 
the father of Major Pierson Sayre, a soldier of the Revo- 



lution, who removed from Pennsylvania to Butler county 
in 1809, and presently to Cincinnati, where he suc- 
ceeded Isaac Anderson in keeping the "Green Tree'' 
inn. He did not remain long, however, but returned to 
Butler county, where he became sheriff and filled other 
offices, living to a great age. He died about April 4, 
1852. Benjamin, another son of Ezekiel Sayre, became 
sheriff of Warren county. 

The same month Colonel John Riddle came also from 
New Jersey. He worked at his trade of blacksmith for 
a few years, and earned enough, mainly by shoeing 
horses for the garrison at Fort Washington, to buy from 
Judge Symmes, at sixty-seven cents an acre, a section of 
land then two miles northwest o*' the village, but now 
embraced in the city. ne corner of his tract was near 
the site of the Brighton House. Here he settled in 1793, 
and lived the remainder of his years in the same house, 
surviving until June 17, 1847. 

C About forty families in all were added to the popula- 
tion this year, and about the same number of dwellings, 
among which were two frame housesTj There were now 
in the village two blacksmiths, two carpenters, one shoe- 
maker, one tailor, and one mason. The progress of the 
place alarmed the great Miami Purchaser at his un- 
promising home down the river, and he wrote in a let- 
ter of November 4, 1790: 

The advantage is prodigious which this town is gaining over North 
Bend. Upwards of forty framed and hewed log two-story houses have 
been and are building since last spring. One builder sets an example 
for another, and the place already assumes the appearance of a town of 
some respectability. The inhabitants have doubled within nine months 

This progress, however, was not unalloyed with sor- 
row and loss. The Indian depredations were fearful, and 
cost the infant Cincinnati fifteen to twenty lives. 

Judge Symmes this year laid out an addition of town 
lots on the fractional section twelve, next east of the en- 
tire section eighteen, upon which Cincinnati, in part, was 
originally laid out.^JThe streets through them on this, 
the east side of Broadway, were but sixty feet wide, some 
diverging from a north and south line forty-four degrees, 
and the streets intersecting these running east and west 
on lines parallel with the general course of the river. 

The directory of 1819 follows its summary of the simple 
statistics of this year in the little settlement in the woods, 
opposite the Licking, with this interesting paragraph : 

About twenty acres in different parts of the town were planted with 
corn. The corn, when ripe, was ground in hand-mills. Flour, bacon, 
and other provisions, were chiefly imported. Some of the inhabitants 
brought with them a few light articles of household furniture, but many 
were mostly destitute. Tables were made of planks, and the want 
of chairs was supplied with blocks; the dishes were wooden bowls and 
trenchers. The men wore hunting-shirts of linen and linsey-woolsey, 
and round them a belt, in which were inserted a tomahawk and scalping- 
knife. Their moccasins, leggings, and pantaloons were made of deer 
skins. The women wore linsey-woolsey, manufactured by themselves. 
The greatest friendship and cordiality existed among the inhabitants, 
and a strong zeal for each other's safety and welfare. 


The Rev. Oliver M. Spencer, in the little book on his 
Indian captivity, thus describes the village as he saw it 
on his first visit, soon after the advent of his father and 
family at Columbia : 

About the twenty-second of February, 1791, when I first saw it, it 
contained not more than forty dwellings, all log cabins, and not exceed- 
ing two hundred and fifty inhabitants. In the southeastern part of the 
town, near the site of his present dwelling, stood the cabin of Mr. D. 
E. Wade, in the midst of the forest trees, and just below, on the first 
bank, between the mouth of Deer creek and Lawrence street, were 
scattered among the trees four or five more cabins. Between Eastern 
row (a narrow street now enlarged into Broadway) and Main street, on 
Front and Columbia streets, there were about twenty log houses; and 
on Sycamore and Main, principally on the second bank or hill, as it was 
called, there were scattered about fifteen cabins more. At the foot of 
this bank, extending across Broadway and Main streets, were large 
ponds, on which, as lately as the winter of 1798, I have seen boys skat- 
ing. All the ground from the foot of the second bank to the river be- 
tween Lawrence street and Broadway, and appropriated to the fort, 
was an open space on which, although no trees were left standing, most 
of their large trunks were still lying. 

His description of Fort Washington, omitted here, 
will be found in our chapter on that work. 

At this time, says another writer, there was but one 
frame dwelling in Cincinnati, which belonged to Israel 
Ludlow, and stood at the lower end of Main street. 
The room in front was occupied as a store. Matthew 
Winton kept tavern on Front street, nearly opposite to 
David E. Wade, rather to the west. Ezekiel Sayre was 
exactly opposite Wade. John Barth kept the first store 
in Cincinnati. This was on the site of the present Cin- 
cinnati hotel, and was a hipped-roof frame house. A 
German named Becket had a dram-shop opposite Plum 
street, between Front street and the river bank. John S. 
Wallace resided on Front street, below Race. Joel Wil- 
liams kept tavern at Latham's corner. 

The twenty-second of February is celebrated in grand 
style this year by officers at the fort, in salutes from the 
cannon, the discharge of rockets and other firearms, and 
a ball in the evening, which was attended by at least a 
dozen ladies from the village and Columbia. 

In November the fort had a noteworthy arrival in the 
person of one William Henry Harrison, a young medical 
student from Virginia, who had been studying in Phila- 
delphia, but had decided to enter the army, and secured 
a humble appointment as ensign in the Sixteenth United 
States infantry. He was but a mere stripling, not yet 
nineteen years of age; and was at first coldly received 
by his fellow-officers, to whom he was a total stranger, 
and who had recommended another to the place he had 
obtained. He won his way in all good time, however. 
The next year he was promoted to lieutenant, in the 
spring of 1793 became an aid on the staff of General 
Wayne, and was made a captain in 1794, after the bat- 
tle of the Fallen Timbers. He will appear in this history 

f Legal temperance gets its first record in Cincinnati 
this year. On the fourth of July Joseph Saffin receipted 
to Squire McMillan, justice of the peace, for sixteen dol- 
lars, received by his honor, in full of a fine imposed by 
him upon Reuben Read, of Cincinnati, on the informa- 
tion of Saffin, who thereby became entitled to it, upon 
the charge of "selling spirituous liquors contrary to an 
act of the Terrkory of the United States, Northwest of 
the river Ohio."\ 

(jThis was thtfyear of St Clair's disastrous defeat ; and 
the savages, before and after that affair, committed many 



depredations in and about the village. ) Mr. Benjamin 
Van Cleve, who was a young man here that year, has 
left the following notes in his memoranda: 

The Indians had now become so daring as to skulk through the 
streets at night and through the gardens around Fort Washington, 
Besides many hairbreadth escapes, we had news daily of persons killed 
on the Little Miami or on the Great Miami, or between the settlements. 
One morning a few persons started in a pirogue to go to Columbia, and 
the Indians killed most of them a little above the mouth of Deer creek, 
within hearing of the town. David Clayton, one of the killed, was one 
of our family.* 

On the twenty-first of May, 1791, the Indians fired on my father, 
when he was at work on his out-lot in Cincinnati, and took prisoner Jo- 
seph Cutter, within a few yards of him. The alarm was given by hal- 
looing from lot to lot until it reached town. I had just arrived from 
Leach's [Leitch's] station. The men in town were running to the pub- 
lic ground, and I there met with one who saw the Indians firing on my 
father. I asked if any would proceed with me, and pushed on with a 
few young men without halting. We, however, met my father after 
running a short distance, and got to the ground soon after the Indians 
had secured Cutter. While we were finding the trail of the Indians on 
their retreat, perhaps fifty persons had arrived, most of whom joined in 
the pursuit. But by the time we had gained the top of the river hills 
we had only eight. Cutter had lost one of his shoes, so that we could 
frequently distinguish his track in crossing water courses, and we found 
there was an equal number of Indians. We were stripped, and a 
young dog belonging to me led us on the trace, and generally kept 
about a hundred yards ahead. We kept them on the full run until 
dark, thinking we sometimes discovered the shaking of the bushes. We 
came back to Cincinnati that night, and they only went two miles fur- 
ther from where our pursuit ceased. The next day they were pursued 
again, but not overtaken. 

On the first day of June my father was killed by them. He was 
stabbed in five places, and scalped. Two men that were at the out-lot 
with him when the Indians showed themselves, ran before him towards 
the town. He passed them at about three hundred yards, the Indians 
being in pursuit behind ; but another, as it was supposed, had con- 
cealed himself in the brush of a fallen tree-top between them and the 
town. As my father was passing it, a naked Indian sprang upon him. 
My father was seen to throw him ; but at this time the Indian was 
plunging his knife into his heart. He took a small scalp off and ran. 
The men behind came up immediately ; but my father was already dead. 

f There was not much increase in the population of 
Cincinnati this year — about half of the male adult pop- 
ulation was out in the army; and many were killed in 
conflicts with the Indians, while the successive defeats of 
Harmar and St. Clair had discouraged immigration, and 
frightened some of the settlers away from "the Miami 
slaughter-house," a number going over into Kentucky. 
No new manufactures were started in the place, except a 
horse-mill for grinding corn/\ It stood below Fourth 
street, near Main, and the Presbyterians sometimes held 
their meetings in it, when they could not/neet in the 
open air, their house not yet being built. (/Prices were 
high — flour ten dollars per barrel, salt eight, and town 
property was still very low. Lot thirteen, on the original 
town-plat, was sold this year to Major Ferguson for eleven 
dollars. It comprised one hundred feet on Broadway by 
two hundred on Fourth, at the southwest corner of these 

Theapparently slight tenures by which property now 
of enormous value was held by some of its early posses- 
sors — tenures becoming strong enough, however, when 
confirmed by twenty-one years' undisputed possession — 
are illustrated hy the following exceedingly brief warranty- 
deed and assignment. It will be observed that the as- 
signment made by Mr. Cook does not even name the as- 

*This did not occur until the next year. 

signee, and that the year of date is not given in the lead- 
ing instrument. The property thus simply conveyed 
comprises one hundred feet by two hundred on Sycamore 
street between Third and Fourth, and is now, of course, 
exceedingly valuable: 

Know all men by these presents that I, Jonathan Fitts, do hereby 
bind myself, my heirs, etc. , to hold and defend to Peyton Cook my right, 
title, and claim to a town lot in Cincinnati, viz: No. 61. The right of 
said lot to said Fitts have by these presents vested in said Cook, for 
value received, this 28th August. 

Test. John Vance. Jonathan Fitts. 


I do hereby assign my right and title to the within said lot for value 
received, as witness my hand and seal this 25th Jan., 1791. 

Testas, B. Brown. Peyton Cook. 


On the twelfth of February occurred the first serious 
affray which disgraced the town. Lieutenant Thomas 
Pastern, of the garrison, had a quarrel with Bartle, the 
storekeeper, whose place was where the old Spencer 
house now stands, and beat him severely. Bartle 
prosecuted his assailant; and his attorney, one Blan- 
chard, was so severe upon the officer and showed 
him up in such a contemptible character that his ire 
was excited anew, and he brought a sergeant and thirty 
soldiers from the fort to whip the lawyer and his defend- 
ers. An affray of some magnitude was the result. It 
occurred on Main street, in and about the office of the 
justice, William McMillan. The soldiers were met by 
about eighteen citizens and a number of the militia, the 
squire and Colonel John Riddle being prominent in the 
melee, and were driven away after a sharp contest. The 
affair caused great excitement in the village and at the 
fort. General Wilkinson, then commandant, reduced 
the sergeant to the ranks, and issued a general order 
deprecating the unhappy occurrence. The lieutenant 
was tried at the next quarter-sessions, and fined three 
dollars. But for his orders to the soldiers to make the 
attack, they would have been included in the punishment 
inflicted by Williamson. 

/This year is rather celebrated for "first things." The 
First Presbyterian church, or church of any kind here 
was put up, as will be more fully related hereafter. The 

first execution under sentence of the courts occurred 

that of James Mays, for murder, executed by Sheriff 
John Ludlow. The first school was opened, with thirty 
pupils. The first ferry between Cincinnati and Newport 
was opened, by Captain Robert Benham, whose-lk#nse 
XTXTPart-t- The first great flood since the settlement 
began occurred, flooding the entire Bottom to the average 
depth of five feet, and drowning out many of the inhabi- 
tants. \ The Fourth of July was celebrated by thirteen 
rounds from the cannon of the fort in the morning and 
again at noon; the troops were paraded and had a special 
drill; there wereadinner and toasts, witrfmore cannon- 
firing; and at night a brilliant exhibition of fireworks and 

(^Between forty and fifty immigrants arrived in Cincin- 
nati this year, and several-ignore cabins, with three or four 
frame houses, were put up.) In this year Mr. James Fer- 
guson, who had been out in Harmar's campaign as a vol- 

4 6 


unteer/lopened a store on the corner of Third and Syca- 
more streets, for general merchandizing. Nearly all 
kinds of goods were then procured from Philadelphia. 
They were sent for or gone for by the merchant in per- 
son over the only road to that city which then existed 
to Cincinnati, by way of Lexington, Danville, and Crab 
Orchard to Cumberland Gap, thence northwest through 
Abingdon, Stanton, Winchester, and Baltimore, and 
were received by wagons to Brownsville and thence by 
the river to Cincinnati; taking a month or little less for 
each way, going and returning. Four to five months 
were usually required for the procurement of stocks from 

James Smith, or "Sheriff Smith," as he was commonly 
known, came this year from Cumberland county, Penn- 
sylvania, with James Findlay, and continued the associa- 
tion with him by forming the well-known pioneer mer- 
cantile firm of Smith & Findlay, which was maintained 
until about 1802. Their store was in the old quarter, 
on Front street, near the foot of Broadway. Mr. Smith 
was appointed sheriff some years after his arrival, and 
held the office until the State was formed, when he was 
elected to it by the people, and held this important post 
in all about eight years. He was also, for a part of this 
time, collector of taxes in the county, and of the Fed- 
eral revenues for the Northwest Territory. He further 
acted as Governor St. Clair's private secretary, was cap- 
tain of the first company of light infantry formed in Cin- 
cinnati, and a paymaster in the War of 1812-15, and was 
in Fort Meigs during the siege by the British and In- 
dians. McBride's Pioneer Biography says : "Indeed, he 
was among the foremost of the early settlers as respects 
character, influence, and capacity for business, and pos- 
sessed in a large degree that public confidence most 
highly prized by gentlemen, the trust reposed in an hon- 
est man." He removed from Cincinnati in 1805, to a 
farm near Hamilton, and died there in 1834. He was 
the father of the Hon. Charles Killgore Smith, who was 
born here February 15, 1799, and lived a highly distin- 
guished career in Butler county and Minnesota Territory, 
of which he was secretary, and for some months acting 

Mr. Findlay was a native of Pennsylvania, and a man 
of unusual strength of mind and character. After the 
land office was established here in i8or, he was ap- 
pointed receiver, and served for many years, until his 
resignation. He was made, a few years after the date 
given, major general commanding the first division of 
Ohio militia, but served as colonel of one of the Buck- 
eye regiments in the War of 181 2, and was at Hull's 
surrender. In 1825 he was elected to Congress and re- 
mained in the House until 1833. He also held accept- 
ably a number of minor offices under the State and gen- 
eral Governments. 

Mr. Asa Holcomb, a well-known citizen of the early day, 
was among the arrivals of this year; also, Captain Spencer. 


In March came another freshet, inundating the whole 
plain below the hill. Another disaster fell by and by, in 

a terrible visitation of the small-pox, after the encamp- 
ment of Wayne's army at Hobson's Choice and its de- 
parture for the north. Nearly one-third of the citizens 1 
and the soldiers left in the garrison died of the scourge^/ 

One of the early traders in Cincinnati — who had, how- 
ever, but a transient residence here — was Matthew Hues- 
ton, who landed on the seventeenth of April, in this year. 
He was a Virginia tanner, and had accumulated a small 
property, which he invested in wares, principally leather 
goods, for a trading voyage down the Ohio. He left part 
of them to be sold in Cincinnati, and pushed on to the 
falls with the rest. Returning here shortly, he sold out 
what stock he had left, about three hundred dollars, 
worth, to a ]Mr. McCrea, who cleared out a few days 
after, carrying all the goods with him, and leaving Mr. 
Hueston without either goods or the money for them. 
Hueston took work for a few weeks in the tannery after- 
ward Jesse Hunt's, and then engaged with Robert and 
William McClellan, pack-horse masters for Wayne's army, 
to assist in conducting a brigade of pack-horses to Fort 
Jefferson. He subsequently served as commissary in 
the army, resigning in 1795 and for a year pursuing the 
business of a sutler and general trader. He had stores 
at Greenville and Cincinnati, the one here being in 
charge of Mr. John Sayre, with whom he had formed a 
partnership. The business was very lucrative, one to two 
hundred per cent, profit being realized on many articles. 
Mr. Hueston's property soon amounted to twelve or fif- 
teen thousand dollars, which was swept away, as he 
alleged, by the misconduct of Sayre, who squandered 
the means of the firm by intemperance and gambling , 
and finally sold the remaining stock and ran away, leav- 
ing Hueston to pay the partnership debts. This he did, 
so far as he was able, and began the world anew by driv- 
ing a large herd of cattle through the wilderness to 
Detroit, at two dollars and fifty cents a head. He got all 
through safely, and returned to Cincinnati within forty 
days. Other gains here enabled him to pay the remain- 
ing debts of Hueston & Sayre, and to buy a two hundred 
acre tract of land, near Hamilton, upon which he settled 
and kept a tavern for several years. He died at his later 
residence on Four Mile creek, Butler county, April 16, 

In the same month arrived David McCash, a Scotch- 
man from Mason county, Kentucky. He bought a 
settler's right to a log-cabin on Walnut, near Third street, 
and also an out-lot, paying four dollars for the latter. It 
was of the usual size, four acres, and covered the ground 
where Greenwood's foundry and the Bavarian brewery 
afterwards stood. His oldest sonlWilliam, contrived a 
rude water-cart of two poles, with a cross-piece in the 
middle, the upper ends for shafts^, and pegs upon the 
lower parts to keep the barrel on. \With this apparatus he 
furnished the first water-supply of the city of Cincinnati. 
Mr. McCash also made a wheeled cart, which was a 
curiosity, even in those days, the wheels being of wood, 
about two and a half feet in diameter and six inches 
thick. They were fastened to an axle, which revolved in 
large staples. This was the first of Cincinnati drays. :| 

On the ninth of November appeared the first news'pa- 



per in the city — the Centinel of the Northwest Territory, 
edited and published by William Maxwell. The next 
month Mr. Maxwell was made postmaster for the office]) 
established here December 12th, and opened the office 
on the west side of Sycamore, near the river bank. 

February 7th, came the well-known Colonel John 
Johnston, who was forty years in the service of the Gov- 
ernment as Indian agent, etc. He survived until the 
winter of 1 860-1, dying then at the age of eighty-six. 
Griffin Yeatman came June 20th. He was the father of 
Thomas H. Yeatman, who was born here July 8, 1805. 

The first jail was built early this year, on Water street, 
just west of Main. y<7 

Lot seventy-sevenl bne hundred feet on Front by two 
hundred on Main street, bought in 1789 for two dollars, 
was tVus year offered by Colonel Gibson for one hundred 
dollars:^ It was accounted worth two hundred thousand 
dollars in 1840, and is of course worth much more now. 



So late as this year, the daring and successful Cincin- 
nati hunter, John S. Wallace, killed bears and an elk on 
the Kentucky side. In those days the breasts of wild 
turkeys were salted, smoked and chipped up for the table 
like dried beef. 

On the twenty-second of February the only celebration 
of the day seems to have been the starting of the first 
through mail for Pittsburgh, in a canoe. /On the first of 
August the first line of keel-boats was established between 
Marietta and Cincinnati. On the twenty-seventh of 
December the first Masonic lodge here — Nova Caesarea 
Harmony, No. 2 — was organized. J On the twenty-seventh 
of May dangerous fires in the woqds were threatening the 
town, and the citizens had hard work to save their dwell- 
ings and clearings. 

In the spring of this year a detachment of Kentucky 
volunteers, accompanied by about a hundred friendly 
Indians, encamped on Deer creek, on their route to join 
Wayne's army. The savages had with them a young 
woman who had been captured in Western Pennsylvania, 
and was supposed to have relatives in this place. It 
proved not to be so; but a man from near Pittsburgh, who 
happened to be here, knew her, and gave the Indians a 
barrel of whiskey as a ransom for her. The exchange 
was effected at a tavern on Broadway, near Bartle's store, 
and the redskins were soon engaged in a grand drunken 
frolic. The next day they declared themselves dissatis- 
fied with the trade, and threatened to take the girl again 
by force and arms. They were resisted peaceably, but 
firmly and successfully, by the -friends among whom she 
had taken refuge, principally Irishmen. A short time 
afterwards, about fifty Indians came surging down Broad- 
way, and met the crowd of whites opposite Bartle's store. 
They were assailed by a shower of loose rocks, followed 
by an attack with shillelahs, which drove them up the hill. 
In the thick of this fight was Isaac Anderson, a leading 
citizen, who had been taken by the Indians in Lowry's de- 
feat, and had a mortal grudge against the race. Captain 
Prince sent out a force from the garrison to quell the 
disturbance; but it was over before the soldiers arrived. 

Thenceforth the cabins on the east side of Broadway, 
along the front of which the tide of conflict poured, were 
known as Battle row, until 1810, when they were pulled 
down. The girl was restored to her family as soon as 

At this time a large tract of out-lots, with some in-lots, 
extending from about Sixth street to the present Court, 
and from Main street west to the section line, about one 
hundred acres in all, were enclosed in a Virginia rail 
fence, with no building whatever upon the entire piece 
except a small office for Thomas Gowdy, the first lawyer 
in the place, which was not occupied by him, as being 
too far out of town. In May one of the lot owners, 
while burning brush, set fire to the whole clearing, burn- 
ing the deadened timber and also nearly all the rails of 
the fence, and threatening closely Gowdy's office. This 
is reckoned the first fire in Cincinnati. 

A distinguished addition to local business and society 
was made this year, in the advent of Francis Menessier, 
formerly a prominent Parisian jurist and member of the 
French parliament. He had been banished from France 
in 1789, in the troubles that preceded the revolution, 
and joined the Gallipolis colony, whence he came to 
Cincinnati, where he became a pastry baker and inn- 
keeper on the southeast corner of Main and Third streets, 
where the Life and Trust company's building afterwards 

Hezekiah Flint, one of the original forty-nine who set- 
tled Marietta, came to Cincinnati April 7, 1794, arifl 
spent the rest of his life here. He bought a lot one 
hundred by two hundred feet on Walnut, below Fourth, 
of James Lyon, for one hundred and fifty dollars. Three 
years thereafter he sold the same sized lot on the south- 
east corner of Fourth and Walnut for a stallion worth 
four hundred dollars. From 1795 to 1800 he cultivated 
the square between Fourth, Fifth, Walnut and Vine, op- 
posite the college building, as a cornfield. 

Daniel Gano and Jonathan Lyon were also among the 
prominent arrivals of the year. 


The town this year contained about five hundred in- 
habitants, and increased but two hundred and fifty from 
this time until 1800. It is described at the close of the 
year as a small village of log cabins, with about fifteen 
rough, unfinished frame buildings, some of them with 
stone chimneys. More statistical statements say there 
were then here ninety-five log cabins and ten frames. 
A new log jail had been put up at the corner of Walnut 
and Sixth streets. Not a brick house was yet to be seen 
here, and it is said that none was put up until 1806, 
when the St. Clair dwelling, still standing on St. Clair 
alley, between Seventh and Eighth, was erected with 
brick brought from Pittsburgh. A frame school-house 
had been put up, which, with the new Presbyterian 
church and the new log jail, constituted the public build- 
ings. The inhabitants were subjected, every summer 
and fall, to agues and intermittent fevers from the malaria 
of the swamp still existing at the foot of the upper level, 
about Main and Sycamore streets. The intersection of 



Main and Fifth streets was still a shallow frog-pond, 
full of alder bushes, and crossed by a rude causeway of 
logs. It remained for a number of years longer. 

The officers at the fort, according to Judge Burnet, 
who came early the next year, were much given to 
heavy drinking; and he was afterwards able to recall, of 
all the officers here under Wayne and St. Clair, only 
Harrison, Ford, Clark, Strong, Shomberg, and a very 
few others, who were not habitual tipplers. They of 
course greatly affected the tone of society; and Judge 
Burnet left on record the statement that, of the lawyers 
in first practice with him here, nine in number, all ex- 
cepting his brother died of intemperance. 

Benjamin Perlee, a Jerseyman, and Jonah Martin 
were among the immigrants of this year whose names 
and dates of arrival have been, preserved. In the winter 
Isaac Anderson came, with his family. He had been here 
long before, having passed this point with Colonel Laugh- 
ery's force, in which he was a lieutenant, in T781, on the 
way to their terrible defeat ten miles below the mouth 
of the Great Miami, in which every man of the expedi- 
tion was killed or taken prisoner by the Indians. Ander- 
son was carried to Canada, but escaped in a remarkable, 
manner, and reached his home after many wanderings. 
He is the one who described Cincinnati, as he saw it up- 
on arrival, as a small village of log cabins, including 
about fifty rough, unfinished frame houses, with stone 
chimneys. There was not a brick, he said, in the place. 
He bought a lot near the northeast corner of Front and 
Walnut streets, on which there was already a cabin. He 
afterwards built a large house on the lot, in which he 
kept a store and tavern, the latter familiarly known to the 
old settlers as " the Green Tree." He also engaged in 
brick-making, and in the business of transporting emi- 
grants and freight into the interior. In i8or, when the 
public lands west of the Great Miami came into market, 
he bought a section above the mouth of Indian creek in 
Butler county, to which he removed about ten years 
later, and there spent the rest of his life. He lived to 
an advanced age, dying December 18, 1839, in his eighty- 
second year. 


Jacob Burnet came with his brother, George W. Burnet. 
Another brother, Isaac G. Bui net, came later, and was 
for many years editor of Liberty Hall — was also mayor 
of the city. David G. Burnet was still another brother 
who came early. It is a famous family in the annals of 
Cincinnati. All were fine scholars, well read in literature, 
and otherwise liberally educated. George died here after 
a few years' residence. David emigrated to Texas and 
rose to distinction, becoming the first president of 
the Texan Republic. Jacob was then a young man 
fresh from his professional studies; but soon achieved 
success at the bar, and early rose to important official 
stations, becoming finally a senator of the United States 
and judge of the State supreme court. Soon after his 
lamented death Mrs. Sigourney, the poetess, wrote of him, 
in Past Meridian: 

The sunbeams of usefulness have sometimes lingered to a late period on 
the heads of those who had taken part in the pioneer hardships of our 

new settlements. I think of one recently deceased at the age of eighty- 
five— Judge Burnet — who was numbered among the founders of Ohio, 
the State which sprang from its cradle with the vigor of a giant. 
His health had been originally feeble; but the endurance of hardship, 
and, what is still more remarkable, the access of years, confirmed it. 
At more than fourscore he moved through the streets with as erect a 
form, an eye as intensely bright, and colloquial powers as free and fas- 
cinating as at thirty. When, full of knowledge and benevolence, and 
with an unimpaired intellect, he passed away, it was felt that not only 
one of the fathers of a young land had fallen, but that one of the 
bright and beautiful lights of society had been extinguished. 

Judge Burnet remarked of the town, when he arrived, 
that it had made but little progress, either in population 
or importance, though it contained a larger number of 
inhabitants than any other American village in the ter- 
ritory, excepting Marietta; and if the soldiers and others 
attached to the army were included in the population, it 
would much exceed that of the older town. He notes 
his share in the severe sickness of August, 1796, when he 
lay in a room in Yeatman's tavern, which was at the 
same time occupied by fifteen or sixteen other persons, 
all sick. 

Samuel Stitt, an Irishman from County Down, came in 
May and settled on the river bank, on the spot afterwards 
.occupied by Thirkield & Company's and Shoenberger 
& Company's works. He became purchaser of this lot, 
sixty by one hundred, with a double frame house there- 
on, in 1800, for one thousand two hundred dollars. 
Thirty-three years subsequently he rented the premises 
on a perpetual lease, for the same sum per year. Before 
Stitt's purchase it had been bought of Scott Traverse by 
Colonel Riddle, 1790, for s^xty-six dollars and sixty- 
seven cents. Mr. Stitt saidfthere was not even a horse- 
path then on Main street, but a very steep wagon road 
went up Sycamore, and a cow-path up Broadway. The 
timber on the town plat had been all cut down. There 
were no houses between Front and Second streets, except 
a few one-story frames, as Gibson's store, at the corner 
of Main and Front, and Ludlow's house on the opposite 
corner, ■w fai e h — was — rerrted— te — Q~. — &— Bales; — Abov e 
Re s w'6 plan ' Ci u r g e Guui er kept' a ' la v em . William 
Ramsey had a store on the corner of the alley below 
Main, wfaaFe-ferrgtr a T & Taylui wtt fe-roTJg af t er. Isaac 
Anderson arid Samuel Dick owned and occupied lots 
west of Front as far as Walnut. William McCann kept 
a tavern at "Liverpool's corner," and Freeman, the 
printer, resided between Walnut and Vine. On a pas- 
ture lot on Deer creek, a little north of Fox's saw-mill, 
was a large hollow sycamore, which was used as a shel- 
ter or dwelling by a woman who did washing for the gar- 
rison. A broken limb, also hollow, served for a chim-- 
ney. General Wilkinson, commandant at the fort, had 
a handsome carriage and pair, the only turnout of the 
kind in the place^ 

Colonel Taylor, the venerable Newport citizen, still 
living, says that James Ferguson, who had "been a ser- 
geant in Wayne's army, was also a merchant here this 

J. W. Browne had a store where Manser's iron estab- 
lishment was afterwards, and William and Michael Jones 
had a store across the alley; Duffy had the store next 
east, and Martin Baum was said to be already here, and 


■ ■■ ■ 





in business at Shoenberger & Company's subsequent 
stand. Major Zeigler had a store adjoining Yeatman's 
tavern, on the corner of Front and Sycamore. 

Governor St. Clair this year bought sixty acres in and 
adjoining the town for fifty dollars an acre, later measured 
from the canal to Mrs. Mener's line, and from Main to 
Plum streets. The half of lot seventy-six, on Front, 
near Main, sold on the thirtieth of September for four 
dollars. The corner of Main and Fifth, the old drug 
store corner, was offered for two hundred and fifty dollars. 
Menessier bought the Trust company lot on Main and 
Third, one hundred by three hundred, for an old saddle, 
hardly worth ten dollars. Another lot at the corner of 
Main and Lower Market, one hundred by two hundred, 
was offered at two hundred dollars, payable in carpen- 
ters' work. Salt was six to seven dollars per barrel ; 
powder one to one dollar and a half per pound ; wheat 
seventy-five cents to one dollar a bushel; corn thirty- 
seven and one-half cents; pork fifty to seventy-five cents 
per hundred, and wild turkeys twelve and one-half to fif- 
teen cents a pound. 

Rev. William Burke and Mr. William Saunders were 
also arrivals of this year. In the fall no less a personage 
dropped down upon the young Cincinnati than the cele- 
brated French infidel philosopher, Volney, then on a tour 
of travel and research in this country, the results of which 
were embodied in his famous "View." He had made his 
way through Kentucky on foot, with his wardrobe in an 
oil-cloth under his arm, crossed the river here, and took 
lodgings at Yeatman's. He awakened much curiosity, as 
his fame had preceded him hither, and Governor St. 
Clair, Judge Burnet, and others, tried to ascertain the 
object of his visit, but in vain; he was impenetrable. 
He seems to have made no published record of his visit 
here, except, perhaps, such undistiriguishable remarks 
as may have found their way into his "View" in conse- 

On the twenty-fifth of November, however, arrived a 
man of different stamp — the Hon. Andrew Ellicott, com- 
missioner on behalf of the United States for determining 
the boundary between the Federal domains and those of 
"his most Catholic Majesty in America," with a large 
party. One of their boats had been ruined, in the low 
water then prevailing, by dragging over rocks and shoals; 
and another was procured here. They staid in Cincin- 
nati four days. Mr. Ellicott recorded in his journal: 

Cincinnati was at that time the capital of the Northwestern Territory ; 
it is situated on a fine high bank, and for the time it has been building 
it is a very respectable place. The latitude, by a mean of three good 
observations, is 39° s' 54" north. During our stay we were politely 
treated by Mr. Winthrop Sargent, Secretary of the Government, and 
Canlain Harrison, who commanded at Fort Washington. 

/Another newspaper was started this y tax— Freeman's 
(journal, by Edmund Freeman ; which was maintained 
Uintil 1800. J 

In the early part of March Cincinnati was visited by 
a young Englishman who afterwards attained much dis- 
tinction, writing himself at last "F. R. S., President of 
the Royal Astronomical society." He was Francis Baily, 
whose life was written by Sir John Herschel, and pub- 
lished in 1856, with Baily's Jonrnal of a Tour in the Un- 

settled Parts of North America in 1796 and 1797. We 
extract the following paragraph : 

Cincinnati may contain about three or four hundred houses, mostly 
frame-built. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in some way of bus- 
iness, of which there is a great deal here transacted, the town being (if 
you may so call it) the metropolis of the Northwestern Territory. This 
is the grand depot for the stores which come down for the forts estab- 
lished on the frontiers, and here is also the seat of government for the 
Territory, being the residence of the Attorney-General, Judges, etc. , 
appointed by the President of the United States, for the administration 
of justice. On the second bank there is a block put up with two rave- 
lins; and between the fort and the river, and immediately upon the borders 
of the latter, is the Artificers' Yard, where a number of men are kept con- 
tinually employed in furnishing the army with mechanical necessaries, 
such as tubs, kegs, firearms, etc. , etc. On the second bank, not far from 
the fort, there are the remains of an old fortification, with some mounds 
not far from it. It is of a circular form, and by walking over it I found 
the mean diameter to be three hundred and twelve paces, or seven hun- 
dred and eighty feet, which makes the circumference very near half a 
mile. There are on the ramparts of it the stumps of some oak trees 
lately cut down, which measured two feet eight inches diameter, at 
three feet from the ground. The mounds, which were at but a short 
distance from it, were of the same construction as those I have de- 
scribed at Grave creek. 

The Fourth of July was observed by a dinner at Yeat- 
man's tavern, and a Federal salute from the guns of the 
fort. The observance of Independence day was marked 
by the first of a long series of local casualties occurring 
in this connection. Mrs. Israel Ludlow, in one of her 
graceful letters to her father, thus mentions it : 

Our brilliant Fourth of July celebration was terminated by a sad acci- 
dent. The party opposed to the governor, glowing with all the heroism of 
' ' Seventy-six," mounted a blunderbuss on the bank of the river, and with 
a few hearts of steel made its shores resound, rivalling in their imagina- 
tion the ordnance of the garrison ! Delighted with their success, the 
load was increased in proportion to their enthusiasm ; and when the 
"Western Territory" was toasted, the gun summoned every power 
within it, carried its thunder through the Kentucky hills, and burst in 
pieces ! Major Zeigler, on taking a view of the field reports as follows: 
Wounded, four men — killed, one gun ! 

About the same time the Rev. William Kemper offered 
to sell his place on the Walnut hills, one hundred and 
fifty-four acres, upon which Lane seminary and many 
other valuable buildings now stand, for seven dollars per 

John Mahard came this year. A boy named John 
McLean, of only twelve years, also landed here, but 
.pushed his way through the woods on foot, with blanket 
and provisions on his back, to Warren county, where he 
made his home the rest of his life, coming finally and 
for many years to sign himself a justice of the supreme 
court of the United States. 


The territorial legislature met in Cincinnati this year 
for its first session. Winthrop Sargent, secretary of the 
territory, who had become a well known citizen here, was 
appointed governor of Mississippi Territory, and Captain 
William H. Harrison became secretary in his stead. 

July 4th there was a muster of Captain Smith's and 
other militia, with Daniel Symmes out as lieutenant col- 
onel commanding the battalion. 

John M. Wright, an Irishman from the District of 
Columbia, arrived and became a trader here. He was a 
soldier in the War of 181 2-15. Other arrivals of the 
year were Hugh Moore, Samuel Newell, Ebenezer Pru- 



den, David Kantz, William Legg, and the young lawyer, 
Nicholas Longworth. 

The simplicity of trade, and perhaps the occasional 
scarcity of provisions in the town at this time, are illus- 
trated by an incident related in McBride's Pioneer Biog- 
raphy, of a young man from Massachusetts, named Jere- 
miah Butterfield, who took a voyage in the spring and in 
a flat-boat down the Ohio, and visited Cincinnati, "which 
was then but an inconsiderable village, composed mostly 
of log cabins, with few good brick or frame buildings, 
containing not more than one thousand inhabitants. It 
contained one bakery, at which Mr. Butterfield applied 
for bread to supply the boat's crew; but without success, 
the baker having but three loaves on hand, and these 
engaged by other persons." It seems to have been 
necessary then to engage bread in advance, in order to 
make sure of it. 


. On the twenty-ninth of May a third newspaper, the 
j Western Spy and Hamilton Gazette, was startedpy James 
\Carpenter. In it Griffin Yeatman inserted the following 
unique advertisement: 

Observe this Notice. I have expended too many expenses attending 
my pump, and any FAMILY wishing to receive the benefits thereof for 
the. future may get the same by sending me 25 cents each Monday 

It is said that this was paralleled June 2, 1801, when 
two advertisements appeared in the local papers, offering 
well-water at four dollars per annum to subscribers, pay- 
able quarterly in advance. 

Advertisements also appeared in the Spy of hair pow- 
der and fair-top boots. July 23d, Robert McGennis 
advertises a runaway apprentice, and offers for his recov- 
ery a sixpence worth of cucumbers the next December. 
The times were hard, and dunning advertisements appear 
in many forms, some of them very comical in their terms, 
and some regretting that the English language is not 
strong enough to express the demands of their authors. 

On the eighteenth of June there are rumors of Indian 
hostilities, and considerable alarm is excited for some 
days. On the twenty-fifth of August the governor ad- 
dresses the legislature of the territory, assembled for its 
first session. 

/ Business was now done mainly on Main street below 
f Second, on Front street near the Landrr\g, and on Syca- 
Imore within a short distance of Front. \ Robert Park, 
the first hatter in the place, was at theX:orner of Main 
and Second. In May he advertises hats to exchange for 
country produce; also that he buys furs, and wants an 
apprentice on good terms, preferring one from the coun- 

In June the Spy notes the heat on the twentieth as 
103° above, which was higher than had been known here 
since thermometers came in. On the twenty-first the 
figure was ioo°, an the twenty-second 95", twenty-third 
100°, again, twenty-fourth, 101°. It was a genuine 
"heated term." 

On the Fourth of July there was a fine celebration. Fort 
Washington thundered forth the customary salute. The 
First battalion of the Hamilton county militia paraded at 

their usual mustering place, and went through their evolu- 
tions, loading and firing, etc., in a style to elicit the com- 
pliments of the governor in his subsequent general orders. 
St. Clair, the garrison and militia officers, and many "re- 
spectable citizens" dined under a bower prepared for the 
purpose. Captain Miller's artillery and the martial music 
of the militia furnished ringing responses to the toasts, 
which are said to have been in good spirit and taste. 
Then, says the primitive account, "the gentlemen joined 
a brilliant assembly of ladies at Yeatman's in town." 

The Spy for July 23d contained the following note con- 
cerning a_ well-known citizen of the county: 

Captain E. Kibby, who sometime since, undertook to cut a road from 
Fort Vincennes to this place, returned on Monday reduced to a perfect 
skeleton. He had cut the road seventy miles, when by some means he 
was separated from his men. After hunting them several days without 
success, he steered his course this way. He has undergone great hard- 
ships, and was obliged to subsist on roots, etc. , which he picked up in 
the woods. Thus far report. 

The next number contains the obituary of the Rev. 
Peter Wilson, the first minister who settled in the com- 

Levi McLean appears before the public from time to 
time this year in the multiform capacity of jailer, consta- 
ble, hotel-keeper, butcher, and teacher of vocal music. 

The only name we are able to record, as that of an 
arrival for the year, is that of Aaron Lane, from New Jer- 
sey. He ultimately removed to Springfield township, 
where he died in 1845. 



Within the decade whose annals have just been passed 
in review, fell the birth of Cincinnati township, to which 
was entrusted, for almost twelve years, the government 
of Cincinnati village, which it of course contained. The 
township was created, after Columbia, by the court of 
general quarter sessions of the peace, which then had 
jurisdiction in these matters, in 1791. To the time of 
the erection of these townships, the whole county, which 
contained but a few hundred white inhabitants, was most 
conveniently governed as one municipality. 

The boundaries of the new township were as follows: 
Beginning at a point where the second meridian east of 
the town (Cincinnati) intersects the Ohio; thence down 
that stream about eleven miles to the first meridian east 
of Rapid Run; thence north to the Big Miami; thence 
up that stream to the south line of the military range; 
thence south to the place of beginning. It comprised 
nearly the whole of the present city of Cincinnati, the 
townships of Mill Creek and Springfield, almost the en- 
tire tract of Colerain, Green and Delhi, stopping on the 
north beyond the present dividing line of Hamilton and 
Butler counties. It was a vast township. 

In 1803 the boundaries were changed as follows: 
Commencing at the southeast corner of Miami township, 



on the Ohio river; thence north to the northwest corner 
of section seventeen, in fractional range two, township 
two; thence east nine miles; thence south to the Ohio; 
thence westward along the Ohio to the place of begin- 
ning. These lines enclosed more than half of Delhi 
township; the eastern half of Green, except the three 
northernmost sections; the whole of Mill creek, except 
the northern sections ; and the site of Cincinnati to the 
range line on the east. 

The voters were now instructed to meet at the court 
house and vote for five justices of the peace. The cat- 
tle brand for the township, which the court was required 
to fix by order, was directed, at the time of the original 
formation of the township to be the letter B, A having 
already been assigned to Columbia, and C was assigned 
to the use of Miami township. 

The boundaries of the original great township were of 
course rapidly cut down as the county filled up. Dayton 
and other townships in the present Butler county, then 
in Hamilton, were early set off north of it, beyond the 
northernmost possessions of the Cincinnati municipality. 
Colerain, Springfield, and South Bend townships were 
erected by or during 1795; and when Mill Creek was set 
off, the township, being already bounded, at the period of 
its formation, by Columbia township on the east, was 
shut in to the narrow limits of the fractional surveyed 
township, now bounded by Liberty street on the north; 
the Ohio river, which Liberty intersects a little above 
Washington street, near the southeast corner of Eden 
park, on the east and south ; and on the west by a merid- 
ian not very clearly defined, but probably the range line 
two miles west of Mill Creek, and now the western 
boundary of the city. Most of the time since, it may 
be said, in general terms, that the limits of the township 
have been nearly coterminous with those of the city in 
its several extensions. 


of Cincinnati and Cincinnati township, from 1790 to 
1792, was, as the oldest records show, under the immedi- 
ate eye of the court of quarter-sessions and the supreme 
or territorial court, in one or the other of which sat the 
Honorables John Cleves Symmes, George Turner, Sam- 
uel Parsons, James Varnum, Winthrop Sargent, Govern- 
or St. Clair, and the associate judges and justices of the 
quarter-sessions, with special appointees from among the 
local prothonotaries, sheriffs, clerks, and constables. At 
the sitting of the supreme court in Cincinnati in 1792, 
the Honorable John Cleves Symmes presided, assisted 
by Judges William Goforth, William Wells, and William 
McMillan, and Justices John S. Gano, George Cullum, 
and Aaron Cadwell. Joseph LeSure acted as clerk pro 
tempore, Israel Ludlow and Samuel Swan being otherwise 
engaged. John Ludlow, high sheriff, was assisted by 
Isaac Martin, deputy; while in the call of court appeared 
Robert Bunten, coroner, and constables Benjamin Orcutt 
(the crier), Robert Wheelan, Samuel Martin and Sylvanus 
Revnolds. This court exercised both original and ap- 
pellate jurisdiction in all things of law, equity, and fact, 
and that, too, with more force than formality. When 

convicted, a prisoner was turned over to Sheriff Brown 
or Ludlow, who, having no sufficient jail, could seldom 
keep a prisoner more than twenty-four hours. Witnesses 
were necessarily excused when "taken by the Indians," 
or "scalped." Plaintiffs and defendants frequently had 
their cases laid over "until they got back from the cam- 
paign;" and the honorable court often vibrated between 
Isaac Martin's and "the Meeting house," in order to 
give themselves a chance to lay aside for awhile their 
official dignity and get ready to appear in their turn in the 
role of defendants, as very few of the officials escaped from 
actions of every sort, from top to bottom of the calendar. 
During the year 1792, and for some years thereafter, 
Cincinnati was governed by these judicial dignitaries. 
In . the quarter sessions court Judge William Goforth 
generally presided, assisted by McMillan and Wells, asso- 
ciate justices, and by 'Squires Gano, Cullum and Cadwell, 
justices of the peace for the county. This year Samuel 
Swan succeeded Israel Ludlow as clerk of the court; 
John Ludlow became sheriff; Samuel Martin, constable; 
John Ludlow and David E. Wade, overseers of the poor; 
Isaac Martin, Jacob Reeder, and Ezekiel Sayre, over- 
seers of highways; James Miller, Jacob Miller, and John 
Vance, viewers of enclosures and appraisers of damages. 
If to these we add the military authorities, who some- 
times ordered everybody into line, it will be seen that 
Cincinnati was sufficiently governed, containing, as the 
city and township then did, less than five hundred peo- 
ple. The county commissioners had charge of the pub- 
lic improvements, attended to the taxes and their collec- 
tion, watched the tax duplicates, managed collectors, and 
paid out the funds for wolf scalps, for building jails and 
court rooms, and their own bills for services. The cog- 
nomens of those who left their names and deeds on the 
pages of "the last and only" old worn record are here 
given as follows : William McMillan, Robert Wheelan, 
and Robert Benham, 1795-6; Joseph Prince, .,1797-8; 
David E. Wade, 1799; Ichabod B. Miller, 1800; William 
Ruffin, 1801-2; John Bailey, 1802-3; William Ludlow, 
1803-4, and John R. Gaston, 1804-5. These men 
served,. three at a time, for a year; some were in office but 
a year, while others served two or three terms. The 
commissioners' clerks, under the territorial government, 
from 1790 to 1803, were Tabor Washburne, 1790 to 
1798; John Kean, 1798 to 1799; Reuben Reynolds, 
1799 to 1800, and Aaron Goforth, 1800 to 1803. 


The following-named gentlemen were the earliest offi- 
cers in Cincinnati township: 

1 79 1. — Levi Woodward, township clerk; Samuel Mar- 
tin, constable; John Thompson and James Wallace, 
overseers of the poor; James Gowdy, overseer of roads; 
Isaac Martin, Jacob Reeder, and James Cunningham, 
street commissioners. 

1792. — Samuel Martin, constable; John Ludlow and 
David E. Wade, overseers of the poor; James Miller, 
Jacob Miller, and John Vance, viewers of enclosures 
and appraisers of damages; Isaac Martin, Jacob Reeder, 
and Ezekiel Sayre, overseers of highways. 



1793. — Nathaniel Barnes and Robert Gowdy, consta- 
bles; Jacob Reeder and Moses Miller, overseers of the 
poor; Joseph McHenry, Samuel Freeman, and Stephen 
Reeder, viewers of enclosures and appraisers of dam- 
ages; Isaac Martin, Usual Bates, and John Schooley, 
overseers of highways. 

1794. — Nathan Barnes, Darius C. Orcutt, and Robert 
Gowdy, constables; James Brady and David E. Wade, 
overseers of the poor; James Wallace, Levi Woodward, 
and James Lyon, viewers of enclosures and appraisers of 
damages; Isaac Martin, Jacob White, and William Pow- 
ell, overseers of highways. 

1795- — Nathan Barnes, Ephraim Carpenter, and Ben- 
jamin Van Hook, constables; James Brady and Samuel 
Freeman, overseers of the poor ; Samuel Dick and Rich- 
ard Benham, viewers of enclosures and appraisers of 
damages; James Brady, Levi Woodward, and Samuel 
Freeman, overseers of highways. 


It may also be of interest to see here the names of all 
the constables who attended the courts of Hamilton 
county during the first thirteen years, so far as the rec- 
ords exhibit their names. Many of them were consta- 
bles of Cincinnati township, but others were from the 
county at large, though the court records present no fa- 
cilities for locating them in their respective townships : 

1790 — William Paul, Joseph Gerard, Daniel Griffin, 
Robert Wheelan; Levi Woodward, crier; 1791 — Isaac 
Martin, Joseph Jeuet, Gerard; Woodward and John Mor- 
ris, criers; 1792 — Wheelan, Martin, Morris, Gerard, Syl- 
vanus Reynolds; Benjamin Orcutt, crier; 1793 — Wheelan, 
Reynolds, Martin, Nathan Barnes; 1794 — Same, with 
Samuel Edwards, Robert Gowdy, B. and D. Orcutt, and 
Samuel Campbell; Barnes, crier: 1795 — Wheelan, B. Or- 
cutt, Edwards, Campbell, Gowdy, Ephraim Carpenter, B. 
Vanhook; 1797 — Woodward, Josiah Crossly, Parvin 
Dunn; Abraham Cary, crier; 1798 — Darius C. Orcutt; 
Cary, crier; 1799— Crossly; Cary, crier; 1800— Robert 
Terry, John Wilkinson, Samuel Armstrong, William 
Sayres, Isaac Mills, Thomas Morris, Enos Potter, David 
Kelly; John Daily, crier; 1801 — Thomas Larrison, John 
Robinson, Joseph Case, Terry, Kelly, Orcutt; Cary, 
crier; 1802 — Armstrong, Kelly, Isaac Dunn, Jacob 
Allen, Josiah Decker; Cary, crier; 1803 — Samuel and 
James Armstrong, David J. Poor, Jerome Holt, Jacob 
R Compton. 

The following names and dates of public officers in 
Cincinnati township, belonging to the later times, have 
also been picked up in the course of our investigations : 

Justices of the peace, 18 19 — -Ethan Stone, John 
Mahard; 1824 — Trustees: Benjamin Mason, Benjamin 
Hopkins, William Mills; clerk, Thomas Tucker; con- 
stables: David Jackson, jr., Richard Mulford, Zebulon 
Byington; justices: Elisha Hotchkiss, Beza E. Bliss, 
James Foster; 1829 — Trustees: Benjamin Hopkins, 
William Mills, George Lee; clerk, John Gibson; con- 
stables: James McLean, jr., James Glenn, William B. 
Sheldon; trustees and visitors of common schools: A 
M. Spencer, N. G. Guilford, J. Buckley, D. Root, Calvin 

Fletcher; magistrates: James Foster, Elisha Hotchkiss, 
Richard Mulford; 1831— Trustees: John Rice, William 
Mills, Richard Ayres; clerk, John T. Jones; magistrates: 
James Foster, Richard Mulford, Isaiah Wing, James 
Glenn, James McLean; constables: Ebenezer Harrison, 
Josiah Fobes, William B. Sheldon, Ephraim D. Williams, 
James Saffin, Livius Hazen, J. A. Wiseman; 1834 — 
Trustees: Richard Ayres, Isaac Pioneer, William Bor- 
land; clerk, John Jones; justices: Isaac Wing, Richard 
Mulford, Josiah Fobes, James Glenn, A W. Sweeney; 
constables: Ebenezer Harrison, Ephraim D. Williams, 
James Saffin, J. A. Wiseman, Livius Hazen, Thomas 
Wright, Benjamin Smith; 1836 — Trustees: William 
Crossman, D. A. King, Josiah Fobes; clerk, Samuel 
Steer; justices: Richard Mulford, John A. Wiseman, 
Ebenezer Harrison, William Doty, Livius Hazen, Rancil 
A. Madison; 1839-40 — Trustees: William Crossman, 
Josiah Fobes, Thatcher Lewis; clerk, David Churchill; 
1841 — Justices: James Glenn, Richard Mulford, William 
Doty, John A. Wiseman, R. A. Madison, Ebenezer. Har- 
rison; 1844 — Justices: R. A. Madison, Richard Mulford, 
Ebenezer Harrison, John A. Wiseman, E. V. Brooks, 
Samuel Perry, E. Singer; constables: Robert P. Black, 
P. Davidson, A. Delzell, Even Ewan, Thomas Frazer, 
Thomas Hurst, Jesse O'Neill, James L. Ruffin, Rode- 
camp; trustees: John Wood, William Crossman, John 
Hudson; clerk, David Churchill; 1846 — Trustees: Wil- 
liam Crossman, John Wood, J. B. Bowlin; clerk, David 
Churchill; justices: Mark P. Taylor, Samuel Perry, Eri 
V. Brooks, Ebenezer Harrison, David T. Snellbaker, 
Erwin Singer, John Young; 1850 — Trustees: William 
Crossman, James Hudson, Jesse B. Bowman; 185 1 — 
Trustees: Messrs. Crossman and Hudson, and John 
Hauck; clerk, John Minshall; justices: John W. Reilly, 
David T. Snellbaker, F. H. Rowekamp, Jacob Getzen- 
danner, Elias H. Pugh, Joseph Burgoyne, Wick Roll; 
1852 — Same trustees. 



^ The first census of the town and county was taken this 
year, and exhibited for Cincinnati (township probably) 
but seven hundred and fifty inhabitants, an increase of 
but two hundred and fifty in about five years. This, 
however, was fifty per cent, of growth, and, relatively con- 
sidered, was by no means to be despised. ) 

Many valuable citizens were added teethe community 
during this opening year of the decade. Dr. William Go- 
forth, of whom more will be related in our chapter on 
medicine in Cincinnati, came in the spring, and his pu- 
pil, to become yet more distinguished, Dr. Daniel Drake, 
came in December. Stephen Wheeler; Mr. Pierson, from 
New Jersey, the father of William Pierson, long a resident 



of Springfield township; Charles Cone, probably; John B. 
Enness, Edward Dodson, Charles Faran, A. Valentine, 
John Wood, Caleb Williams, Rev. Dr. Joshua L. Wilson, 
pastor of the Presbyterian church, and others who added 
character and possibly capital to the young city, were 
among the new comers of 1800. 

Probably this year, but perhaps earlier, according to a 
note in chapter VIII, came one of the most enterprising, 
able, and successful of the pioneer Germans — Martin 
Baum. He engaged in merchandizing, and was for 
about thirty years in active business here, being connected 
also with the Miami Exporting company's operations, the 
old sugar refinery, and many other large enterprises of 
this day, carrying throughout, notwithstanding reverses 
as well as successes, the highest reputation for financial 
ability and personal integrity. He was one of the pro- 
prietors of the site of Toledo when it was laid out for a 
town. Late in life he built the elegant mansion on Pike 
street afterwards occupied by Nicholas Longworth, and 
now by the millionaire philanthropist, David Sinton. 
Like many other early business men in the city, he be- 
came involved in debt to the United States bank, and hon- 
estly surrendered to it in payment his residence and 
grounds. He still has a reputation as one of the most 
honorable and public spirited Cincinnatians of his day. 
Further notice will be given him in our chapter on the 
Teutonic element in Cincinnati. 

In the spring or summer we hear anew from Jeremiah 
Butterfield, of whom mention is made in our notes on 
1798. He came again down the river, this time with his 
brother and a brother-in-law, young Mr. Campbell, pros- 
pecting. They staid a little while at Columbia, and then, 
came to Cincinnati, where they engaged in harvesting for 
Colonel Riddle, on his section near town. All were 
bright, strong, faithful young fellows, and obtained work 
without difficulty. Jeremiah was soon engaged by Colonel 
Ludlow as chain-carrier, during the survey he was or- 
dered to make of the boundary line established by the 
treaty of Greenville, during which the party went three 
months without seeing a white man's dwelling, and at 
one time came near starving; going without provisions 
for five days. When the public lands west of the Great 
Miami were opened to entry, in April, 1801, he formed 
a partnership with several Cincinnatians— Knoles Shaw 
and Albin Shaw, Squire Shaw, their father, Asa Harvey, 
and Noah Willey— and with them bought a large tract of 
land in the north part of the present Crosby township, 
extending " into Butler county. He made his own home 
on the other side of the line, and died there, full of years 
and honors, June 27, 1863. Several of his sons con- 
tinue to reside in this county. 

On the other hand, Cincinnati was called upon this 
year to part with one of her favorite sons, who remained 
away from the town and county for a series of years, en- 
gaged elsewhere in important public duties. William 
Henry Harrison was appointed governor of Indiana Ter- 
ritory, and went to take up his residence at Vincennes, 
while Mr Charles Wylling Byrd was appointed to the sec- 
retaryship of the Northwest Territory. William McMil- 
lan esq was chosen by the territorial legislature delegate 

to Congress, to fill the unexpired term of General Harri- 
son, and Paul Fearing, of Marietta, for the succeeding 
two years. 

March nth there was a meeting of citizens at Yeat- 
man's tavern, to consider the merits of an invention said 
to be " capable of propelling a boat against the stream 
by the power of steam or elastic vapor." This was, in 
one sense, a herald of the "New Orleans," which came 
proudly puffing down the Ohio eleven and a half years 

No mails came for four consecutive weeks in January 
and February. There is now but one newspaper in the 
place, and that weekly; so that the failure of mail matter 
is seriously felt. 

In March the Rev. James Kemper offers for sale his 
farm of one hundred and fifty-four acres upon the Wal- 
nut Hills, on which Lane seminary and many other valu- 
able buildings are now situated, for seven dollars per 
acre. He did not sell, however, and lived upon it over 
thirty-five years thereafter, when it had risen in value to 
fivp thousand dollars. 
/On the twenty-seventh of May a tremendous hail-storm 
visits this region, breaking out all the glass windows in 
town. ) 

Independence day was observed this year by the mem- 
bers of a political" party, the Republicans, who had a din- 
uer at Major Ziegler's, next door to Yeatman's tavern. 
The memory of Washington had been duly honored in 
February by a procession, in which were Captain Miller 
and his troops from the fort, the Hamilton county mili- 
tia, Captain James Findlay commanding the dragoon 
company, the civil authorities, the Masonic order, and 
citizens at large. An address was pronounced by Gov- 
ernor St. Clair. 

About the middle of December a good deal of incen- 
diarism occurred, and the people were considerably 
alarmed. Fires broke out in various places about town, 
but nobody was caught and punished as the author of 
the mischief. 

The business notes of the year are uncommonly inter- 
esting. Imperial or gunpowder tea was three dollars a 
pound; hyson, two dollars and twenty-five cents; hyson 
skin, one dollar and fifty cents; bohea, one dollar, and 
very poor stuff at that; loaf sugar, forty-four cents per 
pound; . pepper, seventy-five cents;, allspice, fifty cents. 
Andrew Dunseth begins business in November as the 
first gunsmith in Cincinnati. August 27th, Messrs. Wil- 
liam and M. Jones advertise that "they still carry on 
the bakery business, and as flower is getting cheap, they 
have enlarged their loaf to four pounds, which is sold at 
one-eighth of a dollar per loaf, or flour pound per pound, 
payable every three months." In September, Francis 
Menessier advertises a coffee-house at the foot of the hill, 
on Main street, open from two to nine p. m., also, differ- 
ent kinds of liquors, all kinds of pastry, etc. His sign is 
"Pegasus, the bad poet, fallen to the ground." He also 
teaches the French language. The same month John 
Kidd opened a bakery on the corner of Front and Main. 
In October William McFarland begins the manufacture 
of earthenware, the first of the kind in the place. James 



White, the same month, advertises a day and night 
school, and R. Haughton puts himself in print as a pro- 
fessor of dancing. There was great demand for money 
from creditois afflicted with delinquents, and one pathetic 
appeal for his dues is sent out from the Hamilton county 
jail by an unlucky physician who is himself immured for 
debt. ( Real property remained cheap, and Hezekiah 
Flint bought the lot upon which he lived, on Walnut 
street below Fourth, for one hundred and fifty dollars. 
Some of the Main street property below the upper level 
was injured in value by the overhanging of the brow of 
the hill, which depreciated the values of the threatened 
lots until it was removed. People now began to prefer 
to go to the hill, although it was further from the Land- 
ing; and settlement up there progressed more rapidly.] 

Some curious illustrations appear in the newspaper riles 
of this year of the morals of Cincinnati, or the want of 
them. A sergeant at the fort advertises that his wife 
has not only left his bed and board, but has taken up 
with another fellow. A citizen, with a charming frank- 
ness, quite uncommon nowadays, boldly announces that 
he has caught his wife Rachel and a male offender in 
flagrante delicto. Another cautions the public against a 
certain woman who calls herself Mary, "and has for a 
long time passed as my wife, but who is not, as we were 
never lawfully married," thus plainly Indicating the rela- 
tions in which they had lived. Still another advertises 
his wife as having abandoned him for the second time, 
"without any provocation, in any possible shape what- 

A clear, graphic, and detailed picture of Cincinnati, as 
it appeared at the close of this year, is presented in a 
published address of Dr. Daniel Drake, who entered it 
on the eighteenth of December, 1800, as a boy of fifteen, 
coming from Kentucky hither to begin his medical 
studies. The address was delivered before the Cincin- 
nati Medical Library association January 9, 1852, in the 
hall of the Mechanics' institute : 

(in the first year of this century the cleared "lands at this place did not 
equal the surface which is now completely built over. North of the 
canal and west of the Western row there was forest, with here and 
there a cabin and small clearing, connected with the village by a narrow, 
winding road. J Curved lines, you know, symbolize the country, 
straight lines the city. South of where the Commercial [later the Cin- 
cinnati] Hospital now administers relief annually to three times as 
many people as then composed the population of the town, there were 
half-cleared fields, with broad margins of blackberry vines; and I, with 
other young persons, frequently gathered that delicious fruit, at the 
risk of being snake-bitten, where the Roman Catholic church now 
sends tys spire into the lower clouds. Further south the ancient mound 
near Fifth street, on which Wayne planted his sentinels seven years be- 
fore, was overshadowed with trees which, together with itself, should 
have been preserved; but its dust, like that of those who then delighted 
to play on its beautiful slopes, has mingled with the remains of the 
unknown race by whom it was erected. The very spot on which we 
are now assembled, but a few years before the time of which I speak, 
was part of a wheat-field of sixteen acres owned by Mr. James Fergu- 
son and fenced in without reference to the paved streets which now cut 
through it. The stubble of that field is fast decaying in the soil around 
the foundations of the noble edifice in which we are now assembled. 
/Seventh street, then called Northern row, was almost the northern 
limit of population. Sixth street had a few scattering houses; Fifth not 
many more. Between that and Fourth there was a public square, now 
built over. In one corner, the northeast, stood the court house, with a 
small marketplace in front, which nobody attended. In the north- 
west corner was the jail, in the southwest the village school-house; in 

the southeast, where a glittering spire tells the stranger that he is 
approaching our city, stood the humble church of the pioneers, whose 
bones lie mouldering in the centre of the square, then the village ceme- 
tery. Walnut; called Cider street, which bounds that square on the 
west, presented a few cabins or small frames; but Vine street was not 
yet opened to the river. Fourth street, after passing Vine, branched 
into roads and paths. Third street, running near the brow of the upper 
plain, was on as high a level as Fifth street is now. The gravelly slope 
of that plain stretched from east to west almost to Pearl street. On 
this slope, between Main and Walnut, a French political exile, whom I 
shall name hereafter, planted, in the latter part of the last century, a 
small vineyard. This was the beginning of that cultivation for which 
the environs of our city have at length become distinguished. I suppose 
this was the first cultivation of the foreign grape in the valley of the 
Ohio. Where Congress, Market, and Pearl streets, since opened, send 
up the smoke of their great iron foundries, or display in magnificent 
warehouses the products of different and distant lands, there was a belt 
of low, wet ground which, upon the settlement of the town twelve years 
before, had been a series of beaver-ponds, filled by the annual over- 
flows of the river and the rains from the upper plains. Second, then 
known as Columbia street, presented some scattered cabins, dirty with- 
in and rude without; but Front street exhibited an aspect of consider- 
able pretension. It was nearly built up with log and .frame houses, 
from Walnut street to Eastern row, now called Broadway .J The people 
of wealth and the men of business, with the Hotel de Ville, kept by 
Griffin Yeatman, were chiefly on this street, which even had a few 
patches of sidewalk pavement. In front of the mouth of Sycamore 
street, near the hotel, there was a small wooden market-house built over 
a cove, into which pirogues and other craft, when the river was high, 
y»re poled or paddled, to be tied to the rude columns. 
V The common then stretched out to where the land and water now 
meet, when the river is at its mean height. It terminated in a high, 
steep, crumbling bank, beneath which lay the flat-boats of immigrants 
or of traders in fiomi whiskey, and apples, from Wheeling, Fort Pitt, 
or Redstone Old FortJ Their winter fires, burning in iron kettles, sent 
up lazy columns of smoke, where steamers now darken the air with 
hurried clouds of steam and soot. One of these vessels has cost more 
than the village would then have brought at auction. ([From this com- 
mon the future Covington, in Kentucky, appeared as a cornfield, culti- 
vated by the Kennedy family, which also kept the ferry. Newport, 
chiefly owned by two Virginia gentlemen, James Taylor and Richard 
Southgate, but embracing the Mayos, Fowlers, Berrys, ' Stubbses, and 
several other respectable families, was a drowsy village set in the side 
of a deep wood, and the mouth of Licking rivej was overarched with 
traes, giving it the appearance of a great tunnel^ 

Lifter Front street, Sycamore and Main were the most important of 
the town. A number of houses were built upon the former up to Fourth, 
beyond which it was opened three or four squares. The buildings and 
business of Main street extended up to Fifth, where, on the northwest 
corner, there was a brick house, owned by Elmore Williams, the only 
one in town. Beyond Seventh Main street was a mere road, nearly im- 
passable in muddy weather, which at the foot of the hills divided into 
two, called the Hamilton road and the Mad-river road. The former, 
now a crooked and closely built street, took the course of the Brighton 
house; the latter made a steep ascent over Mount Auburn, where there 
was not a single habitation. Broadway, or Eastern row, was then but 
thirty-three feet wide. The few buildings which it had were on the west 
side, where it joins Front streejl on the site of the Cincinnati hotel there 
was a low frame house, with whiskey and a billiard table. It was said 
that the owner paid seven hundred dollars for the house and lot in nine- 
fences; that is, in small pieces of "cut money" received for drams. 
(North of this, towards Second street, there were several small houses 
inhabited by disorderly persons who had been in the army. The side- 
walk in front was called Battle row. Between Second and Third streets, 
near where we now have the eastern end of the market-house, there was 
a single frame tenement, in which I lived with my preceptor'in 1805. 
In a pond, directly in front, the frogs gave us regular serenades) Much 
of the square to which this house belonged was fenced in, and served 
as a pasture ground for a pony which I kept for country practice. 

(Between Third and Fourth streets, on the west side of Broadway, 
there was, in 1800, a cornfield with a rude fencejsince replaced by man- 
sions of such splendor that a Russian traveller, several years ago, took 
away drawings of one as a model for the people of St. Petersburgh. 
Above Fourth street Broadway had but three or four houses, and ter- 
minated at the edge of a thick wood, before reaching the foot of Mount 

feast of Broadway and north of Fourth street, the entire square had 



been enclosed and a respectable frame house erected by the Hon. Win- 
throp Sargent, secretary of the Northwest Territory} He had removed 
to Mississippi Territory, of which he was afterwards Governor; and 
his house and grounds, the best improved in the village, were occupied 
by the Hon. Charles Wyling Byrd, his successor in office. Governor 
Sargent merits a notice amon? the physicians of the town, as he was 
thefirst who made scientific observations on our climate. 
{Immediately south of his residence, from Fourth street to the river, 
east df Broadway, there was a military reserve. That portion of it which 
laid on the upper plain was covered by Fort Washington, with its 
bastions, port-holes, stockades, tall flag-staff, evening tattoo, and morn- 
ing reveille. Here were the quarters of the military members of our 
profession, and for a time for one of its civil members also; for, after 
its evacuation in 1803, my preceptor moved into the rooms which had 
been occupied by the commander of the post. *In front of the fort, 
where Congress street now runs, there was a duck pond, in which ducks 
and snipes were often shot: and from this pond to the river, the 
tract through which East and Front streets now run was overspread 
with the long, low sheds of the commissaries, quartermasters, and 
artificers of the armyjj 

The post office was then and long after kept on the east side of this 
military common, where Lawrence street leads down to the Newport 
ferry. Our quiet and gentlemanly postmaster, William Ruffin, per- 
formed all the duties of the office with his own hands. The great 
Eastern mail was then brought once a week from Maysville, Kentucky, 
in a pair of saddle-bags. 

/East of the fort, on the upper plain, the trunks of large trees were 
still lying on the ground. A single house had been built by Dr. Alli- 
son where the Lytle house now stands, and a. field of several acres 
stretched off to the east and north. On my arrival this was the resi- 
dence of my preceptor. The dry cornstalks of early winter were still 
standing near the door. But Dr. Allison had planted jjeach trees, and 
it was known throughout the village as Peach Grove.JjThe field ex- 
tended to the bank of Deer creek; thence all was deep wood. Where 
the munificent expenditures of Nicholas Longworth, esq., have col- 
lected the beautiful exotics of all climates— on the very spot where the 
people now go to watch the unfolding of the night-blooming cereus — 
grew the red-bud, crab-apple, and gigantic tulip tree, or the yellow 
poplar, with wild birds above and native flowers below. Where the 
Catawba and Herbemont now swing down their heavy and luscious 
clusters, the climbing winter vine hung its small, sour branches from 
the limbs of high trees. fThe adjoining valley of Deer creek, down 
which, by a series of locks, the canal from Lake Erie mingles its waters 
with the Ohio, was then a receptacle for drift- wood from the back water 
of that river, when high. The boys ascended the little estuary in 
canoes during June floods, and pulled flowers from the lower limbs of 
the trees or threw clubs at the turtles, as they sunned themselves on the 
floating logs. In the whole valley there was but a single house, and 
that was a distillery.' The narrow road which led to it from the 
garrison— and, I am sorry to add, from the village also— was well 

{Mount Adams was then clothed in the grandeur and beauty which 
belongs to our own primitive forests. The spot occupied by the reser- 
voir which supplies our city with water, and all the rocky precipices that 
stretch from it up the river, where buried up in sugar-trees^ On the 
western slope we collected the sanguinaria Canadensis, geranium, 
maculatum, gillenia trifoliata, and otter natural medicines, when sup- 
plies failed to reach us from abroad, rrhe summit on which the ob- 
servatory now stands was crowned withMofty poplars, oaks, and beech; 
and the sun in summer could scarcely be seen from the spot where we 
now look into the valleys of the moon or see distant nebulse resolved 
into their starry elements. 

Over the mouth of Deer creek there was a crazy wooden bridge, and 
where the depot of the railroad which now connects us with the sea 
has been erected, there was but a small log cabin. From this cabin a 
narrow rocky, and stumpy road made its way, as best it could, up the 
river where the railway now stretches. At the distance of two miles 
there was another cabin-that from which we expelled the witch. Be- 
yond this all was forest for miles furtherj>when we reached the residence 
of Tohn Smith. . . The new village of Pendleton now covers 
that spot. Then came the early, but now extinct, village of Columbia, 
of which our first physicians were the only medical attendants. 

On the twentieth of February, Dr. William Goforth, 
first of the physicians of Cincinnati to do 'so, introduced 
vaccination as a preventive of small-pox. 

March 20th, the Republicans met and had a jollifica- 
tion at Menessier's coffee-house, to celebrate the election 
of Jefferson to the Presidency. There is a touch of Red 
Republicanism in the published report of the proceed- 
ings, that "Citizen John C. Symines" was in the chair. 
When, however, the Fourth of July observances came to 
be noticed, it was again Citizen J. C. Symmes as presi- 
dent, Citizen Dr. William Goforth vice-president of the 
day; and so on. There were two celebrations of the 
Fourth this year — one at Yeatman's,* and one at the big 
spring on the river-bank, just above Deer Creek bridge, 
where a broad rock served as a table. 

April 27th, the brig St. Clair, Whipple commander, 
came down from Marietta, where it had been built, and 
anchored off the village. It was the first vessel of the 
kind to appear at this port. 

In May, upon the expiration of the term for which 
Mr. McMillan was elected to Congress, and his return, 
a public dinner was given him by his friends, as a testi- 
monial of appreciation of his valuable services. 

On the nineteenth of August, the first public recog- 
nition, probably, of the omnipotent and lucrative Cincin- 
nati hog is made in the shape of the following advertise- 

For Sale. — A quantity of GOOD BACON. Inquire at the office. 

For a week, beginning the twenty-third of September, 
the remarkable migration of squirrels from Kentucky 
across the river at this point was going on. Large num- 
bers were killed by the settlers — as many as five hundred 
in one day — between Cincinnati and Columbia. The 
invasion of these little animals was thought to portend 
an/uncommonly mild winter. 
(On the thirtieth of this month there was a meeting of 
citizens at Yeatman's, to secure an act of incorporation 
for the village. The same day an announcement ap- 
peared of horse races and the Cincinnati theatre — both 
the first amusements of their species here. The Thes- 
pians gave their performance in Artificers' Yard, below 
the fort.^) 

On the nineteenth of December the Territorial legisla- 
ture gave Cincinnati a sad stroke, by passing a bill on a 
vote of twelve to eight, for the removal of the seat of 
government from this place to Chillicothe. The resi- 
dence of the governor and other officers of the terri- 
tory had been here since 1790, and had contributed not 
' a little to the prosperity and fame of the place. Novem- 
ber 24th, however, some consolation was afforded by the 
passage of the act desired for the incorporation of Cin- 
cinnati. At the same time Chillicothe and Detroit were 
incorporated by this legislature. 

During the same month several fires occurred, and 
measures began to be considered for the procurement of 
a fire engine^) 

Some time this year General Findlay was appointed 
United States Marshal for the district of Ohio, and Wil- 
liam McMillan district attorney. They were the first 
incumbents of these offices. 

* This famous old tavern, which makes so conspicuous a figure in the 
early annals of Cincinnati, was situated on lot twenty-seven, east side 
of Sycampre street, corner of Front. 



Business this year was not specially noticeable, save the 
formation of a company of Cincinnati gentlemen for the 
purchase of a silver mine in some locality not stated, but 
"situated at a convenient distance from the Ohio." 
Mining engineering, we fear, then or since, has failed to 
discover or develop that bonanza of the precious metal. 
Salt was bringing two dollars a barrel, powder seventy-five 
cents a pound, lard twelve and one-half cents, tar fifty 
cents per gallon — "for ready money only." Joseph Mc- 
Henry, the first flour inspector, was appointed near the 
close of 1 8c i. 

Among the immigrants of the year were Robert Wal- 
lace and John Whetstone. Among the others known to 

have arrived by this time, and not heretofore noticed, di- 
rectly or incidentally in these annals, were Robert Park- 
halter, Ephraim Morrison, William Austin, C. Avery, 
Thomas Frazer, Levi McLean, Dr. Homes, Thomas 
Thompson, Michael Brokaw, James and Robert Cald- 
well, Aaron Cherry, Daniel Globe, Andrew Westfall, 
Nehemiah Hunt, Thomas Williams, Benjamin Walker, 
Edmund Freeman (a plasterer), John C. Winans, James 
Conn, Uriah Gates, Richard Downes, Lawrence Hilde- 
brand, D. Conner and company, Larkin Payne, Henry 
Furry, George Fithian, Lewis Kerr, Joseph Blew, Isaac 
Anderson, Willia'm McCoy, James Wilson, and Andrew 



iThe great event of this year was the erection of Cincin- 
nati as a village under the act of incorporation of the ter- 
ritorial legislature. The limits were Mill creek on the 
west; the township line (now Liberty street) about a mile 
from the river at the furthest point of the river bank, on 
the north; the east boundary line of fractional section 
twelve, on the east; and the river on the south J Tem- 
porary officers were provided by the act of incorporation ; 
but the first municipal election was held the first Monday 
in the month. April 3, Major David Zeigler, formerly 
commandant of Fort Washington, who had settled as a 
citizen in Cincinnati, was elected president of the village; 
Charles Avery, William Ramsey, David E. Wade, John 
Reily, William Stanley, Samuel Dick, and William Ruffin, 
trustees; and Jacob Burnet, recorder. Other officers, 
elected or appointed, were: Joseph Prince, assessor; 
Abram Cary, collector; James ("Sheriff") Smith, marshal. 
Ten of these twelve "city fathers" had previously held 
local offices, under the dozen years of territorial or town- 
ship rule that had prevailed. Among the candidates for 
constable was the versatile Levi McLean, who issued an 
electioneering address "to the free and candid electors 
of the town of Cincinnati." This was the first and only 
election of officers in the village under territorial govern- 
ment, Ohio becoming a State November 19th of this 

year, upon the adjournment of the Constitutional Con 
vention at Chillicothe, after its members had signed the 

The first court house for the county -was built this year, 
near the northwest corner of the public square; and one 
of the first uses of it was for a meeting of citizens, to 
gravely determine as to the proposed expenditure of forty- 
six dollars by the city council, of which twelve were to go 
for fire-ladders and as much more for fire-hooks. Things 
changed seventy years later, when millions at a dash were 
being voted away for a railroad project. 

The first picture of Cincinnati, so far as known, was 
made this year, and has since been repeatedly printed.* 
It marks the dwellings or places of business of Major 
Ruffin; Charles Vattier, corner of Broadway and Front; 
James Smith, first door west of Vattier; Major Zeigler, 
Second street, east of Sycamore; Griffin Yeatman's, north- 
east corner of Front and Sycamore; Martin Bautn's, just 
opposite; Colonel Gibson, northeast corner Front and 
Main; Colonel Ludlow, opposite corner; Joel Williams, 
north side of Water, near Main; Samuel Burt, a log house, 
northwest corner Walnut and Front, and two little cabins 
west of him; and Dr. Allison ("Peach Grove"), on the 

*A large painting of Cincinnati in 1800 has recently been made by 
Mr. A. B. Swing, a local artist, from careful studies of the subject, and 
exhibited in one of the picture stores on Main street. 



hill near Fort Washington. The Fort and Artificers' 
Yard, the Presbyterian church, the Green Tree hotel, on 
Front street, about midway between Main and Wal- 
nut, and another hotel on a street corner, are all the pub- 
lic buildings that are shown in the picture, which obvi- 
ously does not represent buildings enough for the nine 
hundred inhabitants, more or less, there must have been 
he^e at that time. 
(About the middle of 1802, the first school for young 
ladies was opened in the place bv a Mrs. Williams, in the 
house of Mr. Newman, a saddler. \ 

Some time this year Ethan Stoiie paid Joel Williams 
two hundred and twenty dollars for lots eighty-nine, 
ninety and ninety-one, being one hundred and fifty feet 
on Vine by two hundred on Fourth street. Thirty-seven 
years thereafter, in 1839, tne larger part of the same 
property was sold for one hundred and fifty dollars the 
front foot. 

A well-known citizen publicly advertises that "the part- 
nership between the subscriber and his wife, Alice, has 
been dissolved by mutual consent. Another remark in 
the notice provokes the retort next week, from his wife, 
that she "has never yet stood in need of his credit." 

The commerce of the village begins to look up. From 
the sixteenth of February to the sixteenth of May, ex- 
ports of flour amounted to four thousand four hundred 
and fifty-seven barrels. 

The known arrivals of 1802 are Ethan Stone, Samuel 
Perry and William Pierson. 


The annals of this twelve-month are brief, but not 
wholly devoid of interest. Early in the year incendiary 
fires occurred, as many as three in rapid succession. 
The citizens were thoroughly alarmed, and a night-watch 
was organized and maintained for some time. One man 
was arrested and imprisoned on suspicion; but nothing 
was proved against him, and the real incendiary remained 
undisclosed. {The garrison was removed this year from 
Fort Washington to Newport Barracks; and to this 
change, possibly, may be attributed the infrequency of 
incendiary fires in Cincinnati thereafter. The occasional 
feuds between soldier and citizeiL may have had some- 
thing to do with them before that.) 
(On the sixteenth of June the Miami Exporting Com- 
pkny'stoank was opened— the first banking institution in 

town. J 

Some notable arrivals occurred; as of Christopher and 
Robert Cary, grandfather and father of the celebrated 
Cary sisters. They came from New Hampshire, remained 
in Cincinnati several years and then removed to a farm 
near Mount Pleasant, now Mount Healthy, on the Ham- 
ilton road, where their descendants and other relatives 
are now to be found in some number. On New Year's 
day came Thomas and Thankful Carter, grandparents of 
Judge A. G. W. Carter, with their promising family of 
five boys and three girls. The judge's maternal grand- 
father, the Rev. Adam Hurdus, founder of the New 
Church or Swedenborgianism in the west came from 
England with his family to Cincinnati April 4, 1806. 

Judge A. H. Dunlevy, in an address to the Cincinnati 
Pioneer association, April 7, 1875, gives the following 
picture of the Queen City of this year : 


Cincinnati was then a very small place. The hotel where I put up 
as near the northeast corner of Main and Fifth streets, and was kept 
by one James Conn, or rather by his wife, who was the most efficient 
of the family. . From the customers of this hotel, I think it was 

considered the best then in Cincinnati. But at this time the forest trees 
stood on the south, east, and north of this hotel property. Directly 
south, across Fifth street, Tom Dugan, an old bachelor who left a 
large property in Cincinnati, had a rough-iron store; and there were 
very few buildings of any size south along Main street, until the corner 
of Main and Fourth, where, on the north side, James Ferguson had 
the best store, I think, then in Cincinnati. The only access to the 
Ohio, where wagons could descend, was at the foot of Main street; and 
this consisted simply of a wide road cut diagonally down the steep 
bank of the river. In high water there was no other levee than this 
road. In low water, however, there was a wide beach ; but this could 
only be reached by this road. It may be there was a similar approach 
to the river at the foot of Broadway; but if so, I did not see lit. All 
north of Fifth street, with the exception of one or two houses, was in 
woods or inclosed lots, without other improvements. In coming to 
Cincinnati from Lebanon, miles of the route were in the woods, out of 
sight of any improvements^ and from Cumminsville, then only a tav- 
ern, kept by one Cummins ([ohn, I think), there were but two resi- 
dences on the road until you came near to Conn's hotel. One of these 
was the residence of Mr. Cary — I think father of General Samuel Cary, 
of Hamilton county, as well known. 

In May a very useful and honored resident, William 
McMillan, one of the first colonists of Losantiville, died, 
greatly lamented by his fellow-citizens. His life and 
public services will be further noticed in our chapter on 
the Bar. of Cincinnati. Mr. Cist wrote of him in Cincin- 
nati in 1 84 1 : 

There can be no doubt that Mr. McMillan was the master spirit of 
the place at that day, and a man who would have been a distinguished 
member of society anywhere. It is impossible to contemplate his char- 
acter and career without being deeply impressed with his great superi- 
ority over every one around him, even of the influential men of the day; 
and there were men of as high character and abilities in Cincinnati in 
those days as at present. He was lost to the community at the age of 
forty-four, just in the meridian of his course, and left vacant an orbit of 
usefulness and influence in the community in which no one since has 
been found worthy to move. 

A town meeting was held this year, to consider the 
adoption of measures for a general vaccination of the in- 
habitants of the village. 

On the fourth of December was issued the first num- 
ber of Liberty Hall and Cincinnati Mercury, edited and 
published by the Rev. John W. Browne. 

A large number of immigrants are registered for this 
year. Among them, in the fall, was Colonel Stephen 
McFarland, father of the venerable Isaac B. McFarland, 
still living in Cincinnati, and Mr. John McFarland and 
a sister, of Madisonville. General Findlay, who knew 
him in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, had written for 
him. His wife and children came the next year. H. M., 
Jacob, and Andrew H. Ernst came this year with their 
father, Zachariah Ernst. The family became quite prom- 
inent here. Jacob was a printer and author, writing 
books on Masonry, etc., while Andrew wrote treatises on 
gardening and arboriculture. Ernst station, on the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton railroad, is named from the 
family. Other arrivals were Peaton S. Symmes, Benja- 
min Smith, P. A. Sprigman, George P. Torrence (long 
presiding judge of the court of common pleas), Jonathan 



Pancoast, Robert Richardson, James Perry, Peter M. 
Nicoll, Adam Moore, William Moody, Benjamin Mason, 
Casper Hopple, Andrew Johnston, Ephraim Carter, James 
Crawford, William Crippen, and Henry Craven. 


(The village now had twenty-five merchants and grocers, 
fifteen joiners and cabinet-makers, twelve bricklayers, 
eleven inn-keepers, nine attorneys, eight physicians, eight 
blacksmiths, .seven shoemakers, five saddlers, seven tail- 
ors, five bakers, three each of tobacconists, silversmiths, 
and tanners, four hatters, two each of printers, brewers, 
tinners, and coppersmiths, and one book-binder. Its 
population was nine hundred and sixty, housed and doin 
business in one hundred and seventy-two buildings 
Jesse Hunt, on Second street, near Eastern row; Aaron 
Goforth, on Walnut, below Fourth; Andrew Lemon, on 
Water street; and Joel Williams, also on Water street, 
had the only stone buildings in town; while the six brick 
buildings were the Miami bank building, on Front, near 
Main; Elmore Williams', on Main and Fifth streets; Nim- 
mo's, on Main, near Fourth; Judge Burnet's, Vine, near 
Fourth, where the Burnet house now is; and two others; 
to which was presently added the Rev. John W. Browne's 
Liberty Hall office, at the east end of the lower market 
house. unfty-three log cabins were still remaining, and 
there were a little more than twice as many (one hundred 
and nine) frame buildings) 

Mr. E. D. Mansfield, long afterwards recalling his Per- 
sonal Memories of the coming of his father and family 
here, said: 

We arrived at Cincinnati, I think, the last part of October, 1805 
But what was Cincinnati then? One of the dirtiest little 
villages you ever saw. Of course I was not driven around to see its 
splendors; but the principal street or settlement was Front street — and 
\ that I saw. The chief houses at that time were on Front street, from 
I Broadway to Sycamore. They were two-story frame houses, painted 
I white. One was that of General Findlay, receiver of the land office, 
I . . and subsequently member of Congress for the Cincin- 

! nati district. 

Mr. Josiah Espy, who made a tour this year through 

Ohio, Kentucky, and the Indian Territory, and published 

a journal of his travels, came here September 4th, and 

stayed two days, making the following note of the place: 

Cincinnati is a remarkably sprightly, thriving town, on the northwest 
! bank of the Ohio river, opposite the mouth of the river Licking, and 
[ containing, from appearance, about two hundred dwelling-houses — 
' many of these elegant brick buildings. The site of the town embraces 
both the first and second banks of the river, the second bank being, I 
\ suppose, about two hundred feet above the level of the water. - — 

\Jn March a great freshet occurred in the Ohio, over- 
flowing everything on the lower levels, and sweeping 
away houses, stock, and other property./ 

May 8th, General John S. Gano was appointed clerk 
of the courts for Hamilton county. This is noteworthy 
simply as the beginning of a very long and useful career 
for the Ganos in this capacity, lasting far down the century. 

In the same month, on the fifteenth instant, came 
Aaron Burr to this village, en route for New Orleans, 
while his expedition was preparing and he was meditating 
his ambitious, if not treasonable, projects. He does not 
seem to have done much mischief here, except to involve 
in trouble United States Senator John Smith, through 

the evident friendship of the two and Smth's hospitality 
to Burr while here. 

The Republicans of that time (the political ancestors 
of the present Democracy) held the Fourth of July cele- 
bration by themselves this year, at a bower in front of 
the court house. Judge Symmes was president, Matthew 
Nimmo vice-president, and Thomas Rawlins orator of 
the day. The light dragoons, Lieutenant Elmore Wil- 
liams commanding, made a street parade for this section 
of the Cincinnati patriots. Others went with Captain 
Smith's company of light infantry to the Beechen grove, 
in the western part of the town, where there was a din- 
ner, succeeded by nineteen toasts. Some of the toasts 
were quite unique. Captain McFarland volunteered one 
as follows: "A hard-pulling horse, a porcupine saddle, 
a cobweb pair of breeches, and a long journey, to the 
enemies of America." 

The Cincinnati Thespians held their meetings during 
a part of this year in the loft of a stable in rear of 
General Hndlay's place, on the site of the old Spencer 

On the eleventh of December an ordinance was passed 
by the town council for the establishment of a sort of 
night-watch, without pay. 

This year came John M. Wozencraft, a Welshman 
from Baltimore, who remained here for a time, and after- 
wards died in South Carolina on his way to England. 
The arrival from the same city of forty to fifty families, 
with about as many unmarried men, chiefly mechanics, 
gave to the town, says the directory of 181 9, the first 
spring of anything like improvement. 

Joseph Coppin, the aged president of the Cincinnati 
Pioneer association for this year 1880-1, came to the town 
of Cincinnati December 16th. He is, doubtless, the 
oldest man living, who was a resident of the city at that 
time. Mr. Coppin was born in Norwich, England, April 
8, 1791, and was brought, when a boy, to this country by 
his father, who settled in New York city. Young Coppin 
walked in the funeral procession organized in that city in 
December, 1799, to do honor to the memory of Washing- 
ton, then just deceased. He afterwards marched in the 
processions that followed to tomb the remains of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, slain by Burr in 1804, and of Major 
David Zeigler, a native of Prussia, and commandant of 
Fort Washington, who died and was buried in Cincinnati 
in September, 181 1. He was a boy in his fifteenth year 
when brought to this place, and remembers distinctly the 
Cincinnati of that day. He worked as a boat-joiner 
upon the first barges that were built here for the New Or- 
leans trade, and as a house-carpenter labored upon the 
famous "Bazaar" built by the Trollopesin 1828-9. The 
aged pioneer is spending the evening of his days tran- 
quilly at Pleasant Ridge, in this county. 

By far the most distinguished arrivals of this year, or 
of the decade, were those of General Jared Mansfield 
and his family, which included a son, then a little boy of 
four years, Edward D. Mansfield, who became one of the 
most useful men of his time, and died only last year — 
October 27, 1880, at his "Yamoyden" farm near Morrow, 
thirty miles from Cincinnati. General Mansfield was of 



English stock, and immediately from an old New Hamp- 
shire family; a graduate of Yale college, and thorough 
scientist for his day; a teacher in his native State, and at 
the Friends' academy, in Philadelphia; author of a 
learned work comprising essays on mathematical topics ; 
appointed surveyor-general of the United States by Pres- 
ident Jefferson in 1803, particularly to establish correct 
meridian lines, which had given previous surveyors much 
trouble; resident at Marietta 1803-5, an d at or near 
Cincinnati (at Ludlow's station, and at Bates' place, near 
the present workhouse, afterwards called Mount Comfort), 
1805-12; wrote a series of papers signed "Regulus," op- 
posing the schemes of Burr; established three principal 
meridians in Ohio and Indiana; returned to West Point 
as an instructor 1814-28, and remained at the east until 
his death. 

Edward D. Mansfield was also born in New Hamp- 
shire; was educated here, in New Hampshire, and 
Cheshire, Connecticut, and at the Military academy, from 
which he was graduated the fourth of his class, and the 
youngest graduate in the history of West Point. He was 
commissioned a second lieutenant in the engineer corps, 
but, at the instance of his mother, resigned to become a 
lawyer. He first prepared regularly for college, entered 
the junior class at Princeton, and was graduated with the 
first honor. After a course at the Litchfield Law school 
he was admitted to the bar, and returned to Cincinnati 
the same year, where, or near which city, he thenceforth 
remained. He practiced law but a short time, however, 
and gave his time mostly to journalism and other literary 
pursuits. He was author of the Political Grammar, still 
published as a text-book for schools; of a work on Amer- 
can Education; of Personal Memories, a life of Dr. 
Drake, and many other books and reports, and pamph- 
lets of addresses, lectures, etc. He was the first and only 
commissioner of statistics for the State, and filled the 
place admirably. While a young lawyer here he had for 
a time as a partner Professor O. M. Mitchel, founder of 
the Cincinnati observatory. In 1835 he was professor of 
constitutional law and history in the Cincinnati college, 
and was then also editor of the Cincinnati Chronicle. 
He subsequently filled many other stations of usefulness, 
and continued his intellectual activity almost to the day 
of his lamented death. 

The arrival of General Mansfield and family was pleas- 
antly chronicled nearly forty years afterwards, by Dr. S. 
P. Hildreth, of Marietta, in a history of an early voyage 
on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, with historical 
sketches of the different points along them, etc., etc., 
contributed to the American Pioneer for March, 1842. 
Dr. Hildreth says: 

General Mansfield possessed a high order of talents, especially as a 
mathematician, with every qualification necessary to conduct the de- 
partment under his control with honor to himself and advantage to h.s 
country To a handsome personal appearance was added the most 
bland and pleasant address, rendering him a very desirable companion. 

Among the sailing vessels built at Marietta between 
the years 1801 and 1805, was a beautiful little seventy- 
ton schooner called the Nonpareil, constructed by Cap- 
tain Jonathan Devoll, one of the. earliest shipwrights on 
the Ohio, for himself and sons, and Mr. Richard Greene. 

In the spring of 1805 she was finished and loaded for a 
voyage down the Mississippi, and General Mansfield de- 
termined to take passage upon her with his family — a 
son, a nephew, and a servant girl — for his new station at 
Cincinnati, which would be "more central and nearer to 
the new tracts of government lands ordered to be sur- 
veyed in Ohio and the adjacent western territory." 

The vessel left Marietta April 21st. Dr. Hildreth thus 
records the arrival at Cincinnati, and gives a rapid but 
vivid picture of the town as it then appeared : 

The Nonpareil now unmoored and put out into the stream, proposing 
to stop at Cincinnati to land General Mansfield and family. The dis- 
tance between the two towns was one hundred and sixty miles. New 
settlements and improvements were springing up along the bank of the 
river every few miles; and the busy hum of civilization was heard where 
silence had reigned for ages, except when broken by the scream of the 
panther, the howl of the wolf, or the yell of the savage. In this dis- 
tance there are now no less than twelve towns, some of which are of 
considerable importance. They reached Cincinnati after a voyage of 
seventeen days, being protracted to this unusual length by adverse 
winds, a low stage of water, and the frequent stops of General Mans- 
field on business relating to his department, especially that of deter- 
mining the meridian and latitude of certain points on the Ohio river, 
fit was now the eighth of May; the peach and the apple had shed 
tVeir blossoms, and the trees of the forest were clad in their summer 
dress. ^Cincinnati, in 1805, contained a population of nine hundred 
and fifty souls. The enlivening notes of the fife and drum at reveille 
were no longer heard, and the loud booming of the morning gun, as it 
rolled its echoes along the hills and the winding shores of the river, had 
ceased to awaken the inhabitants from their slumbers. Cincinnati had 
been from its foundation until within a short period the headquarters of 
the different armies engaged in the Indian wars; and the continual ar- 
rival and departure of the troops, the landing of boats and detach- 
ments of pack-horses with provisions, had given to this little village all 
the life and activity of a large city. Peace was now restored; and the 
enlivening hum of commerce was beginning to be heard on the land- 
ings, while the bustle and hurry of hundreds of immigrants thronged 
the streets as they took their departure for the rich valleys of the 
Miami, the intended home of many a weary pilgrim from the Atlantic 
States. The log houses were beginning to disappear— brick and frame 
buildings were supplying their places. Large warehouses had arisen 
near the water for the storing of groceries and merchandise, brought -. 
up in barges and keel-boats from the far distant city of New Orleans. I 


This was a transition year, or rather the beginning of a 
transition-period, for the little place. Says Mr. Mansfield , 
in his biography of Dr. Drake (it will be observed that 
he_was writing about 1855): 

(Cincinnati was then emerging out of a village existence into that, not 
of a city, but of a town, In 1806 it was but a small and dirty county- 
town. But about that time commenced a career of growth and success 
which is unequalled in history. Such success, notwithstanding all / 
natural advances, is always due as much to the mind and energy of its 
citizens as to all physical causes. If we look to the young men then 
aasociated with Dr. Drake and to the older citizens whom I have all 
ready mentioned, it will be found that no young place in America has 
gathered to itself a greater amount of personal energy and intellectual 
ability. 1 ) I have named among the pioneers the St. Clairs, Symmeses, 
Burners, Ganos, Findlays, Goforths and Oliver M. Spencer. In the 
class of young men, about 1806-7-8, were John McLean, now supreme 
judge; Thomas S. Jessup, now quartermaster-general; Joseph G. Tot- 
ten, now general of engineers; Ethan A. Brown, afterwards governor, 
judge and canal commissioner; George Cutler, now colonel in the army; 
Mr. Sill, since member of congress from Erie, Pennsylvania; Joseph 
Crane, afterwards judge; Judge Torrence, Dr. Drake, Nicholas Long- 
worth, Peyton S. Symmes, David Wade, Samuel Perry, Joseph Pierce, 
a poet of decided talent; Mr. Armstrong and John F. Mansfield.* 
The last two died early— the former, a young man of great ability, 
and the latter of distinguished scientific attainments and high promise. 

*Mr. Mansfield's foot-note: " I do not pretend to give a list of all the prom- 
inent young men at that time, but only those of whom I have some knowledge.' 




Such a circle of young men would grace any rising town, and imr. 
to its mind and character a tone of energy and a spirit of ambition. / 

During the year this part of the country was visited 
and partly explored, after a fashion, by an Englishman 
named Thomas Ashe, who chose to palm himself off 
during his travels among the western barbarians as a 
Frenchman named DArville. He pottered around 
somewhat among the antiquities of the Ohio valley, pro- 
mulgated the highly probable theory that the earthworks 
then still remaining in Cincinnati were the ruins of an 
ancient city, and after his return to the Old World, be- 
sides publishing a ponderous account of his travels in 
America, in three volumes, he issued a smaller volume 
entitled, "Memoirs of Mammoth and various extraordi- 
nary and stupendous Bones, of Incognita or Nonde- 
script Animals found in the vicinity of the Ohio, Wabash, 
Illinois, Mississippi, Missouri, Osage and Red rivers, etc. 
Published for the information of the Ladies and Gentle- 
men whose taste and love of science tempt them to visit 
the Liverpool Museum.'' He was helped to this latter 
publication by the indiscretion of that fine gentleman of 
the old school, Dr. William Goforth, of Cincinnati, who 
intrusted the fellow with a large collection, in ten boxes, 
which the doctor had made, with great trouble and at 
some expense, from the Big Bone Lick, in Kentucky. 
Ashe was to take them abroad and exhibit them through 
Europe and the United Kingdom, and send the owner a 
specified share of the profits. Instead he coolly sold 
them to the Liverpool museum for a round sum, after 
exhibiting them in London, and is said to have made a 
fortune out of them and his book. He never accounted 
for a penny to Dr. Goforth, who must have felt the loss 
seriously, as he was not a man of large means. 

Mr. Ashe is regarded as very poor authority in scien- 
tific speculation or statement of fact; yet his narrative 
is undoubtedly correct in parts, and where he had no 
object to accomplish in telling a falsehood, it is probable 
he can be believed. The following is his view of Cincin- 
nati in 1806: 

The town consists of about three hundred houses, frame and log, 
built on two plains, the higher and the lower, each of which commands 
a fine view of the opposite shore, the mouth of Licking, the town of 
Newport, and the Ohio waters for a considerable way both up and 
down. The public buildings consist of a court house, prison, and two 
places of worship; and two printing-prt'ssei are established, which 
issue papers once a week. Cincinnati is also the line of communication 
with the chain of forts extended from Fort Washington to the west- 
ward, and is the principal town in what is called Symmes' Purchase. 
The garrison end of the town is now in a state of ruin. A land office 
for the sale of Congress lands at two dollars per acre is held in the 
town, and made no less than seventeen thousand contracts the last year 
with persons both from Europe and all parts of the United States. So 
very great and extensive is the character of the portion of the State of 
which this town is the fort and capital, that it absorbs the whole repu- 
tation of the country, deprives it of its topographical name, and" is 
distinguished by that of the "Miamis." In Holland, Germany, Ire- 
land, and the remote parts of America, persons intending to emigrate 
declare that they will go to the "Miamis." 

The commerce at present is conducted by about the keepers of thirty 
stores. . . The merchants make an exorbitant profit. Those 
of four years' standing, who came with goods obtained at Philadelphia 
and Baltimore on credit, have paid their debts, and now live at their 

In general the people of Cincinnati make a favorable impression; 
they are orderly, decent, sociable, liberal, and unassuming; and were 
I compelled to live in the western country, I would give their town a 

decided preference. There are among the citizens several gentlemen of 
integrity, intelligence, and worth. 

He names with special commendation Generals Find- 
lay and Gano, Dr. Goforth, and Messrs. Dugan and 

The amusements consist of balls and amateur plays, the former of 
which going to literary and humane purposes, disposes me to think 
them both entertaining and good. 

On the sixth of February, the brig Perseverance, from 
Marietta for New York, via New Orleans and the Gulf, 
dropped anchor at Cincinnati. Commerce with domes- 
tic and foreign ports, from the Ohio Valley over the high 
seas, is obviously looking up. 

On the nineteenth of the month rumors are heard that 
excite considerable alarm concerning the movements of 
the Indians at Greenville, where the artful Tecumseh has 
his lodge, and is daily stirring up strife between the red 
and white men. It is this time, however, a harmless 

March 31st, the United States gunboats, built by the 
order of President Jefferson with some reference, it is 
supposed, to the stoppage of Burr's expedition, were 
launched from the shipyards at Columbia. 

From May 4th to August 22dno rain falls, and a great 
cry goes up for showers. The whole Miami country is 
athirst; the river threatens to disclose the lowermost 
stratum ot its rocky bed. A great eclipse of the sun 
occurs, in its gloomiest movements making the objects in 
a room almost invisible. 

A graphic picture of the effect in Cincinnati of the 
Burr conspiracy is furnished in the journal of Mrs. Israel 
Ludlow (Charlotte Chambers), under date of September 
28, 1806: 

A report has been circulating that Aaron Burr, in conjunction with 
others, is forming schemes inimical to the peace of his country, and that 
an armament and fleet of boats are now in motion on the Ohio, and 
that orders have actually arrived from headquarters for our military to 
intercept and prevent its progress down the river. In consequence of 
these orders, cannon have been planted on the bank and a sentinel 
stationed on the watch. The light horse commanded by Captain Fer- 
guson have gallantly offered their services, and Captain Carpenter's 
company of infantry are on the alert. Cincinnati has quite the appear- 
ance of a garrisoned town. A tremendous cannonading was heard 
yesterday, and all thought Burr and his armament had arrived ; but it 
was only a salute to a fleet oiflatboats containing military stores for the 
different stations on the river. 

Mr. Joseph Coppin, one of the few survivors of the Cin- 
cinnati of the second decade, in his inaugural address, 
March 27, 1880, as President of the Pioneer association, 
gives the following amusing reminiscence : 

We had plenty of snow,' but no pleasure sleighs; so the old pioneers 
thought that they must have a ride, and they procured a large canoe or 
pirogue, with a skiff attached behind and seated for the ladies. To this 
pirogue-sleigh were hitched ten horses, with ten boy-riders to guide 
them, the American flag flying, two fiddlers, two flute-players, and Dr. 
Stall as captain. They did not forget to pass the "old black Betty," 
filled with good old peach brandy, among the old pioneers, and wine 
for the lady pioneers— God bless them! And here they went it, merrily 
singing "Gee-o, Dobbin; Dobbin, gee-o!" When the riding ended, 
both old and young pioneers wound up the sport with a ball — linsey- 
woolsey dresses in place of silk on ladies, many buckskin suits on 
pioneer men, and moccasins on their feet in place of shoes. 


Herr Schultze, a German tourist who found his way to 
the Ohio Valley this year and afterwards published his 




Travels on an Inland Voyage, thus remarks upon Ci 

It contains about three hundred houses, among which are found sev- 
eral very genteel buildings ; it has a bank, market-house, printing-office, 
and a number of stores well stocked with every kind of merchandise in 
demand in this country. The markets are well furnished, both as to 
abundance and variety. Superfine flower [sic] is selling at three and a 
half and four dollars by the single barrel, and other articles are pro- 
portionally cheap. Ordinary manufactures they have likewise in plenty; 
and the country round, being rich and level, produces all the necessaries 
of life with but little labour. Fort Washington is situated immediately 
at the upper end of the town ; and although, from the increased popu- 
lation of the country, it is at present useless, yet, in the early settlement 
of this place, it was a post of considerable importance in checking the 
inecfrsions and ravages of the Indians. 

(February third the Territorial Legislature passes an act 
authorizing the imposition of a tax to the amount of six 
thousand dollars, for the pecuniary foundation of a Cin- 
cinnati University.) 

March eleven, me office of General Findlay, the re- 
ceiver of public moneys at the land office, is robbed of 
fifty thousand dollars, which creates a prodigious sensa- 
tion. The perpetrators are found, tried, and sentenced 
to be publicly whipped, but are pardoned through the 
clerhency of Governor Looker. 

f/The third of September brings the first purchase of 
fire-engines — hand engines, of course — for the village; 
one to be used on the bottom, the other on the hilu) 

November third, Judge Burnet, having been peppered 
with paper bullets from the Rev. John W. Browne, ed- 
itor, in turn castigates him, but with a more material 
weapon. Another first-class sensation for the quid- 
nuncs of the village. 

Mr. Coppin,/he pioneer before referred to, says that 
in this year theffirst barres were built in Cincinnati for 
the New Orleans tradeAby Richardson & Nolan, for 
whom he worked. Thefy were built for Messrs. Martin 
Baum, James Riddle, Henry Bechtle, and Captain Sam- 
uel Perry, and were rigged like schooners, with two 
masts, and the cabins finished like those of a ship. 

Another rather notable arrival occurred this year, June 
first, in the landing, from a flatboat at the foot of Main 
street, of Evans Price, an enterprising Welshman, his 
wife and four children, and 'the large amount, for that 
period, of ten thousand dollars' worth of store goods. 
He had thenceforth a long and active business career in 

the city. 

In November dies the Hon. William Goforth, sr., the 
first judge named for Hamilton county, and a prominent 
member of the first State constitutional convention. 


Mr F Cuming, a Philadelphian, came down the Ohio 
in May, and in his Sketches of a Tour to the Western 

C We n sto y pp S e a d y at Cincinnati, which is delightfully situated just opposite 
the mouth of the Licking rive, This town occupies more ground ^and 
eems to contain nearly as many houses as Lexington^ It is on a 
douWebank, like Steubenville, and the streets are ,n right lines, inter- 
double oan , are of them of bncki and 

Te^rea t g ent\ well built, well painted, and have that air of 
nearness which is so conspicuous in Connecticut and New Jersey, from State this part of the State of Ohio ,s principally settle* 
Some of the new brick houses are of three stones with flat roofs, and 
fheTe .s one of four stories now building. Mr. Jacob Burnet, an emi- 
nent lawyer, has a handsome brick house, beautifully s.tuated, just out- 

side the west end of the town. Cincinnati, then named Fort Washing- 
ton, was one of the first military posts occupied by the Americans in 
the western country, but I observed no remains of the old fort. It is 
now the capital of Hamilton county, and is the largest town in the 

By this time, according to Mr. Cuming, the remains of 
the fort must have been thoroughly cleared away. The 
building and other material had besn sold in March by 
order of the Government, and had probably by this time 
all been broken up and carted off. The reservation on 
which it stood had also been cut up into lots, and sold 
through the land office. 

On the twentieth of April, in that one day, two brigs 
and two "ships" passed Cincinnati, on their way to New 

The vote in Cincinnati this year was two hundred and 
ninety-eight; in Hamilton county one thousand one 
hundred and sixteen. 


There is much excitement and alarm a part of this 
year, under the belief, which is general through the Ohio 
and Indiana country, that Tecumseh and the Prophet, 
still at Greenville, are about to lead the confederated 
tribes to another war of devastation and massacre. The 
movements in the southwest part of the State are re- 
counted in another chapter on the military record of 
Hamilton county. 

The tax levy for this year is but one-half of one per 
cent. ; for the next year but two-fifths of one per cent., 
and for 1811 but thirty -five cents on the hundred dollars. 
In the early afternoon of Sunday, May 28th, a terrible 
tornado swept through the eastern part of town. Dr. 
Drake says, in his Picture of Cincinnati, that "it demol- 
ished a few old buildings, threw down the tops of several 
chimneys and overturned many fruit and shade trees." 
Another gale swept the central part of the village, and a 
third the west end. The last was the most destructive 
of all, blowing down, wrote Dr. Drake, "a handsome 
brick edifice designed for tuition, . . in con- 
sequence of having a cupola disproportioned to its area; 
and various minor injuries of property were sustained, 
but the inhabitants escaped unhurt." The tornado 
made a broad track of devastation through the forest on 
the hill northeast of town. It was accompanied by copi- 
ous showers of rain and hail, with much thunder and 

The "edifice designed for tuition" was the "Cincinnati 
University" building; and its destruction extinguished 
the hopes of the enterprise it represented. Some smaller 
buildings were razed to the ground, and the roof of Win- 
throp Sargent's house was blown off "like a piece of 
paper," as Mr. Mansfield records it. This house, he says, 
was nearly in the centre of the square north of Fourth 
street and east of Broadway, with McAllister street on 
the northwest. He thinks it was the only house then in 
that part of the city. In the same storm, large oak trees 
were torn up by the roots, and some were thrown bodily 
across the roads. Mr. Mansfield's account, however, 
locates this storm in 181 2 ; but he was probably mistaken 
for once. 

William D. Bigham came this year, from Lewiston, 



Pennsylvania, with his wife and family, four sons and two 
daughters. Two other daughters — wives, respectively, of 
James Patterson and James Reed — had already removed 
to Hamilton county, and were living near the city. He 
had made two trips through this country, one in 1795, 
and the other in 1801, during the latter of which he 
bought three hundred and fifty acres of land a mile and 
a half from the town (now, of course, in the city), sev- 
eral town lots here, and a tract in Butler county. He re- 
mained but about a year, and then moved to his place 
near Hamilton, where he died in 1815. Two of his 
grandsons, William D. and David L., sons of David Big- 
ham, became residents of Cincinnati; the former died 
here November 23, 1866. Several of his sons became 
public officers and otherwise prominent men in Butler 




This was the year of the third United States census — 
the second for Cincinnati. It gave the place two thou- 
sand three hundred and twenty inhabitants — an increase 
of nearly three hundred and ten percent, and the great- 
est in the history of the city in one decade, excepting the 
marvelous jump in the sixth decade from forty-six thou- 
sand three hundred and thirty-eight in 1840 to one hun- 
dred and fifteen thousand four hundred and thirty-eight 
in 1850. The white males numbered one thousand two 
hundred and twenty-seven, white females one thousand 
and thirteen, negroes eighty.j Children under sixteen 
years counted one thousand and fifteen; and there were 
but one hundred and eighty-four over forty-five years. The 
vote of the town was three hundred and eighty-eight; of 
the county, two thousand three hundred and twenty. 

(The first book relating to the place was published this 
year — a unique fact for a village of but twenty-four hun- 
dred people and twenty years' growths and one which 
seemed to foreshadow the future greatness of the town. 
Drake's Notes concerning Cincinnnati is now a very rare 
and valuable book^and still reflects honor on the scien- 
tific and literary attainments, as well as the enterprise of 
the young physician who prepared it. It is /a thoroughly 
original work, upon which many Cincinnati books have 
since, in part, been builtJ To the fourth and fifth chap- 
ters of that little work we owe the notes upon the village 
for, this year that follow : , 

(About two-thirds of the houses were in the Bottom, 
the rest upon the Hill. No streets were yet paved, and 
the alleys were still few. There was no permanent com- 
mon, except the Public Landing. The primitive forest 
having been thoroughly cleared away, trees had been 
planted along some of the sidewalks ; but, says the good 
doctor, "they are not sufficiently numerous.) The absurd 
clamor against the caterpillar of the Lombardy poplar 


caused many trees of that species to be cut down, and at 
present the white flowering locust very justly attracts the 
most attention.'' (The place contained about three hun- 
dred and sixty dwellings, chiefly brick and frame, and 
a few of stone. Scarcely any were so constructed as to 
afford habitations for families below the ground, and 
not many had even porches. There were two cemeteries 
— one for the dead of all denominations on the Public 
square, between Fourth and Fifth streets, "nearly in the 
center of the Hill population,'' and was, says Dr. Drake, 
"a convenient receptacle for the town, for strangers, and 
for the troops in Fort Washington, previous to the erase- 
ment of that garrison." Its area was something less than 
half the square. The other cemetery was opened by the 
Methodists about 1805, in the northeast quarter of the 
town, and also on the Hill. Eight brickyards were in 
operation in the western part of the Bottom, on the low- 
est part of the town site, near the second bank. That 
quarteflabounded in pools, formed by water drained from 
almost every part of the village. The butchers' shambles 
were on the bank of Deer creek, north and northwest of 
town. The tanneries were in the same region!} 

([The American emigration to this time had been chiefly 
from the States north of Virginia; but representatives were 
on the ground from every State then in the Union and 
from most of the countries in the west of Europe, espe- 
cially from England, Ireland, Scotland and Germany. 
The inhabitants were generally laborious, most of them 
mechanics, and the rest chiefly merchants, professional 
men, and teachers. Very few, if any, were so independ 
ent in means as not to engage in some business. Most 
of the inhabitants were temperate, but some would get 
"daily but quietly" drunk, and "no very inconsiderable 
number had been known to fall victims to the habit." 
Whiskey was most in request by the tipplers, but beer and 
cider were the beverages of the more sober. Well water 
furnished the plain, summer drink; but for domestic pur- 
poses river water was supplied in barrels, and at least 
half the inhabitants also drank it during six months of 
the year. The use of tobacco by the male inhabitants, 
from the age of ten up, was" almost universal. The aver- 
age food was similar to that eaten in the middle and 
eastern States; fresh meats were consumed in large quan- 
tities.^ Beef, fermented wheat bread, and Indian corn 
bread were common; but hot bread of any kind was 
rarer than in the southern States. Rye flour was almost 
unknown as a breadstuff. Fish was not a leading article 
of diet, although abundant in the streams. 

rThe dress of the people by this time did not vary 
greatly from that worn by the corresponding classes in the 
middle States^ The ladies, thought the doctor, injured 
their health by dressing too thin, and both sexes were 
not sufficiently careful to adjust their clothing to the fre- 
quent changes of weather. Female health was further 
endangered by the balls and dancing parties prevalent 
here then, as elsewhere, though not to great excess. 
Mineral waters, either natural or artificial, or artificial 
baths, were not yet known in the place. Bathing in the 
river was practiced by some, but was less regular and 
general'than comports with health and cleanliness. 



The back part of the bottom, through its entire length, 
is described by the doctor as "a hot-bed" of animal and 
vegetable putridity. Some spots, but only of small area, 
had been artificially raised to make them cultivable. At 
the east end of a strip of low ground was a kind of broad, 
shallow canal, which conveyed water from all parts of the 
town site to. the pits of the brickyards, where "it could 
not escape, save as gas or malaria. For its escape in 
this manner the heat of our summer sun, increased by 
the reflection from the contiguous high bank, is amply 
sufficient." The principal febrile diseases, notably ty- 
phus affections, which had scourged the people the year 
before, especially in December, 1809, were most probably 
due to this cause. The "drowned lands" in the valley 
of Mill creek were also mentioned as a fertile source of 
fever and ague; likewise the tall forest trees that still 
overshadowed large spaces between the valley and the 
town, the cemetery in the heart of the population, and 
the shambles and tanneries when winds blew from the 
northwest. Sunstroke was then unknown here, and 
death from the inordinate use of well water, which in 
those days killed many thirsty ones in Philadelphia, was 
very rare in Cincinnati. Few diseases could be traced 
directly to the heats of summer. 

This year General Lytle, an extensive and enterprising 
land operator, removed to Cincinnati from Williams- 
burgh, Clermont county. He was, as is well known, the 
father of Colonel Robert T. Lytle, who represented the 
Cincinnati district in Congress 1833-5, and tne grand- 
father of General William H. Lytle, who was killed in the 
late war. 

On the twenty-sixth of October arrived the families 
of L'Hommedieu, Fosdick, and Rogers, after a tedious 
journey from Sagg Harbor, on Long Island, having con- 
sumed sixty-three days in coming from New York city. 
Hon. Stephen S. L'Hommedieu, then a boy in one of 
these families, says, in his Pioneer Address of 1874: 

Cincinnati was then a village, containing about two thousand inhab- 
itants. The houses were mostly frame or log cabins, located generally 
on the lower level, below what is now Third street. The principal 
street was Main, and was pretty well built upon as high as Sixth and 
Seventh streets, the latter being the northern boundary of the village. 
It had its Presbyterian meeting-house, a frame building on the square 
between Fourth and Fifth, Main and Walnut streets; its graveyard, 
court house, jail, and public whipping-post, all on the same square. 
Upon the same ground, between the court house and meeting-house, ; 
bands of friendly Indians would have war-dances, much to the amuse- 
ment of the villagers; after which the hat would be passed around for , 
the benefit, it may be, of the pappooses. 

And here I may mention the fact that the pew and pulpit sounding- [ 
board of that same old pioneer meeting-house, built in the years 1792-3. j 
whose pulpit was, in 1810, occupied by that able, fine-looking, hospit- ; 
able brave old Kentucky preacher, Dr. Joshua L. Wilson, are still in 
use in a small German Lutheran church, on the river road, within the 
present corporate limits of the city. : 

The village also had its stone Methodist meeting-house, built in 1805- 
6, situated on East Fifth street, a little west of Eastern row, then the ; 
eastern boundary of the village, now Broadway. It also had its post 
office, on the corner of Lawrence and Front streets, and its David Em- 
bree brewery, on the river bank, below Race street. 


"his year the residents of this region, and indeed all , 
..ough the western country, were much in alarm through 1 
fear of the renewal of Indian depredations and hostili- : 

ities ; which fear, happily, was not realized in any part of 
the Miami valley^ After the battle of Tippecanoe, in 
November, the Fourth regiment of United States infan- 
try, commanded by Colonel Boyd, an uncle of Judge 
Bellamy Storer, which had marched away from Fort 
Washington to the campaign, returned flushed with vic- 
tory, and was received with great acclamation by the 
people of Cincinnati. The next June, we may mention 
here, when it moved northward to join the army under 
General Hull, the military companies of the city met it 
as it landed after crossing from Newport Barracks, and 
acted as an escort of honor on the march up Main street. 
From the northeast to the northwest intersection of this 
street with Fifth, a triumphal arch had been erected, 
bearing in large letters the inscription, "To the Heroes 
of Tippecanoe." Three hundred soldiers, all that re- 
mained of this gallant regiment from the inroads of dis- 
ease and the casualties of service, passed under the arch. 
One soldier marching in disgrace as a prisoner, for deser- 
tion or cowardice, was compelled to go around the arch, 
as a further stamp of .ignominy. Upon reaching its first 
camp north of Cincinnati, about five miles out, the regi- 
ment was bountifully supplied with provisions from the 
city, as gifts of its citizens. Upon arriving at Urbana, 
where Hull's army was then encamped, it was honored 
with another arch, inscribed: "Tippecanoe — The Eagle 
— Glory." Lieutenant Colonel Miller, now command- 
ing the regiment, was the hero of the celebrated reply at 
the battle of Chippewa, to the question of General Scott; 
"Can you take that battery?" "I will try, sir" — words 
which, except the last, were worn upon the buttons of 
the-regimental uniform. 

/In August of this year, the first in the long and costly 
listof Cincinnati breweries was established on the river 
bank, at the foot of Race street, by Mr. David Embree. 
On the twenty-seventh of the same month the hearts of 
the people were made glad, and they were finally relieved 
from Indian alarms, by the notification of Colonel John- 
ston that he had made peace with all the savage tribes 
on the frontier./ Mourning came September 24th 
when Major Zjegler, the gallant old Prussian sol- 
dier, and the first of Cincinnati's executive officers, died. 
He was buried with military honors.* The Farmers' & 
Mechanics' bank, of Cincinnati, was established this year, 
at a public meeting held October 12th. Nicholas Long- 
worth was secretary of the commissioners of the bank. 

* The descendants of Major Ziegler, and all who revere the memory 
of the gallant soldier, will be interested in the following extract from 
the military journal of Major Denny, a fellow officer of the First regi- 
ment of the army : 

"22d. [February, 1789.] Married, this evening, Captain David 
Ziegler, of the First legiment, to Miss Sheffield, only single daughter 
of Mrs. Sheffield, of Campus Martius, city of Marietta. On this oc- 
casion I played the captain's aid, and at his request the memorandums 
made. I exhibited a character not more awkward than strange at the 
celebration of Captain Ziegler's nuptials, the first of the kind I had 
been a witness to." 

This was at Fort Harmar, near Marietta. Captain Ziegler was sta- 
tioned with his company at Fort Finney, near the mouth of the Great 
Miami, more than two years before Losantiville was founded. Major 
Denny elsewhere records a high compliment to Ziegler's soldiership 
and the bearing of his company— "always first in point of discipline 
and appearance. " 


6 4 


t The first steamboat ever seen in Cincinnati, and the 
first built on western waters, the New Orleans, arrived on 
the twenty-seventh of October, naturally exciting great 
curiosity.) She is noted at the time as actually making 
thirteen-niiles in two hours, and against the current at 
that! Liberty Hall of October 30, 181 1, gives a still 
better account of it. After noticing the departure, on 
the previous Sabbath, of two large barges rigged as 
sloops and owned in Cincinnati, for New Orleans, the 
editor includes this in his "ship news" : 

Same day. — The STEAMBOAT, lately built at Pittsburgh, passed this 
town at five o'clock in the afternoon, in fine stile, going at the rate of 
about ten or twelve miles an hour. 

Only these three lines — no more — to chronicle the 
greatest commercial event that ever occurred at Cincin- 

Mr. William Robson, who landed here in June, 1818, 
and was long at the head of the coppersmith and brass- 
founding business in Cincinnati, was originally a ship 
carpenter by trade, and as such worked upon the Cler- 
mont, Fulton's first steamboat upon the Hudson. His 
service upon this was so satisfactory that when the New 
York company determined to build a steamer for the 
western waters, in 181 1, he was sent to Pittsburgh to su- 
perintend its construction. Thus closely is Cincinnati 
related to the introduction of steam navigation in the 
great west. -■ •■ '■• _ 

Mr. Charles Joseph Latrobe, of the celebrated family 
of engineers, in the first volume of his Rambler in 
North America, (1832-33), has left an exceedingly read- 
able and intelligent account of this first voyage of the 
New Orleans, which is worth extracting in full: 

Circumstances gave me the opportunity of becoming acquainted 
with the particulars of the very first voyage of a steamer in the west; 
and their extraordinary character will be my apology to you for filling 
a page of this sheet with the following brief relation : 

The complete success attending the experiments in steam naviga- 
tion made on the Hudson and the adjoining waters previous to the year 
1809, turned the attention of the principal projectors to the idea of its 
application on the western rivers; and in the month of April of that 
year, Mr. Roosevelt, of New York, pursuant to an agreement with 
Chancellor Livingston and Mr. Fulton, visited those rivers, with the 
purpose of forming an opinion whether they admitted of steam navi- 
gation or not. At this time two boats, the North River and the Cler- 
mont, were running on the Hudson. Mr. Roosevelt surveyed the riv- 
ers from Pittsburgh to New Orleans, and, as his report was favorable, it 
was decided to build a boat at the former town. This was done under 
his direction, and in the course of i8n the first boat was launched on 
the waters of the Ohio. It was called the "New Orleans," and intended 
to ply between Natchez, in the State of Mississippi, and the city whose 
name it bore. In October it left Pittsburgh for its experimental voy- 
age. On this occasion no freight or passengers were taken, the object 
being merely to bring the boat to her station. Mr. Roosevelt, his 
young wife and family, a Mr. Baker, the engineer, Andrew Jack, the 
pilot, and six hands, with a few domestics, formed the whole burden. 
There were no woodyards at that time, and constant delays were una- 
voidable. When, as related, Mr. Roosevelt had gone down the river 
to reconnoitre, he had discovered two beds of coal, about one hundred 
and twenty miles below the rapids at Louisville, and now took tools to 
work them, intending to load the vessel with the coal and to employ it 
as fuel, instead of constantly detaining the boat while wood was pro- 
cured from the banks. 

Late at night, on the fourth day after quitting Pittsburgh, they ar- 
rived in safety at Louisville, having been but seventy hours descending 
upwards of seven hundred miles. The novel appearance of the vessel, 
and the fearful rapidity with which it made its passage over the broad 
reaches of the river, excited a mixture of terror and surprise among 
many of the settlers on the banks, whom the rumor ]of such an inven- 

tion had never reached; and it is related that on the unexpected arrival 
of the boat before Louisville, in the course of a fine, still, moonlight 
night, the extraordinary sound which filled the air, as the pent-up 
steam was suffered to escape from the valve on rounding-to, produced 
a general alarm, and the multitudes in the town rose from their beds to 
ascertain the cause. I have heard that the general impression among 
the good Kentuckians was that the comet had fallen into the Ohio ; 
but this does not rest upon the same foundation as the other facts 
which I lay before you, and which I may at once say I had directly from 
the lips of the parties themselves. The small depth of water in the rap- 
ids prevented the boat from pursuing her voyage immediately, and 
during the consequent detention of three weeks in the upper part of the 
Ohio, several trips were successfully made between Louisville and Cin- 
cinnati. In fine, the waters rose, and in the course of the last week in 
November the voyage was resumed, the depth of water barely admit- 
ting their passage. 

When they arrived about five miles above the Yellow Banks they 
moored the boat opposite to the first vein of coal, which was on the 
Indiana side, and had been purchased in the interim of the State gov- 
ernment. They found a large quantity already quarried to their hand 
and conveyed to the shore by depredators, who had not found means to 
carry it off; and with this they commenced loading the boat. While 
thus engaged, our voyagers were accosted in great alarm by the squat- 
ters of the neighborhood, who inquired if they had not heard strange 
noises on the river and in the woods in the course of the preceding 
day, and perceived the shores shake, insisting that they had repeatedly 
felt the earth tremble. 

Hitherto nothing extraordinary had been perceived. The following 
day they pursued their monotonous voyage in those vast solitudes. The 
weather was ^observed to be oppressively hot ; the air misty, still, and 
dull ; and though the sun was visible, like a glowing ball of copper, his 
rays hardly shed more than a mournful twilight on the surface of 
.the water. Evening drew nigh, and with it some indications of what 
w'as passing, around them became evident. And as they sat on deck, 
"they 'ever and anon heard a rushing sound and violent splash, and saw 
large. portions of the shore tearing away from the land and falling into 
-tlie river. " It was," as my informant said, "an awful day ; so still that 
you could have heard a pin drop on the deck." They spoke little, for 
every one on board appeared thunderstruck. The comet had disap- 
peared about this time, which circumstance was noticed with awe by 
the crew. 

The second day after their leaving the Yellow Banks, the sun rose 
over the forest the same ball of fire, and the air was thick, dull, and 
oppressive as before. The portentous signs of this terrible natural Con- 
vulsion continued and increased. The pilot, alarmed and confused, 
affirmed that he was lost, as he found the channel everywhere altered; 
and where he had hitherto known deep water, there lay numberless 
trees with their roots upwards. The trees were seen waving and nod- 
ding on the bank, without a wind; but the adventurers had no choice 
but to continue their route. Towards evening they found themselves 
at a loss for a place of shelter. They had usually brought to under the 
shore, but everywhere they saw the high banks disappearing, over- 
whelming many a flat-boat and raft, from which the owners had landed 
and made their escape. A large island in mid-channel, which was 
selected by the pilot as the better alternative, was sought for in vain, 
having disappeared entirely. Thus, in doubt and terror, they proceeded 
hour after hour till dark, when they found a small island, and rounded 
to, mooring themselves to the foot of it. Here they lay, keeping watch 
on deck during the long autumnal night, listening to the sound of the 
waters which roared and gurgled horribly around them, and hearing 
from time to time the rushing earth slide from the shore, and the com- 
motion as the falling mass of earth and trees was swallowed up by the 
river. The mother of the party, a delicate-female, who had just been 
confined on board as they lay off Louisville, was frequently awakened 
from her restless slumber by the jar given to the furniture and loose 
articles in the cabin, as, several times in the course of the night, the 
shock of the passing earthquake was communicated from the island to 
the bows of the vessel. It was a long night, but morning dawned and 
showed them that they were near the mouth of the Ohio. The shores 
and the channel were now equally unrecognizable; everything seemed 
changed. About noon that day they reached the small town of New 
Madrid, on the right bank of the Mississippi. Here they found the in- 
habitants in the greatest distress and consternation; part of the popu- 
lation had fled in terror to the higher grounds; others prayed to be 
taken on board, as the earth was opening in fissures on every side, and 
their houses hourly falling around them. 

Proceeding thence, they found the Mississippi, at all times a fearful 

Znjf-Tjy jLEFrt''- 

^y^o&r' nsf/r/.?2s 



stream, now unusually swollen, turbid and full of trees; and, after many 
days of great danger, though they felt and perceived no more of the 
earthquakes, they reached their destination at Natchez, at the close of 
the first week in January, i8iz, to the great astonishment of all, the 
escape of the boat having been considered an impossibility. 

At that time you floated for three or four hundred miles on the rivers, 
without seeing a human habitation. 

Such was the voyage of the first steamer. 

(f The shocks of earthquake were felt at Cincinnati al- 
most as severely as at some points in the Mississippi val- 
ley. The first shock occurred at 2:24 A. M., on the 
morning of the sixteenth of December. The motion 
was a quick oscillation or rocking, continuing six or seven 
minutes, and accompanied, as some averred, by a rush- 
ing or rumbling noise. Some mischief was done to 
brick-walled houses and to chimneys, and many persons 
were afflicted by it with vertigo or nausea. A brief but 
graphic picture of the earthquake, as it affected this 
place, is given by Mr. E. D. Mansfield, in his biography 
of his brother-in-law, Dr. Drake. Mr. Mansfield, it 
should be remarked, had himself personal recollections of 
this event: 

In the morning of the sixteenth of December, 181.1, the inhabitants 
of the Miami country, and especially of Cincinnati and its neighbor- 
hood, were awoke from a sound sleep, at about three o'clock, by a 
shaking of their houses, and by rumbling noises which sounded like 
distant thunder. To each one the phenomenon was alike unknown 
and awful. In the country the animals soon began to shriek, and all 
Nature seemed to feel the shock of a common evil and the dread of a 
common danger. The most intelligent persons soon discovered it to be 
an earthquake; but this discovery by no means allayed the alarm. On 
the contrary, as earthquakes were never known before in this region, 
there was nothing to reason upon, and full scope was left for the im- 
agination. Pictures of the earth opening to devour the inhabitants, of 
burning lava bursting forth, of yawning gulfs, and to many of a general 
destruction and a general doom, rose to the visions of the affrighted 
people, filling them with fears and anxieties. 

The shock of the sixteenth of December was so violent that it shook 
down the chimneys of several houses. In the midst of the general 
alarm there was some amusement; and the buoyant spirits of young 
and happy people will often extract something pleasant, even from the 
most fearful circumstances. Mrs. Willis's Columbian inn was a sort of 
fashionable hotel, where many of the gay people of the town boarded. 
I remember to have heard a great deal of laughter at the odd and 
curious appearance and grouping of maids and madams, bachelors and 
husbands, as they rushed into the street, tumultuous, in midnight 
drapery. But this cheerfulness did not last long; for the earthquakes 
continued during the winter, and although they were better understood, 
they were not the less dreaded. This common fear, and indeed the 
common necessity 'of being prepared for any event, had a great influ- 
ence in destroying the artificiality of society and bringing friends and 
neighbors together. Many families had their valuables carefully packed 
up, that they might take a rapid flight, in case of the destruction of 
their houses or of chasms in the earth, which would render their de- 
parture necessary. As the shocks of an earthquake were generally pre- 
ceded by signs of their approach, such as rumbling sounds and a pe- 
culiar atmosphere, families would often sit up late at night, in dread of 
a night shock, and neighbors and friends would assemble together to 
make the time pass more pleasantly, especially to the young, by cheer- 
ful conversation. In this manner social intercourse and friendly feeling 
were promoted, and, as in other afflictions of Providence, good was 
still educed from evil. 

The scientific observations and explanations upon this (in the valley 
of the Ohio) most extraordinary phenomenon are recorded by Dr. 
Drake in the Appendix to the Picture of Cincinnati. Most careful 
notes of the duration and deviation of the shocks were made by Col- 
onel Mansfield, at Bates's place. A carefully prepared pendulum, hung 
in the parlor window of his house, never ceased its vibrations from 
December to the following May; and several shocks occurred during 
the remainder of the year 1812. 

The original seat of this shaking of the earth seems to have been near 
New Madrid, on the Mississippi, a point four hundred miles, in a direct 
line, from Cincinnati. There the convulsion was terrific. Boats on the 


river were thrown into a boiling whirpool, and seemed for a time to be 
engulfed in an endless vortex. The banks of the river were rent, the 
earth was opened, and the waters, rushing in, formed lakes for miles, 
where the land was dry before. Explosions from beneath took place, 
and fossils buried in the alluvium of ages were forced to the surface. 
The power of the original cause may be estimated by the fact of such 
violent effects at Cincinnati, four hundred miles distant, and that the 
movements, as of a lever, of this central force, were felt almost through- 
out North America, diminishing in intensity in the inverse ratio of the 
distance. \ 

The hardest shock here occurred on the second of 
February following, throwing down chimneys and doing 
other mischief. Slight shocks were felt from time to 
time for nearly two years, the last being observed Decem- 
ber 12, 1 8 13. They are said to have been much severer 
in the valley of the Ohio than on the uplands, where, in 
many places, the convulsion of the earth was scarcely 
felt. Twenty miles from Cincinnati, and on the ridges of 
Kentucky, it is recorded there were whole families who 
slept through the first shock without being awakened. 

A literary curiosity appeared this year — and seems to 
have been published for some years before, as this is No. 
6 — in the shape of the Cincinnati Almanac, the first 
calendar published west of the Alleghanies. It was / 
printed by Rev. John W. Browne, and prepared by 
"Robert Stubbs, Philom.," an English clergyman, who 
came to this region in 1800 and took charge of the New- 
port Academyi He was quite noted locally as a scholar, 
and used to excite great wonderment in the minds of the 
people as he paced to and fro before his front door, recit- 
ing scraps of Greek and Latin. Colonel James Taylor, 
of Newport, is reputed to be the sole surviving member 
of his school. 

This year Mr. John Melish, another Englishman 
abroad, makes Cincinnati a visit, and records some 
shrewd observations in manufactures here, which will be 
found hereafter, in our chapter on that subject. 


This was the great historic year which opened the last 
war with Great Britain. The west was considerably dis- 
turbed by the movements of the British and Indians and 
the dread of approaching hostilities, for months before the 
war formally opened. It was determined by the authori- 
ties to form an army of Ohio troops on the northwest 
frontier, and Hamilton, Butler, Warren, and Clermont 
counties were called upon for one battalion, which was 
promptly raised, and marched to the rendezvous at 
Camp Meigs, near Dayton. General Gano was promi- 
nent in these early movements, as afterwards in the war; 
and General Findlay, although a major-general in the 
militia, consented to command a regiment as colonel. 
The Governor of the State issued the following: 

The situation of our country has compelled the Government to resort 
to precautionary measures of defence. In obedience to its call, 400 
men have abandoned the comforts of domestic life and are here assem- 
bled in camp, at the distance of some hundred miles from home, pre- 
pared to protect our frontier from the awful effects of savage and of 
civilized warfare. But the unprecedented celerity with which they 
have moved precluded the possibility of properly equipping them. 
Many, very many of them, are destitute of blankets, and without those 
indispensable articles it will be impossible for them to move to their 
point of destination. Citizens of Cincinnati! this appeal is made to 
you. Let each family furnish one or more blankets, and the requisite 



number will be easily completed. It is not requested as a boon: the 
moment your blankets are delivered you shall receive the full value in 
money— they are not to be had at the stores. The season of the year is 
approaching when each family may, without inconvenience, part with 
one. Mothers! Sisters! Wives! — Recollect that the men in whose favor 
this appeal is made, have connections as near and dear as any which 
can bind you to life. These they have voluntarily abandoned, trusting 
that the integrity and patriotism of their fellow-citizens will supply every 
requisite for themselves and their families, and trusting that the same 
spirit which enabled their fathers to achieve their independence will 
enable theirsons to defend it. To-morrow arrangements will be made 
for their reception, and the price paid. 

R. J. MEIGS, Governor of Ohio. 
Cincinnati, April 30, 1812. 

The appeal was promptly and generously responded 
to, and the brave boys in camp slept warm during the 
cool nights of spring. 

Most of the prominent names or events connected 
with the war, so far as tradition or the records have 
handed them down, have been recorded in Part L, chap- 
ter n, of this book. It is to be regretted that more of 
the interior history of the struggle, and especially the 
rolls of the regiments recruited, are not now accessible to 

(fclncinnati and Newport presented many stirring scenes 
duVing the war. A recruiting station was maintained in 
each place, and the strains of martial music soon became! 
familiar sounds. Business at first fell off, through the 
excitement of volunteering and drafting and the equip- 
ment of the troops; but recovered as the people became 
accustomed to it and the war created new demands^ 
Mr. L'Hommedieu says, in his Pioneer Address April J, 

Everything wore a military aspect. United States troops from the 
Newport barracks were marched under arms, on Sunday, to the pio- 
neer Presbyterian meeting-house, to hear the stirring words of our good 
and brave Dr. Wilson. Kentucky sent her thousands of volunteers on 
their march to join the Army of the North (soon to be commanded by 
General Harrison), to give battle to the British and their savage allies. 
It was a glorious sight to see these brave men pass up Main street; and 
what glory they earned in the second war for independence. 

On the twentieth of June Liberty Hall published the 
declaration of war, and patriotism was immediately at 
fever heat. The citizens assembled, passed resolutions 
of approval, fired cannon, and engaged in other demon- 
stations. Per contra, intense indignation was manifested 
when, on the eighth of September, news was received of 
General Hull's outrageous surrender at Detroit. 

Lieutenant Hugh Moore conducted the recruiting 
station here. Many volunteers were already in the field 
from Hamilton county, marching against the British and 
Indians at the northward, while a company of home 
guards was organized among the older men of Cincin- 
nati and commanded by General William Lytle. The 
troops and the cause were fitly remembered in the toasts 
at the celebration of Independence day this year. 
Among them were these: "The Northwestern Army: 
Our brethren and fellow-citizens now on the frontier — 
'Nor do they sigh ingloriously to return, 
But breathe revenge, and for the battle burn.' 

May they have pleasant paths and unclouded spirit." 
General Harrison was responsible for a toast which 
would certainly have been withheld, if he could have 
forecast the near future: "General Hull and his Army 

— They have passed that scene immortalized by the vic- 
tory of Wayne; the spirit of that hero will animate them 
to deeds like his, and teach them the lesson of victory 
or death." 

Cincinnati had at least two little notices" abroad this 
year — the one from Alcedo ; or a Geographical and His- 
torical Dictionary of America and the West Indies — an 
English work by G. A. Thompson, Esq.; and the other 
from the Topographical Description of Ohio, Indiana 
Territory and Louisiana, "by a late officer of the army," 
which is accompanied by an engraving of the best-known 
view of early Cincinnati, that taken by Lieutenant Jervis 
Cutler, from Newport, in 1810: 

Cincinnati, a flourishing town in the territory of the United States 
northwest of the Ohio, and the present seat of government. It stands 
on the north bank of the Ohio, opposite the mouth of Licking river, 
two miles and a half southwest of Fort Washington [!] and about eight 
miles west of Columbia. Both these towns lie between Great and Lit- 
tle Miami rivers. Cincinnati contains about two hundred houses, and 
is eighty-two miles north by east of Frankfort; ninety northwest of Lex- 
ington, and seven hundred and seventy-nine west by south of Philadel- 
phia. Latitude thirty-eight degrees forty-two minutes north. Longi- 
tude eighty-four degrees eleven minutes west. 

Mr. Cutler's Topographical Description is mainly use- 
ful as introducing another and better notice, from a well 
known authority of the olden time. The writer says: 

Returning back to the Ohio, the first town below Columbia is Cin- 
cinnati, five miles distant. In the Ohio Navigator a concise and correct 
description is given of this town: 

'/[Cincinnati is handsomely situated on a first and second bank of 
the \)hio, opposite Licking river. It is a flourishing town, has a rich, 
level, and well settled country around it. It contains about four hun- 
dred dwellings, an elegant court house, jail, three market houses, a 
land office for the sale of Congress lands, two printing offices, issuing 
weekly gazettes, thirty mercantile stores, and the various branches of 
mechanism are carried on with spirit. Industry of every kind being 
duly encouraged by the citizens, Cincinnati is likely to become a consid, 
erable manufacturing place^ It is eighty-two miles north by east from 
Frankfort, and about three hundred and eighty by land south-south- 
west from Pittsburgh, north latitude thirty-nine degrees, five minutes, 
fifty-four seconds, according to Mr~Ellicot, and west longitude eighty- 
five degrees, forty-four minutes. [ It is the principal town in what is 
called Symmes' Purchase, and isShe seat of justice for what is called 
Hamilton county, Ohio.) It has a bank issuing notes under the author- 
ity of the State, called the Miami Exporting company. /The healthi- 
ness and salubrity of the climate; the levelness and luxuriance of the 
soil; the purity and excellence of the waters, added to the blessings 
attendant on the judicious administration of mild and equitable laws; 
the great security in the land titles; all seem to centre in a favorable 
point of expectation — that Cincinnati and the country around it 
must one day become rich and very populous, equal, perhaps, if not 
superior to any other place of an interior position in the United States.} 
The site of Fort Washington is near the centre of the town. It was a 
principal frontier post: it is now laid out in town lots. 

(^l considerable trade is carried on between Cincinnati and New 
Orleans) in keel-boats, which return laden with foreign goods. The 
passage of a boat of forty tons down to New Oileans is computed at. 
about twenty-five, and its return to Cincinnati at about sixty-five days.)) 


The population of the village this year is estimated to 
have reached four thousand. 

The death of the Rev. John W. Browne, a prominent 
editor in the early days of local journalism, occurred 
this year. Arrived, Thomas Pierce, anon>mous author 1/ 
of the amusing satires entitled Horace in Cincinnati, 1 
and also writer of Hesperia, a prize poem. He was a 
merchant till 1822, then studied medicine, but resumed 
merchandising, and died here in 1850. 



February 2d, news of Winchester's defeat on the river 
Raisin, in Michigan, is received. 

September 9th, four thousand Kentucky volunteers 
pass through town, on their way to join the northern 
army. On the twenty-first the glad news comes of Perry's 
great naval victory at Put-in Bay. 

James W. Gazlay came to the village this year, and 
opened a law office on Main street, between Sixth and 
Seventh — then quite out of the business quarter. 


This year, February 26, the people of the county and 
of the State sustained the loss of the hero of the Miami 
Purchase, Judge John Cleves Symmes. He died in 
Cincinnati, between which and North Bend he alternated 
his residence. The following notice was issued to his 
friends and the general community: 

The citizens of Cincinnati are invited to attend the funeral of the 
Hon. John Cleves Symmes, at the dwelling of Gen. Harrison in Front 
street, to-morrow at 10 o'clock A. M., from whence a procession will be 
formed to the landing of Mr. Joel Williams, where the body will be 
embarked for North Bend, selected by the Judge as the place of his 
interment. Such of his friends as can make it convenient to attend 
his remains to that place can be accommodated on board the boat 
which conveys them. 

Cincinnati, February 26, 1814. 

Sufficient notice of the life and public services of this 
remarkable man has been made in chapter V of the first 
division of this book. We are in addition able to present 
here a document of great interest, which we are assured 
has never before been in print : 

The last will and testament of John Cleves Symmes. In the name of 
God, amen. I, John Cleves Symmes, of North Bend, in the county of 
Hamilton and State of Ohio, being grievously afflicted with a cancer in 
my under lip, chin, and throat, which will undoubtedly shortly put an 
end to my life, while as yet I remain of sound mind and memory, do 
think it my duty to make and publish this my last will and testament, 
not so much for the disposition of the small personal property which I 
shall possess at my Death, as the constitution and laws of the State of 
Ohio anticipates the necessity of my making will in that respect, my 
will being the same with the law quo ad goods, chattels, rights, and 
credits; but the circumstance which renders it necessary that I should 
make and publish this my last will and testament is to authorize my ex- 
ecutors hereinafter named, and the survivor of them, to sell and dis- 
pose of and make title to the purchasers of those few fragments of 
land which I have never sold, and which as yet has not been torn from 
me under color of law, as by the laws of the State administrators can- 
not dispose of the real estate of their intestate without a rule of court 
authorizing them so to do. Therefore I, the said John Cleves Symmes, 
do hereby declare and appoint my worthy son-in-law William Henry 
Harrison, Esquire, and my beloved grandson John Cleves Short, Es- 
quire, and the survivor of them, my true and lawful executors to this 
my last will and testament, hereby giving unto them and the survivor 
of them full power and lawful authority to sell all or any part of my 
lands and real estate, wherever any part or parcel thereof may be found 
or discovered within the said State of Ohio, and proceeds or monies 
arising from such sales equally to divide between them for their reward, 
in compensation for their trouble and services; first, however, paying 
thereout for all deficiencies in contents or number of acres that may be 
found wanting in the several tracts of land which I have heretofore sold 
and been paid for, but which on a re-survey may have been deeded by 
me for a greater number of acres than there really is in the tract. On 
the other hand, many sections, quarter sections, fractions of sections, 
tracts and parcels of land, by me heretofore deeded for a given number 
of acres, strict measure, on a re-survey will appear to be larger, and 
contains a surplusage of land over and above the quantity of land sold 
or ever paid for. It is therefore my will and desire that my executors 
and the survivor of them seek after and enquire out these surplus lands 
by the assistance of the county surveyor, and that my executors dispose 

of such surplus lands at the same price with which they remunerate 
those whose deeds from me call for more land than is embraced within 
the limits or boundaries of my deeds to them, And my further will 
. and request is, and I do hereby enjoin upon my said executors and the 
survivor of them, hereby investing in them and the survivors of them 
all lawful authority and full power for the purpose, to carry [out] all my 
special contracts with individual persons into full effect and final close, 
according to the tenor of each respective contract; provided, however, 
that the other party named in each several contract faithfully fulfill the 
conditions on their part stipulated to be performed, which conditions 
will appear on having recourse to their respective contracts. And my 
will is that my said executors have and possess, and I hereby give unto 
them, and the survivor of them, all further necessary and usual powers 
to sue for and collect all or any part of my dues and debts, whether 
owing to me on bond, on note, or book debt; and also to pay all such 
debts as I justly owe; but there are some unjust claims against me 
founded in the deepest conspiracy, fraud and perjuries. 

(S hope I need make no apology to my children and grandchildren for 
nothaving so much property to leave to them as might have been ex- 
pected from the earnings of a long, industrious, frugal, and adventur- 
ous life, when they recollect the undue methods taken, as well by the 
Government of the United States as by many individual private char- 
acters, to make sacrifice of my hardly earned property at the shrine of 
their avarice. It has been my particular lot to be treated with the 
blackest, blackest ingratitude, by some who now laugh at my calamity, 
but who would at this day have been toiling in poverty, had not my en- 
terprise to this country, my benevolence, or the property which they 
have plundered from me, have made them rich. How dark and mys- 
terious are the ways of Heavenj) I shall add nothing further save that it 
is my particular desire to be buried m the graveyard at North Bend, 
where the last twenty.five years of my life have been chiefly spent. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand to this, my last 
will and testament, on the thirty-first day of December, in the year 
eighteen hundred and thirteen. 

John Cleves Symmes. [Seal] 
Subscribed and sealed in presence of 
James Findlay, 
Geo. P. Toekence, 
Joseph Perry. 
Thos. Sloo, Junr, 

The election for corporation officers was held this year 
April 4th, at John Wingate's tavern. Only one hundred 
and forty-one votes were cast, though the town is to have 
had a vote of four hundred and eleven in 1814. Samuel 
W. Davis was chosen president of the select council; 
Jacob Brown, William Corry, Samuel Stitt, Davis Em- 
bree, John S. Wallace, William Irwin, and Jacob 
Wheeler, members of the council; Griffin Yeatman, re- 
corder; John Mahard, assessor; Jacob Chambers, mar- 
shal and collector. 

Brilliant auroras were observed in the sky April 19th 
and September nth. 

On the fifth of April Jeremiah Neave & Son opened a 
commission warehouse on Main street. 

October 2 2d the first Bible society in the Miami coun- 
try is started here. 

In the fall or early winter of 1814, Cincinnati lost the 
office of surveyor general of public lands in the north- 
west, by its removal to Chillicothe, under the ap- 
pointment of ex-Governor Tiffin as surveyor general, 
and the late incumbent of that office, Josiah Meigs, to 
Dr. Tiffin's place as commissioner of the general land 
office. This post had been created by act of Congress 
April 25, 1812, and Governor Tiffin appointed by Presi- 
dent Madison as the first commissioner. In the autumn 
of 1814 he conceived a strong desire to return to the 
west, and wrote to Mr. Meigs proposing an exchange of 
offices. He readily consenting, the matter was arranged 
1 without difficulty with the President, the Senate con- 



firmed the new nominations, and the ex-governor came 
home to Chillicothe, removing the surveyor general's of- 
fice thither, while Mr. Meigs removed his residence tem- 
porarily to Washington, and assumed charge of the gen- 
eral land office — a post which he held for some years. 

The fine old Lytle house, at No. 66 Lawrence street, 
East End, was erected this year by General Lytle, and 
has been continuously occupied by the family. It is by 
far the oldest building of its grade in the city. Mr. Jo- 
seph Jones, who worked upon it in 1814, then a full- 
grown man, is still living in Cincinnati. 

David K. Este, a young lawyer, afterwards an eminent 
judge, settled in the city. 


The preparation of another book by Dr. Drake — the 
Natural and Statistical View, or Picture of Cincinnati and 
the Miami Country — was the local literary event of the 
year. It enables the reader to form a lull and no doubt 
accurate conception of the now large and rapidly growing 
town, in nearly all respects. The preface modestly de- 
scribes the work as "an account of a village in the woods;" 
but it is a remarkable and valuable account. For the 
first time to a book on Cincinnati, a map is prefixed; 
which gives us the opportunity to introduce here Mr. 
Charles Cist's article, prepared thirty years afterwards and 
published in his Miscellany, on 


Streets. — West of the section line separating section twenty-four 
from the west of the city, there was not a street laid out at the date of 
1815. That line followed a due north course from a point at the river 
Ohio, about half-way between Mill and Smith streets, crossing Fifth 
street just east of the mound which lately stood there, and Western 
row about two hundred yards south of the corporation line. Plum ; 
Race, and Walnut streets extended no farther north than Seventh 
street, and Sycamore was not opened beyond the present line of the 
Miami canal. From Walnut street west as far as Western row, not a. 
street was opened north of Seventh street north of the canal already re- 
ferred to. It was the same case with respect to Broadway from Fifth 
street to the corporation line in the same direction. Court street, west 
of Main, was called St. Clair street, and Ninth street, its whole length 
at that time, was laid out as Wayne street. Eighth street, east of 
Main, was called New Market street. 

Public Buildings.. — Of churches there were only — the Presbyterian 
church which preceded the present building, on Main street ; the Meth- 
odist church on Fifth, where the Wesley chapel has since been built ; a 
Baptist church on Sixth street, west of Walnut, on the site of what is 
now a German church, corner of Lodge street ; aud the Friends' frame 
meeting-house on Fifth, below Western row. Of all these the last only 
remains on its original site, the Presbyterian church having been re- 
moved to Vine, below Fifth, where it still stands under the name of 
Burke's church, and the others having been since removed to make way 
for their successors. The site of the present Cincinnati college, on 
Walnut street, at that date was occupied by the Lancaster seminary. 
Young as was the place, it furnished business for three banks. The 
Bank of Cincinnati was on Main, west side, and north of Fifth street ; 
the Farmers' and Mechanics' bank on Main, west side, between Front 
and Second streets ; and the Miami Exporting company on the spot 
now [1844] occupied by W. G. Breese's store, facing the Public Landing. 
These, with the court house and jail, which stand now where they then 
stood, made up the public buildings for 1815. The brewery, corner of 
Symmes and Pike streets ; another, corner of Race and Water streets, 
immediately east of Deer creek ; Gulick's sugar refinery on Arch street ; 
a glass-house at the foot of Smith street ; a steam saw-mill at the mouth 
of Mill street ; and the great steam mill on the river bank, half-way be- 
tween Ludlow street and Broadway, constituted in 1815 the entire man- 
ufactories of the place. 

Markets. — Besides lower market, which occupied the block from 
Main to Sycamore, as well as that from Sycamore to Broadway, in the 

street of that name, and upper market, which stood on Fifth, between 
Main and Walnut streets, there was ground vacated for markets, which, 
having been found unsuitable for the purpose, was never occupied for 
that use. One of these embraces the front of Sycamore street on both 
sides, from a short distance north of Seventh to the corner of Ninth 
street. Another is on McFarland street, west of Elm, forming a square 
of two hundred feet in the centre of the block. A slight examination of 
these places where the dwellings have been built back from the line of 
the respective streets, will point out at once the space dedicated for this 

The blocks marked upon this map as fully occupied or 
settled at this time were those between Front, Water, and 
the river, Main and Plum ; south of East Front, between 
Broadway and Ludlow; between Second and Front, from 
Vine to Ludlow, and Lawrence to Pike ; between Second 
and Third, from Main to Sycamore, and Broadway to 
Ludlow; between Third and Fourth, Main and Sycamore, 
one block;' between Fourth and Fifth, from Plum to 
Sycamore; between Fifth and Sixth, Walnut to Main 
only; between Sixth and Northern row, and between 
Northern row and New Market (Eighth street), only 
Sycamore to Broadway; also eleven small blocks west of 
Western row, on Longworth, London, Kemble, Rich- 
mond, and Catherine streets. The blocks adjacent 
to those described were mostly one-eighth to three- 
fourths occupied; but there were still some magnificent 
distances in the heart of the town, the block between 
Second and Third, Race and Vine, for example, being 
still wjTOilyun^ccupied. 

Drake is jiow able to remark: 

FAjm Newpojt-6r Covington [then just laid out |, the appearance of 
the town is beantiful ; and at a future period, when the streets shall be 
graduated from the Hill to the river shore, promises to become magnifi- 

it Preparations were making, he says, for the paving of 
Main street, fr u m the tirer to Fourt h, and the next year 
it would "no doubt be followed by a general improve- 
ment of the town in this respect.") It had become a 
question where the drainage from the town should be 
made to enter the river, and^the doctor thought that 
probably all gutters west of Broadway would be dis- 
charged into a common sewer at Second street, "along 
which in an open channel the water now runs. '*) t It|fwas 
proposed to throw up a levee along the border of the 
town plat, six feet high and two hundred yards long) but, 
says the doctor, "no measures, have yet been taken to ef- 
fect this important object." (Other improvements, pro- 
jected] at least, in the fertile and active brain of Dr. 
Drake,(were a bridge across the Ohio, a steam ferry, a 
new and permanent bridge across the mouth of Deer 
creek) the restoration of the wooden bridge across Mill 
creek, near its confluence with the Ohio,(a great road via 
Dayton toward the sources of the Miamis, an improved 
road to Columbia, andjnote it for 1815/a canal, to con- 
nect the Great Miami with the Maumee, and a canal 
Irom Hamilton to Cincinnati) a route for which is traced 
upon his map, and is substantially that, which the Miami 
canal afterwards followed. No wonder the enterprising 
writer was now able to register his opinion that "Cincin- 
nati is to be the future metropolis of the Ohio. 

( It is the permanent mart and trading capital 
of a-tect whose area equals the cultivated part of New 
;!. , . ■•f.-fj aAM~ ) 


Steam Mill. 

o Ferries. 

4 Brewery. 

5 Potash Factory . 

6 Presbyterian Choroh. 

7 Court House. 

8 JsiL 

9 Methodist Church. 

10 Lanoaster Seminary. 

11 Sugar Refinery . 

12 Bank of Cincinnati. 

13 Bank— Miami Exporting Co. 

14 Bank— Fanners & Mechanics. 

15 Friends' Meeting House. ' 

16 Remains of Ancient Works . / 
IT Presbyterian Bnrytng Ground 
IB Site of Old Fort Washington'. 

19 Glass House. 

20 Steam Saw Mill. 

21 Baptist Church. 

22 W. Market. 

23 Market. 





Hampshire, New Jersey, or Maryland; surpasses the 
State of Connecticut, and doubles the States of Rhode 
Island and Delaware taken together; with a greater quan- 
tity of fertile and productive soil than the whole com- 

The population of the town,) in July of this year,(was 
carefully estimated at six thousand — an increase of fifty 
per cent, in two years. The average was nearly ten per- 
sons to a dwelling. \ And, says the doctor, /no part of 
its unexampled progress in population and improvement 
can be ascribed to political aids; . . . but 
the whole has resulted from such natural and commer- 
cial advantages as cannot easily be transformed or de- 
stroyed." J 

(There were not far from one thousand and seventy 
houses in the nlace^) exclusive of kitchens, smoke-houses, 
and stables. (Over twenty were of stone, two hundred 
and fifty brick, about eight hundred wood. Only six 
hundred contained families; the rest were public or busi- 
ness houses.) (The great disproportion of frame houses 
was due to the demand created by rapid immigration, as 
they could be so speedily built. The dwellings were gen- 
erally two stories high, of a neat and simple style, with 
sloping shingle roofs) and Corinthian or Tuscan cornices. 
Several had lately Been put up with a third story, "and 
exhibit, for a new town, some magnificence. A handsome 
frontispiece or balustrade occasionally affords an evidence 
of opening taste, but the higher architectural orna- 
ments, elegant summer-houses, porticos, and colonnades, 
are entirely wanting." (/Few frame houses were yet even 
paintedA Three market-houses were already among the 
public buildings of the town. ffThe largest and highest 
structure was of course the great steam-mill on the river 
bank!) The buildings of the Cincinnati Manufacturing 
company, however, on the bank above Deer creek, were 
numerous and extensive, the main edifice being one hun- 
dred and fifty feet by twenty to thirty-seven feet, and two 
to four stories high. . The Columbian garden and the 
great mound at the west end are mentioned as favorite 
resorts for promenaders. 

On the tenth of January the legislature passed another 
act of incorporation for the village, essentially modifying 
that of thirteen years before. The same corporation 
limits were prescribed, however. The town was divided 
into four wards, each electing three trustees for a term of 
three years. When first met, the trustees were to choose 
a mayor from their own number, and also elect a recorder, 
clerk and treasurer. The council was empowered to pass 
j and enforce all ordinances necessary and proper for the 
\ health, safety, cleanliness, convenience, morals, and good 
government of the town and its inhabitants. Real estate 
was not to be taxed beyond one-half of one per cent, in 
any year, without a vote of the people authorizing it. It 
was the Mayor's exclusive duty to decide upon all charges 
for violations of ordinances, subject to appeal to the 
council or court of common pleas, at the option of the 
party aggrieved by his decision. He also exercised the 
principal functions of a justice of the peace, within the 

town limits. 

About four weeks after the battle of New Orleans, Jan- 

uary 8th, the news reached Cincinnati, and created much 
rejoicing. To quote Mr. L'Hommedieu again : 

What a glorification our people had ! Some now present will remem- 
ber the illumination, the grand procession that moved down Main street, 
with a bull manacled and appropriately decorated. 

Another month or more brought news of peace, made before the 
great battle of the eighth was fought ; and then another grand illumin- 
ation of our village. What a joyous time we boys had ! How we 
equipped ourselves with paper soldier-caps, with red belts and wooden 
swords, and marched under command of our brave captain as far as 
Western row, now Central avenue, where we reached the woods, and, 
for fear of Indians, returned to our mammas, reporting on the return 
march to old Major-General Gano, who, after putting us through a 
drill, gave each boy a fip to purchase gingerbread, baked by a venerable 
member, formerly president of this association. 

On the eleventh of December came out the first num- 
ber of the consolidated journals, Liberty Hall and Cin- 
cinnati Gazette, published by Looker, Palmer and Rey- 
nolds. On the twenty-sixth the three banks mentioned 
in Mr. Cist's notes on the early maps together suspended 
payment, creating great excitement and no little real dis- 
tress in the community. 

Timothy Flint, the noted writer, came with his family 
during the winter of this year, took a house, and re- 
mained until spring. He afterwards settled here. In 
his volume of Recollections, published long afterwards, he 
records some pleasant reminiscences of the town and its 
people : 

(in no part of the old Continent that I have visited are strangers treat- 
ed with more attention, politeness, and respect than in Cincinnati J and 
where, indeed, can an Englishman forget that he is not at home, except 
in the United States J In most other regions he must forego many early 
habits, prejudices, and propensities, and accommodate himself to others, 
perhaps diametrically opposite ; he must disguise or conceal his religious 
or political opinions ; must forget his native language and acquire flu- 
ency in another before he can make even his wants known or his wishes 
understood ; but here the same language and fashion as in his own pre- 
vail in every State ; indeed, it is necessary for him to declare himself. a 
foreigner, to be known as such, and I have always found this declara- 
tion a passport to increased attention and kindness ; for every man in 
this land of freedom enjoys his opinions unmolested. Not having the 
slightest intention of stopping at any town on my way to New York, I 
was without any introductions ; but this deficiency by no means pre- 
vented my receiving the usual benefit of the hospitality of the inhabi- 
tants, which was such as to induce us at first to remain a few days, and 
ultimately, probably, to end our lives with. them. 
( Sixteen hundred miles from the sea, in half an age, this flourishing 
and beautiful town has emerged from the woods, and when as old as 
Petersburgh now is, will probably, in wealth and population, emulate 
the imperial city. No troops are stationed, no public money lavished 
here. It is not even the State metropolis. The people build and 
multiply imperceptibly and in silence. Nothing is forced. This mag- 
nificent result is only the development of our free and noble institutions 
upon a fertile soil. 

The banks of ihe ' Ohio are destined shortly to become almost a 
continued village. Eleven years have produced an astonishing change 
in this respect; for at that distance of time by far the greater propor- 
tion of the course of the Ohio was. through a forest. When you saw 
the city apparently lifting its head from surrounding woods, you found 
yourself at a loss to imagine whence so many people could be furnished 
with supplies. 


February 16th William Green establishes the first iron 
foundry here. An order is passed by the council granting 
the privilege of supplying water to the people to the 
Cincinnati Woolen Manufacturing company. On the 
nineteenth somebody reports the population at six thou- 
sand four hundred and ninety-eight. 



November 25th the first insurance company goes into 
operation — the "Cincinnati." 

December 2d chronicles the building of the first brig 
at the Columbia shipyards. On the sixteenth the ocean- 
going barge Mission arrives with a cargo of dry goods 
from Liverpool. 

The more pious ladies of Cincinnati start this year a 
female Bible society, auxiliary to the American Bible 

This year comes Mr. David Thomas, writer of Travels 
through the Western Country, and favors Cincinnatians 
with this notice: 

About three o'clock we descended through the hills, along a hollow 
way, into the valley of the Ohio, and Cincinnati appeared before us. 
It is a great town. Brick buildings are very numerous, and many of 
these are elegant ; but compactness constitutes much of the beauty 
of our cities, and in this it is deficient. Some of the streets may form 
exceptions to this remark; and we ought to remember that few towns 
(if any) ever rose from the forest more rapidly; that its date even now 
is within the memory of the young; and that its mammoth form at no 
distant period will be filled up and completed. By some it is suspected, 
however, that its present greatness is premature; but this can only 
apply to its mercantile concerns; for its manufactories cannot be mate- 
rially affected by any change in the amount of commerce. Neither 
need the merchants fear a rival city, unless it rises to the north. 

Among the most respectable of the manufacturing establishments we 
notice the brewery of D. & J. Embree. The works, though in a pro- 
gressive state, are now sufficiently extensive to produce annually five 
thousand barrels of beer and porter, and the quality is excellent. A 
treadle-mill is attached to these buildings, similar in construction to' 
that at Montgomery. It is turned by horses, and grinds one hundred 
and twenty bushels of malt a day. In the present recess of business, it 
is employed in the manufacture of mustard. 

Works for green glass have lately gone into operation ; but some of 
. the articles produced are very imperfect. We can sympathise with the 
proprietors of new establishments; for we are aware of the many 
inconveniences and discouragements that beset them at the commence- 
ment; but we cannot too strongly inculcate that to attain excellence will 
be the first object of the patriotic manufacturer; and such virtue could 
scarcely fail of its reward. 

A monthly meeting of the society of Friends, comprising about forty 
families, is established in this year. 


The growing town had special and distinguished no- 
tice from the travellers this year. First, in June, came 
that industrious tourist and observer, Mr. Birkbeck, 
long of Illinois, from which he wrote a series of enter- 
taining letters that were collected in a book. From an- 
other volume, his Travels in America, we copy the fol- 
lowing extracts: 

Cincinnati, like most American towns, stands too low; it is built on 
the banks of the Ohio, and the lower part of it is not out of the reach 
of spring floods. As if life was not more than meat, and the body 
than raiment, every consideration of health and enjoyment yields to 
views of mercantile convenience. Short-sighted and narrow economy! 
by which the lives of thousands are shortened, and the comfort of all 
sacrificed to mistaken notions of private interest. 

Cincinnati is, however, a most thriving place, and, backed as it is 
already by a great population and a most plentiful country, bids fair 
to be one of the first cities of the west. We are told, and we cannot 
doubt the fact, that the chief of what we see is the work of four years. 
The hundreds of commodious, well-finished brick houses, the spacious 
and busy markets, the substantial public buildings, the thousands of 
prosperous, well-dressed, industrious inhabitants, the numerous wagons 
and drays, the gay carriages and elegant females; the shoals of craft 
on the river, the busy stir prevailing everywhere — house-building, 
boat-building, paving and leveling streets; the numbers of country peo- 
ple constantly coming and going; the spacious taverns, crowded with 
travellers from a distance. 

All this is so much more than I could comprehend from a descrip- 

tion of a new town just risen from the woods, that I despair of con- 
veying an adequate idea of it to my English friends.. It is enchant- 
ment, and Liberty is the fair enchantress. 

June 27, Cincinnati. All is alive here as soon as the day breaks. 
The stores are opened, the markets thronged, and business is in full 
career by five o'clock in the morning; and nine o'clock is the common 
hour for retiring to rest. 

As yet I have felt nothing oppressive in the heat of this climate. 
Melting, oppressive, sultry nights, succeeding broiling days, and for- 
bidding rest, which are said to wear out the frames of the languid in- 
habitants of the Eastern cities, are unknown here. A cool breeze al- 
ways renders the night refreshing, and generally moderates the heat of 
the day. 

Then came Mr. Burnet— a New England traveller, we 

believe — who makes many and judicious remarks upon 

the town : 

As Cincinnati is the commercial capital of the State of Ohio, a State 
which twenty-five years ago contained but a few thousand inhabitants, 
and is now well settled by half a million white inhabitants, I have been 
somewhat particular in describing its commerce, manufactures, and 

The general appearance of the city is clean and handsome — indeed, 
elegant and astonishing, when we reflect that less than forty years ago 
it was the resort of Indians, and the whole surrounding country a wil- 
derness, full of wild beasts and savages. 

The present number of buildings may be between thirteen and four- 
teen hundred, and the number of the inhabitants'eight thousand, all 
whites, the laws of Ohio prohibiting free negroes (except in certain 
cases) from settling in the State. Near five hundred of the houses are 
built of stone or brick, many of them three-story high, and in a very 
neat, modern style. The rest of the houses are frame, most of them 
neatly painted. 

The public buildings are of brick, and would ornament an European 
city. The new court-house is a stately edifice, fifty-six by sixty-six feet, 
and one hundred feet high; the apartments are fire-proof. Presby- 
terians, Baptists, Friends, and Methodists, have each a meeting-house. 
Those belonging to the Presbyterians are furnished with taste. The 
Friends' meeting-house is a temporary wooden building. The Lancas- 
terian seminary is a capacious structure, calculated to contain one 
thousand one hundred scholars, male and female. There are three 
brick market-houses, the largest is upwards of three hundred feet long. 
I have counted near sixty tilted wagons from the 
country on a market day, chiefly with produce, which is brought to 
market by the farmer and sold from the wagons. 

The police of the city is respectable; they have, however, no lamps 
or watch, nor do they require any. We boarded in the heart of the 
town, and our doors were mostly open night or day. Theft is very 
rare; the lowest characters seem above it. 

The climate is healthy, if we may judge from the appearance of the 
inhabitants. At this season (July) the mornings and evenings are 
delightful ; mid-day hot, but not too hot to do out-door work. The 
winters are short and pleasant. 

The manners of most of the inhabitants are social and refined, with- 
out jealousy of foreigners (which is sometimes the case with the ignor- 
ant or interested in the eastern and middle states) ; they are pleased to 
see a respectable European settle amongst them. Many cultivate the 
fine arts, painting, engraving and music. With few exceptions, we 
found the English language spoken with purity.- . . . The 
inhabitants dress much in the English fashion. In summer many of 
both sexes wear domestic or home manufactured ginghams, and straw 
hats. Gentlemen, and many tradesmen, wear superfine cloth coats' 
blue and black are the prevailing colors. The ladies dress elegantly, in 
muslin, short-waisted gowns, vandyked frill or ruffle round the neck, 
and an English cottage or French straw hat. When about their house- 
hold concerns, they wear a large, long, peaked hat, to defend their 
features from the swarthing influence of the sun and air. 

The city, in all probability, will soon be the largest in the West; it is 
rapidly improving in size; sixty new brick and frame houses have been 
occupied since last fall; and at least as many more are now building, 
besides several manufacturing shops and factories. There is more 
taste displayed in building and laying out grounds and gardens than I 
have yet observed west of the Alleghany mountains. 

The price of town lots is high, and houses in the principal streets dif- 
ficult to obtain on hire. The lots in Main, First and Second streets sell 
for two hundred dollars a foot, measuring on the front line; those pos- 
sessing less local advantage sell from fifty to ten dollars; out-lots, and 

The Bazaar. 

Erected by Mbs. Tbolilofe, 1828-9; Demolished in Mabch, 1881. 



land very near the town, sells for five hundred dollars per acre. Taxes 
are very moderate. . . The price of labor is one dollar per 
day. Mechanics earn two dollars. Boarding is from two to three, and 
five dollars per week. Five dollars per week is the price of the best 
hotel in the city. . . Living is very cheap here; and it is easily 
to be accounted for, in the cheapness and fertility of the surrounding 
country, the scarcity of tax-gatherers, and the distance of a market for 
the supplies.. You can have very decent board, washing, and lodging, 
by the year for one hundred and fifty dollars. 

Mr. George Warren, an old-time resident of the city, 
also contributes to Cincinnati Past and Present the fol- 
lowing interesting reminiscences of this period: 

jfl Cincinnati, in the year 1817, was a bright, beautiful, and flourishing 
Me city. It extended from the river to Sixth street, and from Broad- 
way to Walnut street, and not much beyond those limits.) The court- 
house, which stood upon the same ground as the present one, was con- 
sidered to be in the country, and its location an outrage on the citizens. 
(The houses were beautifully interspersed with vacant lots, not yet sold, 
which were covered with grass. The city contained about nine thou- 
sand inhabitants.) These were then called girls and boys, and men and 
women, frhe fuel was wood, except in factories. The people generally 
had clean faces; for the men shaved, and did not allow their counte- 
nances to be covered with hair and dirt. There was an air of comfort 
pervading everything J In summer the women dressed as they pleased; 
but the men usually went to church in summer dresses. .Sometimes 
they wore linen roundabouts and vests and woollen pants. I The people 
were enterprising and industrious; a pedestrian could hardly walk a 
square without encountering a brick wagon or stone wagon, or seeing a 
new cellar being dug. Industrious mechanics would be met hurrying 
to and fro, and in their working dress. A brick-la yer would not hide 
his trowel, nor a carpenter his hatchet, under his coat. Everything 
gave promise of the city's continued prosperity, but a desire to become 
suddenly rich had led too many into wild speculations, on borrowed 
money, from the United States and other banks. They were willing to 
lend to almost anyone who could get two indorsers.^ This was no diffi- 
cult matter, for it bad got to be a maxim, "You indorse for me, and I 
indorse for you." (Some persons not worth a dollar bought lots and 
built houses on speculation. Others bought wild lands, built steam- 
boats, etc. Some, who had become rich jn imagination, began to live 
in,a style ill suited to their real condition.^ 

(But a day of reckoning was at hand. In 1819 the United States 
bank began to call in its accounts; others were obliged to do the same; 
and those speculators, to avoid the sheriff, began to scatter like rats 
from a submerged flour barrel.) Sheriff Heckewelder complained that 
his friends had taken a sudden notion to travel, at the very time he most 
wanted them. Some fled east, some west, some to Kentucky, and some 
the Lord knows where, (it soon became impossible to get money any- 
where. Building was entirely stopped. The spring of 1820 was * 
gloomy time. All business was brought to a sudden stand) No more 
brick wagons, stone wagons, or new cellars were to be' seen in the 
streets. The mechanics lately so blithe and cheerful had gone in dif- 
ferent directions in search of work, at any price, to keep themselves 
and families from starving. Almost any mechanic could be hired for 
fifty cents a day, working, as was then the custom, from sunrise to sun- 
set; few could get employment at that. They were willing to work at 
anything they could do, and at any price. One of our boss carpenters 
bought a wood-saw and buck, and went about sawing wood. Our 
leading brick-layer procured a small patch of ground near the Brighton 
house, and raised watermelons, which he sold himself, in the market. 
The only professed sashmaker in the place, the lats John Baker, esq., 
who died not long ago a millionaire on Walnut Hills, procured u piece 
of woodland in the country, and chopped the wood, brought it to mar- 
ket, sitting on his load, and sold it for a dollar and a half a cord. 
Other good mechanics went chopping wood in the country for thirty- 
seven and a half cents a cord. One of these was the late A. H. Ernst, 
esq. The writer would have done- the same, but no chance offered. 
There was no money, and people even going to market resorted to 
barter. A cabinet maker, for instance, would want two pounds of but- 
ter, amounting to twenty-five or thirty cents. Without a penny in his 
pocket, he would take his basket, go te the market, find a farmer that 
had some, take two pounds, and give him a table, bedstead, or even a 
bureau, agreeing to take the rest out iii.truck, as he would call it, when 
he should want it! This could not be done by carpenters and masons. 
They would go into the country and build ovens or spring-houses, and 
repair buildings, taking their pay whenahe work was done. Our mer- 
chants, being unable or unwilling to bring on fresh supplies of dry 

goods and groceries, these ran up to enormous prices; coffee was sev- 
enty-five cents, and common coarse brown sugar thirty-seven and one- 
half cents a pound. Rye coffee, sweetened with molasses, was found a 
poor substitute; and we suffered considerably for want of our custom- 
ary breakfast. 

Public meetings were held to consider what was to be done. At one 
of these Mr. Blake, an attorney, had expressed a fear that our wives 
and children would starve. Mr. Gazlay, the next speaker, also an at- 
torney, said: " Brother Blake is afraid our families will starve. I have 
but one child, and don't fear it will starve; Brother Blake has none, and 
I am sure it won't starve." Country produce of all kinds was never so 
low before nor since; but the difficulty lay in getting money to pay 
even these low prices. Flour was three dollars a barrel, corn twelve 
and one-half cents a bushel, beef six and one-fourth cents a pound, 
pork in quarters from the wagons three cents a pound, eggs five cents a 
dozen, and chickens four cents a piece. A prominent and truthful citi- 
zen now living relates that, being then a young man and living in the 
country, he brought to the lower market two dozen chickens. After 
standing there most of the forenoon a man offered him fifty cents a 
dozen if he would carry them to the Mill Creek bridge. He accepted 
the offer and actually carried them the whole distance on his back. If 
any imagine that the people need not have feared starving when provis- 
ions were so cheap, they are like the Queen of France during the Revo- 
lution, who said, when the people of Paris were actually starving, that 
she did not see why there need be such a clamor about bread when ' ' a 
good-sized loaf may be got at the baker's for five sous." 

Finally it was found that money of some kind must be had. This 
induced some individuals to issue tickets, or little due-bills, on their 
own credit. They were sometimes as low as six and one-fourth cents. 
Of these bankers John H. Piatt and Mr. Leathers, of Covington, were 
the chief. This currency had different values, according to people's es- 
timate of the solvency of the individuals. The corporation had issued 
tickets before this. In making contracts it had to be agreed what kind 
of money was to be received; so much in "corporation," or so much 
in "Piatt," or so much in "Leathers." Sometimes contracts would 
call for "bankable money." By this was meant the notes of those few 
banks that had not already broken. If any specie was seen it was gen- 
erally "cut money," or half-dollars cut into five triangular pieces, each 
passing for twelve and one-half cents. 

f Such was the scarcity of money that many who had purchased prop- 
erty and paid large amounts on it were willing to give up the money 
already paid to be released from paying the remainder) Real estate 
had indeed fallen; a prominent citizen now among us had purchased a 
lot of ground, near our present gas works, for sixteen thousand dollars, 
paying half down in cash. He offered to give up all the money paid if 
the owner would release him ; but he would not. Houses and stores, 
with bills on them offering them "for rent," were everywhere seen, and 
rents were low. 

On the thirty-first of May arrived a young lawyer 
named Bellamy Storer, to cast in his fortunes with those 
of the rising community. Mr. Joseph Jonas, rather 
doubtfully reported as the first Israelite in town, is said 
also to have come this year. He opened a watchmaker's 
shop on the corner of Third and Main streets, and soon 
acquired much political influence. He is sometimes re- 
puted to have been the father of Cincinnati Democracy. 


The sixth edition of Kilbourne's Ohio Gazetteer, or 
Topographical Directory, published this year, gives the 
town this notice: 

Cincinnati is a large commercial city and the seat of justice for Ham- 
ilton county. August 18th the number of inhabitants had 
increased to upwards of nine thousand, and public improvements in 
proportion. There are about sixty common mercantile stores, several 
of which do wholesale business, with about ten book, drug, iron, and 
shoe stores. . The Cincinnati Manufacturing Company has 
erected for their works an extensive building, one hundred and fifty 
feet long by thirty-seven broad, and four stories high. A most stupen- 
dously large building of stone is likewise erected on the bank of the 
Ohio river for a steam mill. It is nine stories high at the water's edge, 
and is- eighty-seven feet ldng and sixty-two broad. The engine is one 
of seventy horse-power, and is designed to drive four pair of stones, be- 
sides an oil-, fulling-, and several other mills. In another building is 



also a valuable steam saw-mill. Here are, likewise, one woollen and 
four cotton factories, two glass-making establishments, >■ white lead 
factory, a sugar refinery, and two extensive breweries. A considerable 
business is also done, not only in the distilleries, but also in the rectifi- 
cation of spirits. Here are also four printing offices, from three of 
which weekly papers are published ; four banking companies, besides a 
wealthy commercial association for the purpose of importing goods 
direct from Europe, by way of New Orleans. 

This was a great year for public benefactions. Seven 
persons subscribed twenty-seven thousand dollars for the 
Lancasterian seminary. A site for a poor-house was pur- 
chased by public authorities, and a hospital planned, as 
preparatory to the founding of a medical college. A 
museum society was formed, and contributions were solic- 
ited, Dr. Drake drawing up a constitution for it so as to 
make it a school of natural history. The Cincinnati 
reading-room was opened by Elam P. Langdon and Rev. 
William Burke. The first Roman Catholic church in' 
town was founded. 

The General Pike, said to be the first steamboat built 
on the western waters for the exclusive conveyance of 
passengers, was constructed at Cincinnati this year — of 
one hundred feet keel, twenty-five feet beam, and three 
and three-tenths feet draft. It was owned by the Cin- 
cinnati Company, and intended to ply between Louis- 
ville, Cincinnati, and Maysville. 


This was an important year in the annals of Cincinnati, 
marking its transition from a village to a city, an act 
passed by the State legislature giving it the deserved pro- 
motion. ) The new city was divided into four wards, by 
lines aiong Main and Third streets, intersecting at the 
corner of these. Isaac G. Burnet was the first mayor 
under the new organization. 

The population of the city this year, according to the 
census taken for the directory in July, was nine thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-three4-males, five thousand 
four hundred and two; females, four thousand four hun- 
dred and seventy-one; males of twenty-one years and 
over, two thousand three hundred and sixty-four ; females, 
one thousand six hundred and thirty-two; males from 
twelve to twenty-one, eight hundred and forty; females, 
eight hundred and twenty- three; males under twelve, one 
thousand eight hundred and forty-nine; females, one 
thousand five hundred and forty-five; colored persons, 
three hundred and sixty-seven — males, two hundred and 
fifteen; females, one hundred and ninety-five. The 
directory contains the following remarks upon the charac- 
ter of the population : 

\ This mixed assemblage is composed of emigrants from almost every 
part of Christendom^ The greater part of the population are from the 
Middle and Northern States. (We have,) however, /many foreigners 
amongst us; and it is not uncommon to hear three or four different 
languages spoken in the streets at the same time. A society so com- 
pounded can have but few of those provincial traits of character which 
are so visible in older settlements. 1 Having been bred and educated 
under different habits and modes of thinking.fevery individual is obliged 
to sacrifice to the general opinion many of his prejudices and local 
peculiarities, and to adopt a more liberal mode of acting and thinking. 
Coming also from different countries and various climates, they bring 
and collect together a stock of knowledgeand experience which cannot 
exist among those who have all grown up together, i Being adventurers 
in pursuit of fortune, a spirit of enterprise, and a restless ambition to 
acquire property, are prevailing characteristics. The citizens of Cin- 

cinnati are generally temperate, peaceable and industrious, Gaming is ■ 
a vice almost unknown in the city. Under the influence of a strict 
police, good order is maintained ; fighting or riot in the streets rare, 
and is uniformly punished with rigor. Qreat attention is paid to the 
institutions of religion, and the mass of the more respectable citizens 
are regular in their attendance on public worship^ In their parties, as- 
semblies and social meetings, the greatest ease and familiarity prevail, 
and many traits are to be met with of that politeness and uiiianity of 
manners which distinguish the polished circles of older cities. 

The same work gives the following honorable notice 
and further remarks concerning the material improve- 
ment of the place: 

For many years the vast influx of emigrants has furnished opportu- 
nity for a very profitable investment of funds in building houses. The 
preference which Mr. John H. Piatt has given to the improvement of 
Cincinnati, over foreign speculation, is an honorable evidence of his 
public spirit and local attachment. This gentleman, within five years 
past, has built twenty-eight brick houses, chiefly three stories irwheight, 
besides twenty-five frame houses, which are neatly finished. Bit is the 
opinion of several well informed mecha ni c s that not less thah three 
hundred buildings were erected in 1818; and, notwithstanding the de- 
pression of commercial business, probably not- less than two-thirds of 
that number will be built in 1819. The buildings, however, which are 
occupied as dwellings, are insufficient to contain the inhabitants with 
any tolerable convenience. Four, six or eight families have not un- 
frequently been found inhabiting a house of six or eight roomsS The 
actual number of dwelling-houses being one thousand and three, the 
average number in each family, allowing one family to each house, is 
more than nine persons. The houses, generally, are rather neat and 
convenient than splendid; most of those that have been built within the 
last five or six years, have been constructed of brick, and by far the 
greater portion of them are two or three stories in height. /One pre- 
vailing trait, displayed in almost all the houses in town, is a want of 
architectural taste and skill. All the public buildings, except the Cin- 
cinnati banking house, fully exemplify the above remark. One or two 
good architects would unquestionably meet here with excellent encour- 
agement.. The improvements that have been made here in paving 
streets and sidewalks, filling up stagnant ponds, reducing the upper 
bank to a proper angle of descent for streets and buildings, etc. , have 
for several years been commensurate with the mos ( <diberal policy of the 
corporation and the best exertions of the citizens.^According to the 
best estimate we can make, the length of pavement in the several 
streets is between eight and nine thousand feet; that of the sidewalks 
vastly greater. The streets in width are between sixty and one hundred 
feet. ' 

In March of the same year an enumeration had been 
made of the buildings within the corporation, which 
footed one thousand eight hundred and ninety — of brick 
and stone, two stories and upwards, three hundred and 
eighty-seven; of one story, forty-five; wood, two or more 
stories, six hundred and fifteen; one story, eight hundred 
and forty-three. Occupied as separate dwellings, one 
thousand and three; mercantile stores, ninety-five; gro- 
cery stores, one hundred and two; druggists, eleven; 
confectioneries, four; auction and commission, five; 
printing-offices, five; book and stationery stores, four; 
churches, ten; banks, five; shops, factories, and mills, 
two hundred and fourteen ; taverns, seventeen; seminary, 
court house, and jail, three ; warehouses and other build- 
ings, four hundred and twelve. Other buildings were in 
progress, and it was expected that by the close of the year 
the buildings in the city would number over two thou- 
sand. Among the new edifices in progress were the 
court house and jail, the seminary, three churches, two 
market-houses, and several manufactories. The churches 
were the First Presbyterian, on the old site; the brick on 
Sixth street, formerly Baptist, then Episcopal; the Meth- 
odist, on Fifth, a new brick, belonging to the same de-' 
nomination, on the corner of Fourth and Plum; and the 




old frame on Vine street; the Second Presbyterian, on 
Walnut; the Friends', near the west end of Fifth; and a 
Roman Catholic church lately erected in what were then 
called "the Northern Liberties." 

Three fine steamers — the Vulcan, the Tennessee, and 
the Missouri — were launched here March 30th. 

July 4th the address is delivered by Bellamy Storer. 
Further celebration was made by getting the first throw of 
water from the new tin penstock. It was supplied by log 
pipes from a small reservoir on the hillside, at the south- 
west corner of Fifth and Sycamore streets. 

August 3d, the ordinance passed by the council in re- 
lation to fire-buckets is required to be vigorously enforced. 

December nth, the city treasurer proves a defaulter. 
The Rev. Joshua L. Wilson, pastor of the Presbyterian 
church, is temporarily appointed to his place. 

This year (Mr. L'Hommedieu thought it might have 
been in 1820), a serious riot was threatened through the 
failure of the Miami Exporting Company's bank. A pro- 
cession comprising many of those who had suffered from 
the closure of the bank, with their sympathizers, was 
formed in the upper part of the city, and marched down 
Main street. A number of drays helped to give length 
and imposing character to the column. One of them 
bore a black coffin with the words painted thereon, " Mi- 
ami Bank No More." The bank building was situated 
on Front street, near Sycamore, and a detachment of 
military had taken position in front of it, to protect the 
building and its contents against the threatened mob vio- 
lence. The procession marched without interruption or 
disturbance until the intersection of Front street with 
Main was reached. Just here, fortunately, on the south- 
east corner, was the office of the mayor, Isaac G. Burnet, 
who was awake to the perils of the situation, and on full 
duty. Although unable to walk or even to stand without 
crutches, he moved to the head of the column, and read 
the riot act to the multitude. Many who were in the 
movement were not lawless or dangerous men, and now,, 
seeing the real character of their demonstration, and the 
perils to law and order which it involved, they led the 
way at once in breaking up the procession and diverting 
the thoughts of its members into more peaceful channels. 
The military were not called upon to adopt severer meas- 
ures, and the bank was saved. 

This year appeared the first Directory of the town or 
city. It was entitled "The Cincinnati Directory, con- 
taining the Names, Profession, and Occupation of the 
Inhabitants of the Town, alphabetically arranged; Also, 
an account of its officers, population, institutions, and 
societies, public buildings, manufactures, etc. With an 
interesting sketch of its local situation and improvements. 
Illustrated by a copper-plate engraving, exhibiting a view 
of the city. By a Citizen. Published by Oliver Farns- 
worth. Morgan, Lodge & Co., Printers, October, 1819." 
An almanac for 1820 is also included. About two thou- 
sand names of individual and firms were included in this 

The most remarkable man who came to Cincinnati 
this year was probably Captain John Cleves Symmes, son 
of Timothy, brother of Judge Symmes. His father (also 

a judge in New Jersey), early followed the elder brother 
to the Miami country, and settled at South Bend, where 
he died February 20, 1797. His family remained there, 
and among them John C. Symmes, who, through the in- 
fluence of the judge, obtained a commission in April, 
1802, when he was twenty-two years old, as an ensign in 
the regular army. By successive promotions he became 
captain, and served as such through the war of 1812-15. 
In 1807 he fought a duel at Fort Adams, on the Lower 
Mississippi, with Lieutenant Marshall, in which both were 
wounded seriously enough to feel the effects of their in- 
discretion through the rest of their lives. Captain 
Symmes left the army in 1816 and settled at St. Louis as 
a contractor for the army and trader with the Fox In- 
dians. He was not altogether successful, however, and 
in 1819 removed to Covington, Kentucky, where he re- 
mained a few months, and then came to this city, taking 
a residence on Lower Market street, between Broadway 
and Sycamore, in a three-story brick row built by John 
H. Piatt, who then had a bank at the southeast corner of 
Broadway and Columbia streets. Captain Symmes re- 
mained in Cincinnati but a year or two. He still had 
some property near Hamilton, upon a section presented 
to him by his uncle, Judge Symmes; but appears to have 
spent the last seven or eight years of his life, when not 
absent lecturing, in Newport, Kentucky. While at St. 
Louis he began to promulgate his famous theory of con- 
centric spheres, polar voids, and open poles. The gist 
of this is in his published declaration "to all the world," 
made from St. Louis, Missouri Territory, North America, 
April 10, a. d., 1818: 

I declare that the earth is hollow and habitable within, containing a 
number of solid concentrick spheres, one within the other, and that it is 
open at the poles twelve or sixteen degrees. I pledge my life in sup- 
port of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will 
support and aid me in the undertaking. 

Jno. Cleves Symmes, 
Of Ohio, late Captain of Infantry. 

His future life was devoted mainly to the advocacy of 
this theory, and his efforts to demonstrate it and pro- 
mote its acceptance. In 1820, after issuing numerous 
circulars and newspaper articles, he began lecturing in 
Cincinnati, and then in other western towns and cities. 
A benefit was given in aid of his proposed polar expedi- 
tion, at the Cincinnati theatre, March 29, 1824, when 
Young's tragedy of Revenge was performed by an ama- 
teur company, in which was the now venerable Colonel 
James Taylor, of Newport, who played the part of 
Zanga. Mr. Americus Symmes, son of Captain Symmes, 
says: "He and I are the only two now living of the 
Newport Thespian society of 1824. He was equal to 
Forrest in his palmiest day, in the character of Sir 
Edward Mortimer, in the Iron Chest. L performed fe- 
male parts." Mr. Collins recited an appropriate address 
written by Moses Brooks, foreshadowing the great discov- 
eries to be made in the polar regions, and closing with 
these lines: 

Has not Columbia one aspirng son, 
By whom the unfading laurel may be won? 
Yes ! History's pen may yet inscribe the name 
Of Symmes to grace the future scroll of fame. 

He had not similar encouragement elsewhere, however. 



Congress and legislatures, press and people, with rare ex- 
ceptions, treated his arguments and appeals with indiffer- 
ence or ridicule; and the end of the ardent theorist soon 
came. He fell into ill health, and became much en- 
feebled in 1826 by a laborious tour through the eastern 
cities, Maine, and Canada. His chief ailment was dys- 
pepsia, induced by long continued overwork upon his 
theories and plans. Notwithstanding his now serious ill- 
ness, in New York city he was thrown into jail by a heart- 
less landlord, for inability to pay a bill of thirty to forty dol- 
lars, and remained incarcerated three days, when he was 
relieved by a friendly Cincinnatian who happened to be 
in the city, and who helped him to the residence of a 
relative in New Jersey, where he remained until his 
health was measurably restored. He managed to reach 
Cincinnati in February, 1829, and was there presently 
met by his son Americus with a two-horse wagon and a 
mattress, upon which he was borne to the farm near 
Hamilton — to which the family had removed in March 
of the previous year — where he died May 29, 1829, aged 
only forty-eight. His monument, erected by Americus 
Symmes, formerly crowned with a hollow globe, open at 
the poles, and bearing appropriate inscriptions, may be 
seen in the old cemetery at Hamilton. This son, who 
resides at "Symmzonia," a farm near Louisville, remains 
a firm believer in the theory. In a recent letter to the 
writer of these annals he communicates a paragraph 
which has some local as well as general interest, and well 
repays its reading. Its opening sentence relates to the 
time of Captain Symmes' last return and illness: 

I was then seventeen years old, and he was too ill to talk much ; but 
he charged me just to keep an eye to the explorations in the north, and 
I would find his theory would be proven true. I have kept an eye on 
the northern explorations, and find that the further north they get the 
stronger grow the proofs of the truth of his theory, Your Cincinnati 
explorer, Captain Hall, who went further north than any other man of 
his day (except Parry on his third voyage), did more to prove the truth 
of the Symmes theory than all other explorers. I saw the sled-runners 
in Captain Hall's hands, made in your city, that bore him up to 82° 2' 
north, where he wrote his last dispatch to the secretary of the navy, in 
which he says : I find this a much warmer country than I expected, 
and it abounds with life, etc. Just to think a Cincinnati man studied 
out the theory, and another citizen of your city made the sled-runners 
there, and rode on them up to 82 2' north, and thereby proved the 
theory true as far as he went. 

It may be added that the younger son of Captain 
Symmes, a native of Newport, Kentucky, was also named 
John Cleves Symmes, was a graduate of the West Point 
Military academy, and served his country creditably as a 
teacher there and as an officer elsewhere. He lived for 
a number of years in Prussia, where, in 1866, he had a 
son of a German mother, who took the name of John 
Haven Cleves Symmes. 




/ Population this year, by the United States census, 
/ nine thousand six hundred and forty-two. \ Vote of the 
\city, eight hundred and fifty. : 

February 2, meeting of citizens to consider the good- 
ness of John H. Piatt's "shinplasters." Resolutions 
passed against them. On the eighth, the ice in the Ohio 
breaks up, after having been frozen over for three weeks. 

The first water-service pipes, wooden, were laid this 

Congress, worthily though tardily, voted a gold medal 
to Lieutenant R. Anderson, of Cincinnati, for gallant 
conduct in Perry's battle on Lake Erie. 

In June a museum was opened in Cincinnati College, 
which was for many years an interesting feature of 
amusements here. 


The Commercial hospital and Ohio medical college 
were incorporated February 1st. On the twenty-eighth 
the Hon. Jacob Burnet was appointed a Judge of the 
Supreme Court. 

July 28th the fire department of the city turns out for 
a public parade, and makes a brave display with its two 
hand-engines and two hose-reels. 

The council building was this year on Fourth street, 
near the corner of Walnut, and the independent engine 
is removed thither. The vote of the city is said to have 
been seven hundred and thirty-two; which could not 
have been full, as it is more than a hundred less than 
that of the year before, and less than half that of the 
next year. 

September 26th occurs the first commencement of the 
Cincinnati College, which confers the honorary degree 
of Master of Arts on William Henry Harrison, the Rev. 
Joshua L. Wilson, and the Rev. James A. Kemper. 


The first theatrical benefit given here, to Mrs. A. 
Drake, a favorite actress of that day, occurred in the 
ball-room of the Cincinnati hotel. 

March 27 th, directors of the city library were elected 
— Lewis Whiteman, Benjamin Drake, Nathan Guilford, 
and Peyton S. Symmes. 

June 8th a meeting is held to promote the scheme of 
a canal from Cincinnati to Piqua. 

September 9th there is a considerable freshet in the 

October 7th a notable political event occurs, in the de- 
feat of General Harrison for Congress, by James W. 
Gazlay, though only by the meagre majority of three 
hundred and forty-two votes. 

This year came George Graham, who became a very 
prominent citizen of Cincinnati, and survived until Feb- 
ruary, 1 88 1. 

The total value of exports this year from Cincinnati 
was two hundred and seventy-nine thousand dollars, 
chiefly in flour, pork, and whiskey. 



Vote at the municipal election in 1822, one thousand, 
five hundred and ninety-seven. 


January 30th, certain adventurous business men of the 
city broach a project for a whaling and sealing voyage to 
the Indian ocean. 

September 3d, the citizens, dissatisfied with the ar- 
rangements of the authorities for the protection of per- 
son and property, meet to organize a volunteer city 

November 3d, a great calamity is inflicted upon the 
business of the city, by the burning of the famous great 
stone steam-mill. Material is at once collected for rebuild- 
ing, however. Among prominent business men now are 
noted Kilgour & Taylor, Barr, Patterson & Son, Keat- 
ing & Bell, grocers; John Sterrett & Company, John Du- 
val, G. V. H. Dewitt, dry goods merchants; Griffin & 
Company, C. & J. Bates, druggists; Piatt Evans and 
James Comly, tailors; Moses & Jonas, auctioneers; J. 
& G. R. Gilmore, brokers. 

Aggregate vote this year, one thousand, eight hundred 
and sixty-one. 


f Population this year is twelve thousand and sixteen4- 
Eirst ward, three thousand one hundred and fifty-seven; 
Second, four thousand five hundred and thirty-one; 
Third, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight; 
Fourth, two thousand five hundred and forty. The 
number of families was two thousand one hundred and 
nineteen; of dwelling houses, one thousand six hundred 
and sixty-eight. 

Until 1824 it is said that the whole city had voted at 
one polling-place, generally the Mayor's office on Third 
street. At the presidential election of this year the vote 
was by wards. 

February 24th, Mr. Samuel W. Davies offers the water- 
works, which are private property, to the city for thirty 
thousand dollars, in convenient payments. His offer is 
declined by a meeting or a vote of the citizens, and he 
sells to the new Cincinnati Water company at the same 

May 19th, the corner-stone of the old St. Peter's 
cathedral (Roman Catholic), on Sycamore street, is laid, 
Bishop Fenwick conducting the ceremonies. 

The statistics of nativity, taken for the directory of this 
year — the second Cincinnati directory issued — show a 
very large percentage of Pennsylvanians and Jerseymen in 
the population, three hundred and ninety-four ' of the 
names given for the directory being those of natives of 
the Keystone State, and three hundred and thirty-seven 
of New Jersey birth; two hundred and thirty-three were 
New Yorkers, one hundred and eighty-four native to 
Massachusetts, one hundred and seventy to Maryland, 
one hundred and forty-three Connecticut, one hundred and 
thirteen Virginia, and less than one hundred to any other 
State. Ohio as yet contributed but fifty-two native 
Buckeyes — adults, of course — to the directory, and any 
other State not mentioned less than fifty. A good many 
native foreigners were represented — English, one hun- 

dred and ninety-two; Irish, one hundred and seventy- 
three; Germans, sixty-two; Scotch, thirty-nine; Welsh, 
twenty-one; Swiss, seventeen, and one or two each of 
Swedes, Dutch, and Poles. Multiplying the numbers, 
respectively, by five, the products, in most cases, will 
probably show the actual number of population of the 
several classes then here. The State or country of 
nativity, whenever known, was entered with the person's 
name in the directory — a unique feature, truly. 

The directory notes the entire compact portion of the 
city as being included within the space of one mile 

February 2d, General Harrison was elected by the 
Legislature to the United States Senate. 

The first fancy front in town is put up this year on 
Main street, by Piatt Evans, tailor. His sign was still 
up in 1856, when it was the oldest sign in the city. 

In the month of May, General the Marquis de Lafay- 
ette, accompanied by his son, on their tour through this 
country, paid Cincinnati the honor of a visit. Mr. 
L'Hommedieu says: 

The occasion brought here thousands from the country. AH within 
a circuit of a hundred miles seemed to be here. Lafayette approached 
our city from Lexington, Kentucky, where he had been to visit Henry 
Clay. He was met and welcomed at our landing by Governor Mor- 
row and General Harrison. The whole public ground between Main 
street and Broadway, and Front street and the river, was densely 
crowded with men, women, and children, and the windows, balconies, 
and roofs of the buildings fronting the river were alive with people 
waving their welcome. After tarrying in our city from noon of one 
day to midnight of the next, he departed up the river. The day of his 
arrival, as well as that which followed, and his departure at midnight, 
will be remembered, by those who witnessed the scenes, as long as their 
memories last. All was grand; but the closing scene, at twelve o'clock 
at night, with the illumination on both sides of the river, the crowd of 
many thousands of our people on the landing, the beautiful display 
made by all the steamboats in port, the procession of military com- 
panies, the firing of cannon from our landing, from the boats, and from 
the arsenal at Newport, with the martial music, seems to me, after the 
lapse of fifty years, the most brilliant sight of my life. 

Major Daniel Gano's splendid turnout of six bay 
horses attached to an open phaeton awaited Lafayette at 
the steamer landing — the only equipage of the kind in 
Cincinnati. In the evening, before the ball, a public 
reception was given to Lafayette in the Major's orchard, 
whkh was brilliantly illuminated. A new lodge of Free 
Masons, called Lafayette No. 81, was constituted in 
honor of his coming, of which he became an honorary 
member, and which publicly celebrated his obsequies 
July 20, 1834, upon the death of the eminent patriot. 

Joseph S. Benham, esq., a brilliant young lawyer of this 
city, made the reception speech upon Lafayette's arrival, 
on behalf of the public authorities and citizens. A grand 
ball was given at night in the Cincinnati hotel. 

Henry Clay himself had a reception and banquet at 
the same hotel in June of this year. The opportunity 
was taken by Mr. Clay for a vindication of himself, in an 
elaborate and very eloquent speech, from the famous 
charge of " bargain and sale," which had been made 
against him in connection with the recent presidential 
election. There were present, besides Mr. Clay, Gover- 
nors Clinton, Morrow, and Brown, and some scores of 
prominent Cincinnatians. Governor/Poindexter was also 
in town, but was detained away from the dinner. Tickets 



to it were three dollars apiece; but were purchasable by 
any one who had the wherewithal, and the disposition to 
expend it in this way. Mr. L'Hommedieu says : 

Although then an apprentice-boy of nineteen years, I managed to 
raise three dollars, and attended the dinner. The sight of so many 
distinguished characters seated at a table, which crossed the ends of 
three or four longer ones, was a novel one to me, and I fancied myself 
in the presence of giants, until after the wine was freely drank, the 
cloth removed, smoking commenced, and speeches and story-telling be- 
came the order. Then 1 thought, to use the language of Governor 
Vance, ' ' Most great men look smaller the nearer you get to them. " 


This year witnessed the breaking of ground for the 
Miami canal, at Middletown, June 21, by Governor Dewitt 
Clinton, of New York. The- ceremony has been else- 
where described. 

Dr. Samuel Thompson, founder of the botanical sys- 
tem of medicine and patentee of the celebrated Thomp- 
sonian remedies, came to Cincinnati this year, and made 
many converts to his school of practice. 


The publication of another work of local character, 
Cincinnati in 1826, by Benjamin Drake and E. D. Mans- 
field, both young men struggling to get a living at the 
bar, furnishes the means of giving a pretty full picture of 
the Queen City at this time. Their book, which was a 
worthy successor of Dr. Drake's two pioneer volumes, 
had the honor of publication the same year (1826) in 
London, as an appendix to Mr. W. Bullock's Notes of a 
Journey, of which more will be presently said. It is note- 
worthy that the book was subsidized by the city council, 
to the extent of seventy-five dollars voted to the authors 
firir taking a census of the population. 
1 In December of this year, the population numbered 
snrteen thousand two hundred and thirtw— four thousand 
and eighty-four in the First ward, six thousand four hun- 
dred and ninety-nine in the Second, two thousand five 
hundred and five in the Third, and three thousand one 
hundred and forty-two in the Fourth — seven thousand 
nine hundred and ninety males, and seven thousand five 
hundred and fifty females. The average number to a 
building was six and a half persons. There were twenty- 
eight clergymen, thirty-four lawyers, thirty-five physicians, 
about eight hundred in trade and mercantile pursuits, 
five hundred in navigation, and three thousand in manu- 
facturing. Mr. Mansfield, recounting his experience in 
taking census statistics for his book, says: "In all this 
visitation into the recesses of society, I never met a sin- 
gle pauper family, nor one really impoverished. The 
great body of them were mechanics, with plenty to do, 
generally owning their own homes, and in fact a well-to- 
do people.'' 

The number of buildings in the city was two thousand 
four hundred and ninety-five — eighteen stone, nine hun- 
dred and thirty-six brick, seventeen of them four-storied, 
one thousand five hundred and forty-one frames, six hun- 
dred and fifty of one story, one thousand six hundred 
and eighty-two of two stories, and one hundred and sixty- 
three of more than two. 

The growth of the city, during this and the preced- 
ing year, had been greater than in any former period of 

equal length. The yearly ratio of increase in population 
from 1810 to 1813 was twenty-four per cent ; 1813-19, 
twenty-six per cent; 1819-24, three and five-tenths; 
1824-26, seventeen. For sixteen years the population 
of no town in the United States, of the rank of Cincin- 
nati, had increased in corresponding raticu) Manufactur- 
ing establishments had also greatly increased within two 
years, some details of which will be found in our chapter 
on manufactures. The value of manufactures in and 
near the city, for the year, was one million eight hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. 

The United States land office was now at the east end 
of the city, the register's office near the corner of Law- 
rence^ and Congress, the receiver's north of Congress, 
near Broadway. The United States branch bank had 
been founded here, and there were two insurance com- 
panies and 'several agencies. Mr. N. Holley kept a gen- 
eral agency and intelligence office. There were ten li- 
censed auctioneers, who sold thirty-three thousand eight 
hundred dollars' worth this year, paying a duty of three 
per cent, thereon — one-half of it going to the Commer- 
cial hospital, the other to the medical college of Ohio. 
Real property was advancing at the rate of ten to twelve 
per cent, a year, and many pieces twelve to eighteen. 
Interest was high, three per cent, a month being some- 
times paid on small sums, and ten to twenty per annum 
on larger. There were then no penalties on usury. 

rThe city was becoming somewhat a summer resort for 
the inhabitants of the south, especially Mississippi, Ala- 
bama and Louisianal\ Yellow Springs and the Big Bone 
Lick had also become prominent as places of temporary 
resort for excursionists. 

The Miami canal was now under contract, and thirty- 
one miles, from Main street to the dam at Middletown, 
were nearly finished. Great benefits were expected to the 
city from the water-power to be gained in the descent 
from the upper level to the river, about fifty feet — 
enough, it was estimated, to turn sixty pair of millstones. 
The branch bank of the United States was still flourish- 
ing in a fine freestone front — "one of the chastest speci- 
mens of architecture within the city;" and the medical 
college was already in its present location on Sixth, be- 
tween Vine and Race, though the building was still un- 
finished. The commercial hospital and lunatic asylum 
was up and occupied. The college building was also in 
place, with accommodations for a thousand pupils. The 
Cincinnati theatre stood on the south side of Second 
street, between Main and Sycamore. A Masonic grand 
hall was projected for the next year, in the hope of loca- 
ting the grand lodge of the State permanently in Cincin- 
nati. The purchase of the Burnet property between 
Third and Fourth, Race and Vine, was urged for use as 
a city hall and public square. It could have been had 
then for twenty-five thousand dollars, which was the 
amount for which the judge presently let it go to the 
United States branch bank, to satisfy its demands upon 
him. It was already handsomely adorned with shade- 
trees, flowering shrubs, and evergreens, and several lib- 
eral gifts for its ornamentation were promised if it were 
made public property. The Cincinnati water company, 



for example, would put in a fountain gratuitously. (The 
bridge over the Ohio was still urged, and it was thought 
it could be built, with nine stone piers, breakers, and 
connecting with both Newport and Covington, for one 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Various canals were 
also in prospedtu besides the Miami, which was so hope- 
fully under waju) The valuation of the city was three 
million one hundred and fifty-seven thousand three hun- 
dred and ninety-two dollars, and its revenue for 1826 
twenty-three thousand seven hundred and forty-two dol- 
lars and eighty-one cents — less than half of it from taxa- 
tion. A new city charter, promising improvements in 
local government, was about to go into operation. 

Messrs. Drake and Mansfield seem abundantly justi- 
fied in their closing - predictions of "continued pros- 
perity in wealth and population. The period is not a 
remote one when Cincinnati will hold the same rank 
among cities of the Union that the great State of which 
she is the ornament now possesses in the American con- 

In May the city was visited by a noble personage, 
Bernhard, Uuke of Saxe-Weimar Eisenach, who after- 
wards wrote a book of his travels. He said in it, how- 
ever, nothing of account concerning Cincinnati. His 
observations on the village of Montgomery, through 
which he passed in coming here, will be found in the 
history of Sycamore township. 

October 20th, General James Findlay was elected to 
Congress from the Cincinnati district. 

November 18th, the water company begins to supply 
the city through its ground-pipes and hydrants. On the 
twenty-seventh Philip Lewis, a colored man, was hanged 
for the murder of Thomas Isbell, April 4th. He is said 
to have been the only one of his race hanged here for 
more than forty years. 

At this time, however, says Mr. L'Hommedieu, Cincin- 
nati "was undergoing the severe ordeal of paying off 'old 
debts.' Through the branch bank established here by 
the United States bank, during the years of inflation and 
extravagance which preceded this period, most of the 
real-estate owners had become almost hopelessly in debt, 
and large portions of their property had been taken by 
the United States bank, and subsequently sold at an 
advance. Some few obtained the right of redemption, 
and, by borrowing money in New York and Philadelphia, 
succeeded in saving their estates; but many, if not a 
majority, of their debtors went under. Interest ranged 
from ten to thirty-six per cent, and there was no legal 
limit. At this period the valuation of the property listed 
for taxation in our city was six million eight hundred and 
forty-eight thousand four hundred and thirty-three dollars* 

no t more than some half-dozen or less of our citizens 

combined are now worth." 

The vote of the city this year was two thousand three 
hundred and forty-nine. The new buildings put up num- 
bered four hundred and ninety-six— eight one-story brick, 
one hundred and thirty-one two-story, seventy-seven 
three-story, and one four-story; twenty-nine one-story 

•This does not agree, it will be observed, by over three . millions and 
a quarter, with Drake and Mansfield's statement. 

frames, two hundred and fifty two-story; — two hundred 
and seventeen brick structures, two hundred and seventy- 
nine frame. 

May 21st, the Miami canal is" put under contract from 
Middletown to Dayton. November 21st, two canalboats 
start for Middletown, from Howell's Basin, six miles 
above Cincinnati, in the presence of a large crowd. 

The arrivals and departures of steamers at this port, 
from the first of November, 1827, to the eighth of June, 
1828, number seven hundred and thirty-nine. 

It is probable that the temperance meeting held at the 
court house in September of this year, was the first of the 
kind in Cincinnati. It was only the year before that Dr. 
Lyman Beecher had delivered the powerful lectures 
against intemperance, from his pulpit at Litchfield, Con- 
necticut, which, being widely published, had made a pro- 
found impression in favor of reform. The American 
Temperance society was organized the same year, and its 
branches spread very rapidly. Nowhere in the country, 
probably, did the customs of society, in the matter of in- 
dulgence in intoxicants, need reformation more than in 
Cincinnati; and indue time the movement reached here. 
Mr. E. D. Mansfield, in his Life of Dr. Drake, gives the 
following amusing account of the initial meeting : 

The meeting was held at three o'clock in the afternoon, and for those 
days was really large and respectable. Many old citizens were present 
who were familiar with old whiskey and upon whose cheeks it blossomed 
forth in purple dyes. To these, and indeed to the great body of people 
in the west, a temperance speech was a new idea. Dr. Drake was the 
speaker, and they listened to him with respectful attention, and were by 
no means opposed to the object. The speech, however, was long. The 
docior had arrayed a formidable column of facts. The day was hot; 
and after he had spoken about an hour without apparently approaching 
the end, some one, out of regard for the doctor's strength, or by force 
of habit, cried out: " Let's adjourn awhile and take a drink ! " The 
meeting did adjourn, and, McFarland's tavern being near by, the old 
soakers refreshed themselves with "old rye." The meeting again as- 
sembled, the doctor finished his speech, and all went off well. Soon 
after the temperance societies began to be formed, and the excitement 
then begun has continued to this day. 

The visit of an English traveller of some distinction, 
Mr. W. Bullock, "F. L. S., etc., etc.," aids to make inter- 
esting the annals of this part of the Ohio valley for the 
year, as connected with a promising enterprise on the 
Kentucky shore, upon the site of what is now little more 
than a suburb of Cincinnati — the village of Ludlow. 
While approaching the city from New Orleans, by river, 
the traveller's eye was caught by an elegant mansion, 
upon an , estate of about a thousand acres, a little below 
the then jcity, and the property of Hon. Thomas D. Car- 
neal, an extensive landholder and member of the Ken- 
tucky legislature. During his short stay here he visited 
the place, was easily prevailed upon to buy it, and upon it 
projected "a proposed rural town to be called Hygeia." 
He evidently thought no small things of his city in the 
air; for upon an outline map of the United States, pre- 
fixed to his "Sketch of a Journey through the Western 
States of North America," he notes no other towns than 
Cincinnati and "Hygeia." His plan for the place was 
drawn by no less a personage than I. P. Papworlh, archi- 
tect to the King of Wurtemburg, "etc., etc.," and repre- 
sents a magnificent town — on paper. The eastern end 
was to be nearly opposite the mouth of Mill creek, about 

7 8 



atthe further terminus of the present Southern Railroad 
bridge, and the western end a mile distant. The extreme 
breadth, back from the river, was about half the length. 
The place was elegantly platted, with four large squares 
in the middle, called, respectively, Washington, Jefferson, 
Adams, and Patterson squares. Little parks diversified 
the border of this great quadrangle. Two other squares, 
named from Franklin and Jackson, were provided for. 
The streets were considerably in curves, after the Euro- 
pean manner. Agricultural, horticultural, and kitchen 
gardens, a cemetery "as Pere la Chaise at Paris,'' a chapel 
therein, four churches, three inns, two shops, a theatre, 
bath, town hall, museum, library, a school, and another 
public building, with a statue and a fountain, have all 
their places upon this plat. Mr. Bullock published it in 
October, 1826, upon his return to England, with his Sketch 
of a Journey, adding as an appendix Drake & Mansfield's 
Cincinnati in 1826, then a brand-new book; but all did 
not avail to prevent the scheme from joining the grand 
army of wrecked "paper towns." The old Bullock or 
Carneal house is still, however, prominent among the 
most interesting of local antiquities on the Kentucky 


(The opening of the Miami canal gave fresh life to 
business. Real estate made rapid advancement in price, 
and those who had made investments in it, were fortu- 
nate in their sales. The people were no longer depend- 
ent on mud roads and the river for their supplies, and 
provisions were abundant and comparatively cheap. It 
•had before happened occasionally that, during a mild and 
open winter, the roads had been frightfully bad, even im- 
passable; and the relief given by the canal was such as 
is difficult, indeed, to realize under the commercial con- 
ditions that now prevail^) A great calamity was experi- 
enced, however, December nth, in the destructive fire 
that devastated half the square on Main street, between 
Third and Fourth — one of the most solid business blocks 
in the city. The weather was extremely cold, and but 
two engines could play upon the fire. The citizens, 
women and children included, formed a line to the river, 
and did what they could in passing fire-buckets; but 
without much avail. 

The valuation of taxable property in the city this year 
was three millions six hundred and ninety-seven thousand 
seven hundred and thirty-three dollars, and the tax nine 
and five-tenths mills, yielding, with other receipts, a rev- 
enue of thirty-five thousand nine hundred and ninety- 
three dollars and forty-three cents. There were expended 
by the corporation forty-six thousand one hundred and 
fifty-six dollars — twenty-two thousand and five dollars for 
paving streets and alleys, including excavations. A loan 
of thirty thousand dollars was necessarily made this year, 
the total expenditures being sixty-five thousand four 
hundred and twenty-nine dollars and twenty-one cents. 
Miller & Company's cotton factory went into operation, 
also the Hamilton foundry and steam-engine factory, 
Goodloe & Borden's and West & Storm's engine facto- 
ries, Fox's steam grist-mill on Deer creek, at the terminus 
of Fifth street, and other business enterprises. 

The bills of mortality for 1828 show deaths to the 
number of six hundred and forty-seven, being one in 
every thirty-seven of the population — a pretty high death 
rate, compared with the rates of succeeding years — as one 
in thirty-four (eight hundred and twenty) in 1831, and 
one in twenty-seven (one thousand one hundred and 
seventy) in 1833. 

This year came to Cincinnati one of the most remark- 
able women who ever set foot in the city — one who, un- 
like all other foreign travellers through the valley, left 
here a most singular monument of her residence, which 
endured for more than half a century — -the Trol- 
lopean Bazaar. It was built by Mrs. Frances Trollope, 
an Englishwoman, who resided here and in the neighbor- 
hood for a little more than two years. She is probably 
very poor historical authority, especially in Cincinnati, 
whose people and institutions she abused so persistently 
and unmercifully; but she was a woman of unmistakable 
powers of mind and literary talent — as the mother of 
Anthony Trollope must have been — and her observations 
are always entertaining, if often far from just. We shal 1 
give some extracts, here and elsewhere, from her subse- 
quent book on The Domestic Manners of the Americans. 
She came alone from Memphis, with her son and two 
daughters, Mr. Trollope and another son joining them 
here the next year. In the first volume of her book she 

We reached Cincinnati on the tenth of February. It is finely situ- 
ated on the south side of a hill that rises gently from the water's edge, 
yet it is by no means a city of stnking appearance ; it wants domes, 
towers, and steeples ; but its landing place is noble, extending for more 
than a quarter of a mile ; it is well paved and surrounded by neat 
though not handsome buildings. I have seen fifteen steamboats lying 
there at once, and still half the wharf was unoccupied. 

The sight of bricks and mortar was really refreshing, and a house of 
three stories looked splendid. Of this splendor we saw repeated speci- 
mens, and moreover a brick church which, from its two little peaked 
spires, was called the two-horned church. . Certainly it 

was not a little town, about the size of Salisbury, without even an at- 
tempt at beauty in any of its edifices, and with only just enough of the 
air of a city to make it noisy and bustling. The population is greater 
than the appearance of the town would lead one to expect. This is 
partly owing to the number of free negroes who herd together in an ob- 
scure part of the city, called Little Africa, and partly to the density of 
the population around the paper mills and other manufactories. I be- 
lieve the number of inhabitants exceeds twenty thousand. 

At that time I think Main street, which is the principal avenue, and 
runs through the whole town, answering to the High street of our old 
cities, was the only one entirely paved. The trottoir [sidewalk] is of 
brick, tolerably well laid, but it is inundated by every shower, as Cin- 
cinnati has no drains whatever. . . Were it furnished with 
drains of the simplest arrangement, the heavy showers of the climate 
would keep them constantly clean ; as it is, these showers wash the 
higher streets, only to deposit their filth in the first level spot ; and this 
happens to be in the street second in importance to Main street, run- 
ning at right angles to it, and containing most of the large warehouses 
of the town. This deposit is a dreadful nuisance, and must be produc- 
tive of miasma during the hot weather. 

The following passage will be read with considerable 
amusement by the myriad dwellers on the hills in this 
latter day: 

tlills, : 

(To the north, Cincinnati is bounded by a range of foresticovered 
hills, sufficiently steep and rugged to prevent their being built'upon or 
easily cultivated, but not sufficiently high to command from their sum- 
mits a view of any considerable extent. Deep and narrow water-courses, 
dry in summer, but bringing down heavy streams in winter, divide these 
hills into many separate heights, and this furnishes the only variety the 
landscape offers for many miles around the town. The lovely Ohio is 



a beautiful feature wherever it is visible, but the only part of the city 
that has the advantage of its beauty is the street nearest to its bank. 

Though I do not quite sympathize with those who consider Cincin- 
nati as one of the wonders of the earth, I certainly think it a city of 
extraordinary size and importance, when it is remembered that thirty 
years ago the aboriginal forest occupied the ground where it stands, 
and every month appears to extend its limits and its wealth/) 
During nearly two years that I resided in Cincinnati or its*neighbor- 
hood, I neither saw a beggar nor a man of sufficient fortune to permit 
his ceasing his efforts to increase it. Thus every bee in the hive is ac- 
tively employed in search of that honey of Hybla, vulgarly called' 
money; neither art, science, learning, nor pleasure can seduce them 
from its pursuit. 

Notwithstanding fourteen hundred new dwellings had been erected 
the preceding year, the demand for houses greatly exceeded the 

Perhaps the most advantageous feature in Cincinnati is its market, 
which, for excellence, abundance, and cheapness, can hardly, I should 
think, be surpassed in any part of the world, if I except the luxury of 
fruits, which are very inferior to any I have seen in Europe. There are 
no butchers, fishmongers, or indeed any shop for eatables, except baker- 
ies, as they are called, in the town : everything must be purchased at 
market. . . The beef is excellent, and the highest price 

when we were there, four cents (about twopence) the pound. The mut- 
ton was inferior, and so was the veal to the eye, but it ate well, though 
not very fat ; the price was about the same. The poultry was excellent; 
fowls or full-sized chickens, ready for the table, twelve cents, but much 
less if bought alive, and not quite fat; turkeys about fifty cents, and 
geese the same. The Ohio furnishes several sorts of fish, some of them 
very good, and always to be found cheap and abundant in the market, 
Eggs, butter, nearly all kinds of vegetables, excellent, and at moderate 
prices. From June till December tomatoes (the great luxury of the 
American table in the opinion of most Europeans) may be found in the 
highest perfection in the market for about sixpence the peck. They 
have a great variety of beans unknown in England, particularly the 
Lima bean, the seed of which is dressed like the French harico; it fur- 
nishes a very abundant crop, and is a most delicious vegetable. 

The watermelons, which in that warm climate furnish a most 
delightful refreshment, were abundant and cheap ; but all other melons 
very inferior to those of France, or even of England, when ripened in 
a common hotbed. . It is the custom for the gentle- 

men to go to market at Cincinnati ; the smartest men in the place, and 
those of the ' ' highest standing, " do not scruple to leave their beds with 
the sun, six days in the week, and, prepared with a mighty basket, to 
sally forth in search of meat, butter, eggs and vegetables. I have con- 
tinually seen them returning, with their weighty baskets on one arm 
and an enormous ham depending on the other. 

Cincinnati has not many lions to boast, but among them are two 
museums of natural history; both of these contain many respectable 
specimens, particularly that of Mr. Dorfeuille, who has, moreover, some 
interesting antiquities. . . The people have a most ex- 

travagant passion for wax figures, and the two museums vie with each 
other in displaying specimens of this barbarous branch of art. 

There is also a picture gallery at Cincinnati, and this was a 
circumstance of much interest to us. . It would be in- 

vidious to describe the picture gallery; I have no doubt that some years 
hence it will present a very different appearance, 
f I never saw any people who appeared to live so much without amuse- 
nJent as the Cincinnatians. Billiards are forbidden by law; so are 
cards. To sell a pack of cards in Ohio subjects the seller to a penalty 
of fifty dollars. They have no public balls, excepting, I think, six dur- 
ing the Christmas holidays. They have no concerts. They have no 
dinner parties. They have a theatre, which is, in fact, the only public 
amusement of this little town; but they seem to care very littjeabout it, 
and, either from economy or distaste, it is very poorly attended?}) Ladies 
are rarely seen there, and by far the larger proportion of females deem 
it an offense to religion to witness the representation of a play. 

There are no public gardens or lounging shops of fashionable 
resort, and were it not for public worship and private tea-drinkings, all 
the ladies of Cincinnati would be in danger of becoming perfect re- 

Mrs. Trollope took for a time a country-house at Mo- 
hawk, then a straggling village along the Hamilton road 
at the base of Mount Auburn, where Mohawk street per- 
petuates its name and memory. She, by and by, deter- 

mined to set up her son in business here, and projected 
the scheme which eventuated in the building of the Ba- 
zaar. The City Directory for 1829 gives the following 
entertaining account of this remarkable enterprise. It 
is hardly probable the writer would have been so glowing 
and enthusiastic in his descriptions, had he foreseen the 
criticisms which Mrs. Trollope would pass upon Cincin- 
nati and Cincinnatians in her forthcoming book, to say 
nothing of the criticisms which the local public and fu- 
ture travellers, notably Mrs. Trollope's countrymen and 
countrywomen, would give her remarkable creation on 
East Third street. The article serves, however, as an 
excellent means of information concerning the design of 
the builders of the Bazaar, and the feelings of the citi- 
zens toward it when the enterprise was new ; 

The Bazaar. — This exotic title carries the imagination directly to 
Constantinople, so celebrated for mosques, minarets, caravansaries, and 
bazaars. In sober English, bazaar signifies a fair or market place. 
The building which is the subject of the present notice, and which is 
now in rapid progress toward completion, is called the Bazaar, although 
but a small portion of its ample area is to be appropriated to its legiti- 
mate uses as a constant mart. The name, albeit, is in- good keeping 
with the style of the edifice, the freestone front of which exhibits a rich 
and beautiful specimen of arabesque architecture, combining the airy 
lightness of the Grecian with the sombrous gravity of 'the Gothic taste. 
The basement story, which is entered by three several flights of stone 
steps, contains divers neat and commodious apartments. Those 
fronting the street are designed for an exchange coffee house, one of 
them to be fitted up and furnished as a bar-room, the other to be ap- 
propriated, as the name imports, to the transaction of general com- 
mercial business. Over the basement is a splendid compartment, sixty 
feet by twenty-eight, and ornamented by two rows of columns passing 
through it. This room gives title, if not character, to the building. 
Here is to be held the bazaar, where, it is presumable, every useful and 
useless article in dress, in stationery, in light and ornamental house- 
hold furniture, chinas and . more pellucid porcelains, with every gewgaw 
that can contribute to the splendor and attractiveness of the exhibition, 
from the sparkling necklace of "lady fair" to the exquisite safety-chain, 
will be displayed and vended. 

In the rear of the bazaar is an elegant saloon, where ices and other 
refreshments will lend their allurements to the fascinations of architect- 
ural novelty. This saloon opens to a spacious balcony, which in its 
turn conducts to an exhibition gallery, that is at present occupied by 
Mr. Hervieu's picture of Lafayette's Landing at Cincinnati. Above 
the bazaar is a magnificent ball-room, the front of which, looking over 
the street, will receive the rays of the sun, or emit the rival splendors of 
its gas-illumined walls, by three ample, arabesque windows, which give 
an unrivalled lightness and grace to the festive hall. The walls and the 
arched and lofty ceiling of- this delectable apartment are to be deco- 
rated by the powerful pencil of Mr. Hervieu. The rear of the room 
is occupied by an orchestral gallery, whence dulcet music will guide 
' ' the light fantastic toe ' ' through the mazes of the giddy dance. 

Behind the ballroom is another superb saloon, issuing also to a bal- 
cony. This division is assigned to the accommodation of gentlemen's 
private parties, where the beau monde may regale themselves when and 
how they list. Over this is a circular structure of exceedingly light and 
beautiful proportions, which is intended for panoramic exhibitions; and 
around it is constructed, in concentric circles, an airy corridor, from 
whence the eye, that has been already delighted to satiety by the exhi- 
bitions of art, may recreate itself amid the varied beauties and bland- 
ishments of nature. 

The rear of this antique and multifidous edifice presents a noble 
facade of Egyptian columns, which will vie, in magnificence and novelty, 
with the Arabian windows that decorate its front. The apartments are 
all to be lighted by gas, furnished by Mr. Delany. The whole arrange- 
ment and architectural of this superb building reflects great credit upon 
the taste and skill of Mr. Palmer, the architect. The interior dimen- 
sions of the building are : Length, one hundred and four feet ; width, 
eighty feet ; height to the top of the spire, which is to surmount the 
cupola, eighty feet ; height from base to cornice, thirty-three feet. 

The Bazaar stands on Third street, east of Broadway. 

The building was still new when sold at sheriff's sale to 



pay the mechanics who worked upon it, and underwent 
important changes at the hands of its different owners, 
especially in the addition of another story to its height. 
It has been occupied for many uses in the course of fifty- 
two or three years, from the original occupation by the 
Mechanic's institute down to its habitation largely by 
women of ill-fame. Of late it had fallen into utter disre- 
pair and dilapidation, except one room, which has been 
occupied by a rolling-mill office. Long ago the paint- 
ings with which Hervieu decorated its walls and ceilings 
(the ceiling of the large hall is said to have been very 
elaborately adorned), disappeared under successive coats 
of whitewash and then of wall-paper — "a striking exhibi- 
tion of vandalism," says Mr. Foote, in his Schools of 
Cincinnati, "as the putting them on these walls was an 
act of folly ; for, although not works of very high art, they 
possess too much merit lo be defaced." The observa- 
tions of her son Anthony, the famous novelist, upon his 
visit to Cincinnati in the winter of 1861-2, will have in- 
terest here: 

I had some little personal feeling in visiting Cincinnati, because my 
mother had lived there for some time,- and had there been concerned in 
a. commercial enterprise, by which no one, I believe, made any great 
sum of money. Between thirty and forty years ago she built a Bazaar 
in Cincinnati, which I was assured by the present owner of the house 
was at the time of its erection considered to be the great building of the 
town. It has been sadly eclipsed now, and by no means rears its head 
proudly among the great blocks around it. It had become a Physico- 
medical institute when I was there, and was under the dominion of a 
quack doctor on one side and of a college of rights-of-women female 
medical professors on the other. ' ' I believe, sir, no man or woman ever 
made adollar in that building; and as for rent, I don't even expect it." 
Such was the account given of the unfortunate Bazaar by the present 

In addition to their pecuniary troubles, sickness afflicted 
the Trollopes much during their second season here, and 
finally, seeing that "our Cincinnati speculation for my 
son would in no way answer our experience," they deter- 
mined to go back to England. The party left in early 
March, 1830, and she says, "I believe there was not one 
of our party who did not experience a sense of pleasure in 
leaving it. The only regret was that 

we had ever entered it; for we had wasted health, time, 
and money there." Her experiences in this city, un- 
doubtedly, had much to do in imparting gall and venom 
to the celebrated book which she published shortly after 
her return to the old home. 

Dr. Caldwell, a phrenologist, sometimes called in that 
day "the Spurzhcim of America," delivered a course of 
lectures in the city this year, and created much sensa- 
tion. Some twenty or thirty citizens were led to form 
the Phrenological society of Cincinnati, with an elaborate 
constitution, numerous officers, and other details of 
equipment; but it hardly survived beyond the third 
meeting. Miss Fanny Wright, the famous English Rad- 
ical and Socialist, also lectured here to crowded houses. 
She was an intimate friend of Mrs. Trollope and Her- 
vieu, and was just then trying the experiment of coloniz- 
ing negroes upon a tract called "Nashoba," in Tennessee; 
which of course proved a failure. 


Population of the city this year, twenty-four thousand 
one hundred and forty-eight; 'whites twenty-one thousand 


eight hundred and ninety — males eleven thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-five, females ten thousand and thirty- 
five; colored two thousand two hundred and fifty-eight. 
New buildings, two hundred and seventy. Deaths for 
the year ending July 1, six hundred and forty-seven, or 
one in thirty-seven and one-third of the population. 

The Washington Ball of this year, February 22d, is said 
to have been a very brilliant affair. 

February 27th General Jackson passed through Cincin- 
nati, on his way from his home in Tennessee to Washing- 
ton, to be inaugurated as President of the United States. 
Three steamers were in the Presidential fleet, all crowded 
with passengers. They reached the landing amid can- 
non-firing and other demonstrations of applause, passed 
the city about a quarter of a mile, and then rounded in 
the stream and swept grandly down to the landing, the 
escorts falling back a little, to let the steamer with the 
President first touch the shore. "All the maneuvering," 
says Mrs. Trollope, who was an eye-witness of it, "was 
extraordinary well executed, and really beautiful." Car- 
riages were in waiting for the General and his suite; but 
he walked in a simple, democratic way through the crowd 
to- the hotel, uncovered, though the weather was cold. 
He was clad in deep mourning, having but lately lost his 
wife. He remained quietly at the hotel a few hours, 
while the steamer transacted its business, and then pro- 
ceeded with it to Pittsburgh. 

In the spring of this year, beginning April 13th, the 
notable public seven-days' debate occurred between the 
Rev. Alexander Campbell, founder of the Disciple 
Church, and Mr. Robert Owen, of the New Harmony 
(Indiana) and other communities, in pursuance of 
Owen's challenge to the Christian ministry that he would 
show publicly the falsehood of all religions ever propa- 
gated, and would undertake to prove all equal, and nearly 
all equally mischievous. The challenge was accepted by 
Mr. Campbell, who was then in the prime of his strong 
powers; and the debate was attended by audiences that 
thronged to overflowing the spacious Methodist church, 
which held about one thousand people. It was regulated 
by a presiding committee, in which were Major Daniel 
Gano, Judge Burnet, Rev. O M. Spencer, Timothy 
Flint, and other leading citizens. Fifteen sessions for 
debate were held, and the vote at the close showed that 
the sympathies of a very large majority of their hearers 
were still in favor of Christianity. The addresses of the 
disputants were afterwards published in book form. 

A Young Men's Temperance society was organized 
this year, starting off with about one hundred members. 

About the middle of this year the office of the sur- 
veyor general of the public lands in the northwest came 
back to Cincinnati, by the worthy appointment of Gen- 
eral William Lytle to that post. Ex-Governor Tiffin, 
the last previous incumbent, was early removed upon the 
accession of General Jackson to the Presidency, under 
the new principle then brought into application in Fed- 
eral appointments, that "to the victors belong the spoils;" 
although Dr. Tiffin had held the place most acceptably 
during the successive administrations of Presidents Madi- 
son, Monroe, and J. Q. Adams. On the first of July 



General Lytle visited the office at Chillicothe, exhibited 
his commission and an order for the delivery of the 
records, and at once removed the office to Cincinnati. 
Dr. Tiffin had long been struggling with disease, and was 
now near his end, closing a long and honorable public 
career August 9, 1829. 

i In May, 1829, the city had a visit from Caleb Atwater, 
61 Circleville, the first historian of Ohio and one of the 
first writers to publish a book upon American antiquities. 
He was on his way to fulfill some commission for the 
Government in the far northwest, and records the follow- 
ing of Cincinnati, in the book which he subsequently 

In this city are one hundred, at least, mercantile stores, and about 
twenty churches. Some of the stores do business in a wholesale way, 
though quite too many of them are occupied by retailers on a small 
scale. fThere are a great many taverns and boarding houses. Among 
the churches, the First and Second Presbyterian, one belonging to the 
Unitarians, and the Roman Catholics, and perhaps two or three belong- 
ing either to the Episcopalians or the Methodists, are the best. There 
are two museums, in either" of which more knowledge of the nat- 
ural history of the western States can be obtained in a day than can be 
obtained in any other place in a year.} These collections are very well 
arranged, and kept by persons of taste, science, and politeness. No 
traveller of learning should ever pass through the city without calling 
to see them both, and, having once seen them, he will never neglect to 
see them as often as he visits the place. 

There are nine book stores, and a greater number still of printing 
establishments, that issue newspapers. The two principal publishers of 
newspapers issue each a daily paper. 

The mechanics of this city are numerous and very excellent in their 
several trades. Manufactures of iron, of wood, of stone, of all the 
metals indeed, are carried on with zeal, industry and talent. The build- 
ers of houses are unrivaled in the rapidity with which they do their work, 
and they exhibit genius, skill, and taste. 

There are nearly sixty lawyers, who, for learning, zeal, fidelity, indus- 
try, morality, honor, honesty, and every other good qualification of the 
heart and head, are equal to a like number of the same honorable and 
highly useful profession, in any city in the United States. 

The number of physicians and surgeons in the city must be, I pre- 
sume, nearly eighty, who are skillful, learned, and highly respectable in 
their profession. 

ffhere are probably about forty clergymen in the city; and from the 
morality of the place I give them credit for a considerable degree of 

It will with great ease increase to a population of about fifty thou- 
sand inhabitants. Its increase beyond that number depends on so many 
causes, not yet developed, that human foresight cannot now scan them) 
It will, however, continue to be the largest town in the State, unless 
Zanesville or Cleveland should exceed it. [!] 

/There is but one evil hanging over this city — the price of land is ex- 
travagantly high, and so are house and ground rents. Every material 
used in building is cheap, mechanical labor is low in price, and so is 
every article of food and raiment. 

Main street, for a mile in length from north to south, presents a scene 
as busy, as bustling, as crowded, and if possible more noisy, especially 
about the intersection of Fourth street with Main street, and also any- 
where near the Ohio river, as can be found in New York.) If the ear 
is not quite so much afflicted with strange cries as in Philadelphia or 
Baltimore, yet for drumming and organ-grinding^I should suppose 
some few spots in Main street, Cincinnati, would exceed anything of the 
sort in the world-+at least I should most heartily and charitably hope so. 




It was an important decade in the growth and annals of 
events in the Queen City. (The population had grown 
in the ten years 1820-30, from nine thousand six hun- 
dred and forty-two to twenty-four thousand eight hun- 
dred and thirty-one, or two hundred and sixty per cent.; 
it was to continue to grow in this decade in satisfactory 
ratio, though not relatively so fast, from twenty-four 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-one to forty-six thou- 
sand three hundred and thirty-eight, or eighty-five per 
cent.) The number of new buildings this year was two 
hundred and five. 

The following notices of local improvements are con- 
tained in the directory for 1831 : 

During the past year a new street was opened, extending Lower Mar- 
ket street from Main to Walnut; and both sides oi it are now, or soon 
will be, wholly built up with brick warehouses and other buildings, all 
of which are beautiful and substantial. The hotel on the corner, where 
the new street enters Walnut, will be one of the most splendid edifices 
in the western country. It is five stories high above the basement, and 
is to be covered with marble columns. The new street has received the 
name of "Pearl street," and promises to be to Cincinnati what its cele- 
brated namesake is to New York. 

Among the best buildings erected in 1830 we would mention, in addi- 
tion to the above, Greene's splendid row on Front street; Cassilly's 
& Carter's on the corner of Broadway and Front; and Moore's on the 
southeast corner of Main and Fourth streets. Much more taste. has 
been displayed in the models of private dwellings than heretofore, espe- 
cially in those erected on Fourth street. Of the public buildings fin- 
ished during the past year, we would mention the Catholic Atheneum, 
the Unitarian and the Second Presbyterian churches. The latter is 
considered by good judges one of the best models of the Doric in the 
United States. It is of brick, but its front, pillars, and sides are cov- 
ered with cement, in imitation of marble. The cost of this church was 
more than twenty thousand dollars. On its cupola has been placed a 
public clock, which belongs to the city. * 

This year the Miami canal was extended from the 
then head of Main street, where it had stopped tempo- 
rarily, across Deer creek, which it spanned by a large 
culvert. The canal commissioners proposed another 
halt here for a time, and the leasing of the water-power 
along the borders of the new line. The improvement 
was finished in July, 1834. The business of the canal 
was now rapidly increasing.. During three months of 
1829, the tolls at Cincinnati amounted to but three 
thousand five hundred and fifteen dollars; while in 
a single month, the first of navigation in 1831, they ag- 
gregated two thousand ninety-five dollars and sixty-five 

In the spring of this year a young attorney came to 
Cincinnati, who was favorably introduced under the name 
of Salmon P. Chase. He came from Washington, where 
he had been keeping a classical school for boys. His 
edition of the Statutes of Ohio, published soon after- 
wards, with a preliminary sketch of State history, at once 
gave him wide and permanent fame, and brought him 
large practice. In 1834 he became solicitor of the Branch 
Bank of the United States, and also for a city bank. In 
1837 he had a very celebrated case, in which he de- 

* This church stood on the south side of Fourth street, between Race 
and Vine, about where the Mitchell & Rammelsberg company now have 
heir furniture warehouse. 



fended a colored woman, claimed as a slave under the 
law of 1793. In the same year he made an argument 
in defense of James G. Birney, indicted for harboring a 
fugitive slave, that won him great praise, and was also 
widely noticed. 


Some notable men, more or less identified with the 
history of Cincinnati, were in public office this year. 
John McLean was a justice of the supreme court; Peyton 
S. Symmes register, and Morgan Neville receiver of 
the land office, which was still maintained here; Micajah 
Williams was surveyor general, Charles Larabee surveyor 
of the port of Cincinnati, and Colonel William Piatt 
paymaster in the army. 

I Two hundred and fifty new buildings were put up this 
Vy_ear. y Population, twenty-six thousand and seventy-one. 
Bills of mortality, eight hundred and twenty, or one in 
thkty-four of the population. 

(The first macadamized road was built into the city 
this year, and others speedily followed. / 


The city made some progress, despite many drawbacks. 
Three hundred buildings were erected, and the total 
number in the city was now four thousand and sixteen. 
The population increased nearly two thousand, or to 
twenty-eight thousand and fourteen. Nevertheless, it was 
a sad year for Cincinnati. It was scourged by flood, 
fire, famine, and cholera. The freshet of the year is 
memorable in the river and local annals. The Ohio 
began to rise about the ninth of February, and was at 
its maximum height on the eighteenth, when it touched 
the extraordinary level of sixty-two feet above low-water 
mark. Great suffering and loss of property and in some 
cases lives were experienced all along the river, but es- 
pecially at Cincinnati. The whole of the old-time 
"bottom" was flooded so deep and so far up that the 
ferry boats landed at the corner of Main and Pearl streets. 
The Mill creek bridge was swept off, and that over Deer 
creek badly damaged. Thirty-five squares were inunda- 
ted, many buildings damaged or wrecked, or swept off 
bodily, and thousands of people were turned out of 
house and home. Two lives were lost in the raging 
wate'rs. A town meeting was held February 15, and 
measures of relief to the distressed and homeless were 
devised. Vigilance committees to prevent theft and 
wanton destruction of property, also committees of relief 
and of shelter, were appointed. All public buildings, 
school-houses, the basements of churches, and every 
available place of refuge, were surrendered to the refu- 
gees, and relief afforded as rapidly as possible. Benefits 
were given the sufferers by Mr. Letton of the Museum, 
Mr. Frank, with his gallery of paintings, Mr. Brown, of 
the amphitheatre, and the Beethoven society, which gave 
a concert of sacred music Many weeks elapsed before, 
the waters having subsided, the city below Third street 
resumed its wonted aspect, and then many injured build- 
ings or desolated spots told of the ruin that had been 

Most of the provision stores and groceries were then 

kept in the drowned districts; and few had time to re- 
move their stocks before the flood reached them. There 
was consequently a scarcity of food, and a partial famine 
added to the miseries of the situation. Mr. L'Homme- 
dieu says of this and other calamities of the year. 

The greater portion of flour and other provisions had been kept below 
high-water mark. Some few, more successful than others, had suc- 
ceeded in raising their stocks of flour to upper stories. But, then, what 
exorbitant prices they demanded, and would have obtained but for the 
denunciation of an independent press ! Later in the year, and follow- 
ing the fire, flood and famine, came the dreaded pestilence, the Asiatic 
cholera, which carried more of our population to their graves than have 
any of its visitations since, notwithstanding our then small population 
of twenty-five thousand. | 

One of the results of the cholera was a large number of orphans. \ 
The ladies of Cincinnati found an occasion for their efforts in caring for \ 
the unfortunates. With funds placed in their hands by the Masonic 
lodges, and others of the city, they founded the Cincinnati orphan asy- 
lum. The city gave them the use of a building on the ground now / 
occupied for the beautiful Lincoln park. f 

The great fire occurred the early part of the year, and 
devastated the tract from below Third street to the Com- 
mercial bank. 

The cholera came on the thirtieth of September, and 
staid for thirteen months. The board of health for some > 
time denied the presence of~AsiaTjc~chakra, but on the" ' 
tenth of October published an official list of deaths from 
that cause. In that month died here four hundred and 
twenty-three persons — over half of all who fell from the 
scourge duting its prevalence in the city. Forty-one died 
in one day — the twenty-first of October. The dreadful 
epidemic continued until late in the year, and was re- 
newed the next season. Says a paragraph in the Life of 
Bishop Morris: 

The city, during the prevalence of this dreadful epidemic, presented 
a mournful aspect. Thousands of citizens were absent in the country; 
very many were closely confined by personal affliction or the demands 
of sick friends; hundreds were numbered among the dead; the transient 
floating population had entirely disappeared; the country people, in 
terror, stood aloof ; business was almost wholly suspended; the tramp 
of hurrying feet was no longer heard on the streets; the din of the city 
was hushed, and every day appeared as a Sabbath. Instead, however, 
of the sound of church-going bells and the footsteps of happy throngs 
hastening to the house of God, were heard the shrieks of terror-stricken 
victims of the fell disease, the groans of the dying, and the voices of 
lamentation. For weeks funeral processions might be seen at any hour, 
from early morning to late at night. All classes of people were stricken 
down in this fearful visitation. Doctors, ministers, lawyers, merchants 
and mechanics, the old and the young, the temperate and the intemper- 
ate, the prudent and the imprudent, were alike victims. Seventy-five 
members of the Cincinnati station died that year, and fifty of them 
were marked on the church records as cholera cases. 

This year, on the fourth day of November, was to oc- 
cur the semi-centennial celebration of the temporary 
occupation opposite the mouth of the Licking, by a por- 
tion of General George Rogers Clark's force, in 1782, as 
agreed by the officers and men at that time. General 
Simon Kenton, Major James Galloway, of Xenia, John 
McCaddon, of Newark, and a few others, were still living, 
and they caused extensive advertisement of the proposed 
celebration to be made in the western papers, for several 
months beforehand. It was intended, on the third or 
fifth of November (the fourth coming on Sunday this 
year), among other observances, to lay the corner-stone 
of a suitable monument at the intersection of several 
streets on the site of old Fort Washington; but whin the 
day came, cholera was stalking with awful presence 



through every street and by-way of Cincinnati, and only 
a handful of the venerable survivors met in the city, 
sadly exchanged greetings and reminiscences, uttered 
their laments for the honored dead, and partook of a din- 
ner at the expense of the city. The following address, pre- 
pared by General Kenton, to awaken interest in the oc- 
casion, will still be read with pleasure : 


The old pioneers, citizen-soldiers and those who were engaged with 
us in the regular service in the conquest of the western country from 
the British and savages fifty years ago, have all been invited to attend 
with the survivors of General George Rogers Clark's army of 1782, 
who purpose the celebration of a western anniversary, according to 
their promise made on the ground the fourth day of November in that 
year. Those also who were engaged in like service subsequently, and 
in the late war, have been invited to attend and join with us in the 
celebration on the said fourth of November, at old Fort Washington, 
now Cincinnati. I propose that we meet at Covington, Kentucky, on 
the third, the fourth being Sabbath, to attend divine service, on Mon- 
day meet our friends on the ground where the old fort stood, and then 
take a final adieu, to meet no more until we shall all meet in a world of 

Fellow-citizens of the West! This is a meeting well worthy your 
very serious consideration. The few survivors of that race who are now 
standing on the verge of the grave, view with anxious concern the wel- 
fare of their common country, for which they fought against British 
oppression and savage cruelty to secure to you, our posterity, the bles- 
sings of liberty, religion, and law. We will meet and we will tell you 
what we have suffered to secure to you these inestimable privileges. We 
will meet, and, if you will listen, we will admonish you "face to face," 
to be as faithful as we have been, to transmit those blessings unim- 
paired to your posterity; that America may long, and we trust forever, 
remain a free, sovereign, independent, and happy country. We look to 
bur fellow-citizens in Kentucky and Ohio, near the place of meeting, to 
make provision for their old fathers of the West. We look to our 
patriot captains of our steamboats, and patriotic stage contractors and 
companies, and our generous innkeepers, to make provision for the 
going and returning to Cincinnati, from all parts of the West. We 
know that they will deem it an honor to accommodate the gray-headed 
veterans of the West, who go to meet their companions for the last 
time; for this may be the only opportunity they will ever have to serve 
their old fathers, the pioneers and veterans of the West. 

Fellow-citizens ! Being one of the first, after Colonel Daniel Boone, 
who aided in the conquest of Kentucky and the West, I am called upon 
to address you. My heart melts on such an occasion. I look forward 
to the contemplated meeting with melancholy pleasure. It has caused 
tears to flow in copious showers. I wish to see once more, before I 
die, my few surviving friends. My solemn promise, made fifty years 
ago, binds me to meet them. I ask not for myself ; but you may find 
in our assembly some who have never received any pay or pension, who 
have sustained the cause of their country equal to any other service, 
who in the decline of life are poor. Then, you prosperous sons of the 
West, forget not those old and gray-headed veterans on this occasion. 
Let them return to their families with some little manifestation of your 
kindness to cheer their hearts. I add my prayer. May kind Heaven 
grant us a clear sky, fair and pleasant weather, a. safe journey, and a 
happy meeting, and smile upon us and our families, and bless us and 
our nation on the approaching occasion. 

Simon Kenton. 

Urbana, Ohio, 1832. 

This city was visited this year by Colonel Thomas 
Hamilton, author of Cyril Thornton and other popular 
novels of that day, who made the following notes upon 
Cincinnati in his anonymous and agreeable work upon 
The Men and Manners of America : 

In two days we reached Cincinnati, a town of nearly thirty thousand 
inhabitants, finely situated on a slope ascending from the river. The 
streets and buildings are handsome, and certainly far superior to what 
might be expected in a situation six hundred miles from the sea and 
standing on ground which, till lately, was considered the extreme limit 
of civilization. It is, apparently, a place of considerable trade. The 
quay was covered with articles of traffic; and there are a thousand indi- 
cations of activity and business which strike the senses of a traveller, but 

which he would find it difficult to describe. Having nothing better to do, 
I took a stroll about the town, and its first favorable impression was not 
diminished by closer inspection. Many of the streets would have been 
considered handsome in New York or Philadelphia; and, in the private 
dwellings, considerable attention had been paid to external decoration. 
The most remarkable object in Cincinnati, however, is a large Graeco- 
Moresco-Gothic-Chinese-looking building, an architectural compila- 
tion of prettiness of all sorts, the effect of which is eminently gro- 
tesque. Our attention was immediately arrested by this extraordinary 
apparition, which could scarcely have been more out of place had it 
been tossed on the earth by some volcano in the moon. While we 
stood there, complimenting the gorgeousness of its effect and specu- 
lating "what aspect bore the man" to whom the inhabitants of these 
central regions could have been indebted for so brilliant and fantastic 
an outrage on all acknowledged principles of taste, a very pretty and 
pleasant-looking girl came out and invited us to enter. We accord- 
ingly did so, and found everything in the interior of the building had 
been finished on a scale quite in harmony with its external magnifi- 

This was the Trollopean Bazaar, of course, which re- 
ceived many similar notices from travellers, especially 


C Population of thev-city, twenty-seven thousand six 
hundred and forty-five.) Votes, three thousand nine 
hundred and ninety-five; New buildings, three hundred 
and twenty-one — two hundred brick, one hundred and 
twenty-one frame. 

The cholera, as before stated, continued into this year. 
.Its first re-appearance was about the middle of April. 
The most destructive month was July, when one hun- 
dred and seventy-six died. The total mortality from this 
visitation of the pestilence, from September, 1832, to 
September, 1833, inclusive, was eig ht hundred and thir- 
teen. The average deaths per day this year were far less 
than in 1832, but the disease staid four times as long, or 
nearly six months. 

June 26th, the powder-mill owned by David D. Wade 
exploded, killing six persons. 

On the eighth of August died Dr. James M. Stough- 
ton, one of the pioneer physicians. 

December 26th, that being then supposed to be the 
right anniversary (the forty-fifth) of the landing of the 
Losantiville pioneers, the occasion was celebrated by a 
large party of natives of Ohio — chiefly, of course, young 
men, with many invited guests. Major Daniel Gano 
was president of the affair ; William R. Morris, first vice- 
president; Henry E. Spencer, second vice-president; 
Moses Symmes, third vice-president. The address was 
delivered by Joseph Longworth, esq. ; poems were re- 
cited by Peyton- S. Symmes and Charles D. Drake, 
afterwards United States Senator from Missouri; and the 
chaplains were the Revs. J. B. Firiley and William Burke. 
The committee of arrangements included a number of 
prominent young Queen Citizens of that day: George 
Williamson, William R. Morris, L. M. Gwynne, J. M. 
Foote, Alfred S. Reeder, G. W. Sinks, Joseph Long- 
worth, Daniel Gano, Henry E. Spencer, M. N. McLean, 
James C. Hall, George W. Burnet, R. A. Whetstone, and 
W. M. Corry. The banquet was given in the Commer- 
cial Exchange, on the river bank, upon the site of the 
first cabin built in Losantiville. The dinner was pre- 
pared almost exclusively from native productions, and 



only wine produced in the vicinity was imbibed. This 
was presented by Nicholas Longworth, in honor of the 
old pioneers and their descendants. Among the unique 
viands on the table was a roast composed of two uncom- 
monly fat raccoons. Responses to toasts were made by 
James C. Ludlow, son of Colonel Israel Ludlow; by 
Generals Harrison and Findlay, Majors Gano and Symmes, 
Judge Goodenow, Nicholas Longworth, and Samuel 
J. Browne, the latter then the oldest Englishman in the 
State. A part of General Harrison's address will be 
found in the military chapter, in the first division of this 

Another foreigner of some note, Mr. Godfrey T. Vigne, 
visited the city in July, and thus recorded his impressions 
of it in his book on Six Months in America: 

In appearance it differs from most of the larger towns in the United 
States, on account of the great improvement that has taken place in 
the color of the houses, which, instead of being of the usual bright 
staring red, are frequently of a white gray or a yellowish tint, and dis- 
play a great deal of taste and just ornament. The public buildings are 
not large, but very neat and classical; I admired the Second Presby- 
terian church, which is a very pretty specimen of the Doric. The 
streets are handsome and the shops have a very fashionable air. 

The principal trade of Cincinnati is in provisions. Immense quan- 
tities of corn and grain are sent down the Ohio and the Mississippi to 
New Orleans. Part of it is consumed by the sugar planters, who are 
supposed to grow no corn, and part is sent coastwise to Mobile, or ex- 
ported to Havana and the West Indies generally. 

Cincinnati has displayed more wisdom than her opposite neighbor in 
Kentucky. A speculative system of banking was carried on about the 
same time, and was attended with the same results as those I have be- 
fore noticed when speaking of that State. Credit was not to be 
obtained, commerce was at an end, and grass was growing in the 
streets of Cincinnati. But the judicature, with equal justice and de- 
termination, immediately enforced by its decisions the resumption of 
cash payments. Many of the leading families in the place were, of 
course, ruined, and at present there are not above five or six persons in 
Cincinnati who have been able to regain their former eminence as men 
of business. But it was a sacrifice of individuals for the good of the 
community, and fortune only deserted the speculators in order to at- 
tend upon the capitalists, who quickly made their appearance from the 
Eastern States, and have raised the city to its present pitch of prosper- 


Votes this year in the city, four thousand and seven; 
nag. buildings, three hundred. 

(The cholera renewed its appearance, but less violently 
trW in 1833. It prevailed to some extent, however, 
through all the warm season, to the sad depression of 
business and social affairs. Everything, in fact, was 
stagnant It is said that the town had never before ap- 
peared so dull and apparently lifeless and inert as at the 
close of this summer. Property was sacrificed at low 
rates, and business was at times almosr at a standstill. It 
was the last year of the visitation, however, until 1849, 
fifteen years afterwards. ) 

The trustees of the Lane seminary had this year a 
serious difference of opinion with a number of their anti- 
slavery students, which resulted in a formidable secession 
from the school and an appeal to the public. A fuller 
account will be given in our -historical sketch of that 

Cincinnati had some visitors of unusual interest this 
year. One who is still remembered tenderly and affec- 
tionately by the older residents, who were young men at 
the time, was Thomas S. Grimke, a prominent member 

of the bar of Charleston, South Carolina, who came 
upon invitation to deliver the annual oration before the 
literary societies of Miami university, Oxford. While in 
Cincinnati he addressed the college of teachers, a literary 
society called the Inquisition, and the Temperance soci- 
ety, always speaking wisely and well, and sometimes ris- 
ing into rare eloquence. He was here only a single 
week, yet in that time won universal recognition, love, 
and reverence, and was overwhelmed with social atten- 
tions. Remaining in Ohio a few weeks longer, he was 
overtaken by death while visiting in Madison county, 
October 12, 1834, at the age of forty-eight years; and 
with him expired, as many believed, the most brilliant 
intellectual light in the southern States. 

Late this year came another American of genius, 
Charles Fenno Hoffman, author of that musical drinking 
song so much parodied by the temperance societies — 

Sparkling and bright in its liquid light, 

Is the wine our goblets gleam in; 
With hue as red as the rosy bed 

The bee delights to dream in — 

but unhappily during most of the last half-century an in- 
mate of an insane asylum in Pennsylvania. Some of his 
delightful paragraphs will be found under other heads in 
this book. One only is quoted here : 

The population of the place is about thirty thousand. Among 
them you may see very few but what look comfortable and contented, 
though the town does not wear the brisk and busy air observable at 
Louisville. Transportation is so easy along the great western waters, 
that you see no lounging poor people about the large town, as when 
business languishes in one place and it is difficult to find occupation, 
they are off at once to another, and shift their quarters whither the 
readiest means of living invite them. What would most strike you in 
the streets of Cincinnati would be the number of pretty faces and stylish 
figures one meets in the morning. A walk through Broadway here re- 
wards one hardly less than to promenade its New York namesake. I 
have had more than one opportunity of seeing these western beauties 
by candle-light ; and the evening display brought no disappointment to 
the morning promise. Nothing can be more agreeable than the society 
which one meets with in the gay and elegantly furnished drawing- 
rooms of Cincinnati. The materials being from every State in the 
Union, there is a total want of caste, a complete absence of settishness 
(if I may use the word). If there be any characteristic that might jar 
upon your taste and habits, it is, perhaps, a want of that harmonious 
blending of light and shade, that repose both of character and manner, 
which, distinguishing the best circles in our Atlantic cities, so often 
sinks into insipidity or runs into a ridiculous imitation of the imperti- 
nent nonchalance which the pseudo-pictures of English "high life" in 
the novels of the day impose upon our simple republicans as the height 
of elegance and refinement. 

About the same time appeared for a few days upon 
Cincinnati streets a shrewd foreign observer and repre- 
sentative of the French Government, Michel Chevalier, 
whose book of travels in the United States included the 
following pleasant notices: 

The architectural appearance of Cincinnati is very nearly the same 
with that of the new quarters of the English towns. The houses are 
generally of brick, most commonly three stories high, with the windows 
shining with cleanliness, calculated each for a single family, and regu- 
larly placed along well paved and spacious streets, sixty-six feet in 
width. Here and there the prevailing uniformity is interrupted by some 
more imposing edifice, and there are some houses of hewn stone in very 
good taste, real palaces in miniature, with neat porticos, inhabited by 
the aristocratical portion of Mrs. Trollope's hog merchants, and several 
very pretty mansions surrounded with gardens and terraces. Then 
there are the common school-houses, where girls and boys together 
learn reading, writing, cyphering, and geography, under the simultane- 
ous direction of a master and mistress. In another direction you see a 



small, plain church, without sculpture or painting, without colored 
glass or Gothic arches, but snug, well carpeted, and well warmed by 
stoves. In Cincinnati, as everywhere else in the United States, there is 
a great number of churches. 

I met with an incident in Cincinnati, which I shall long remember. 
I had observed at the hotel table a man of about the medium height, 
stout and muscular, and of about the age of fifty years, yet with the ac- 
tive step and lively air of youth. I had been struck with his open and 
cheerful expression, the amenity of his manners, and a certain air of 
command which appeared through his plain dress. "That is," saidmy 
friend, "General Harrison, clerk of the Cincinnati court of common 
pleas." "What! General Harrison of the Tippecanoe and the 
Thames?" "The same; the ex-general; the conqueror of Tecumseh 
and Proctor; the avenger of our disasters on the Raisin and at Detroit; 
the ex-governor of the territory of Indiana, the ex-senator in Congress, 
the ex-minister of the United States to one of the South American re- 
publics. He has grown old in the service of his country, he has passed 
twenty years of his life in those fierce wars with the Indians, in which 
there was less glory to be won, but more dangers to be encountered, 
than at Rivoli and Austerlitz. He is now poor, with a numerous family, 
neglected by the Federal Government, although yet vigorous, because 
he has the independence to think for himself. As the opposition is in 
the majority here, his friends have bethought themselves of coming to 
his relief by removing the clerk of the court of common pleas, who was 
a. Jackson man, and giving him the place, which is a lucrative one, as a 
sort of retiring pension. His friends in the east talk of making him 
President of the United States. Meanwhile we have made him clerk 
of an inferior court. " After a pause my informant added, "at this 
wretched table you may see another candidate for the Presidency, who 
seems to have a better chance than General Harrison; it is Mr. Mc- 
Lean, now one of the judges of the supreme court of the United 

The town was also visited, in the course of the year, 
by two clerical gentlemen from abroad, delegates from 
the British Congregational Union — the Rev. Drs. An- 
drew Reed and James Matheson, on a tour in behalf of 
Protestant religion, which they afterwards described in A 
Narration of the Visit to the American Churches. We 
extract the following concerning Cincinnati : 

There is a great spirit of enterprise in this town; and, with an ardent 
pursuit of business, there is a desire for domestic comfort and a thirst 
for scientific improvement, not equaled in such circumstances. They 
have libraries and good reading societies; they have lectures on art and 
science, which are well attended. They sustain a "scientific quarterly" 
and a "monthly magazine, " with a circulation of four thousand; and 
they have newspapers without end. Education is general here; the 
young people, and even the children, appear to appreciate it. They 
regard it as the certain and necessary means of advancement. I over- 
heard two fine children, in the street, remark as follows. The younger 
one, about nine years old, speaking of her sister, said, with concern, 
"Do you know, Caroline says she will not go to school any more?" 
"Silly girl!" replied the elder, about thirteen; " she will live to repent 
of that !" It must be admitted that this is a very wholesome state of 


Population, thirty-one thousand. New buildings, three 
hundred and forty. Bills of mortality, nine hundred and 
twenty-six, or one in thirty-four, of the population. 
s The cholera did not return this year, and as soon as 
it was reasonably certain that the scourge had departed, 
business and public and social affairs in Cincinnati awak- 
ened to more vigorous life than ever. Mr. Mansfield 
says, in the Drake Biography : 

fh season of extraordinary activity ensued. The mind sprang up 
elastic from the pressure, and all was accomplished that mind could do. 
Enterprise, business, growth, the leality of active energy, and the ide- 
ality of a growing and prosperous future, sprang up, as the conse- 
quence of an elastic and invigorated public mind. The general trade 
of the country had been safe and profitable — hence there was little tim- 
idity to strengthen prudence or restrain extravagance. In the east 
commenced that series of enormous speculations whose centre was at 
New York, and which, in some respects, has never been surpassed in 

this country./ It spread to the west, but prevailed comparatively little 
at Cincinnati. The speculations here were on a small scale, and it is 
doubtful whether they did more than give a necessary and healthful 
excitement to the business community, which had so long been in a 
dull, quiescent state. X^ertain it is, that Cincinnati now owes half her 
growth and prosperity toVplans of public works and usefulness then 
formed and undertaken. J 

(The public works named by Mr. Mansfield as among 
the local projects of this year were the great Southern 
railroad route to Charleston; the Cincinnati & St. Louis 
railroad, by Lawrenceburgh ; the Little Miami railroad, 
which was chartered the next March; the Cincinnati, Co- 
lumbus, & Cleveland railway, also chartered the next 
year; the Mad River & Lake Erie, and Covington & 
Lexington railroads; and the Whitewater canal. All 
these works, though not in all cases under these names, 
were afterwards built.i 

April 4th, a grand celebration was held at the First 
Presbyterian church, of the forty seventh anniversary of 
the settlement of Ohio, where William M. Corry pro- 
nounced one of his finest orations. The dinner was at 
the Commercial Exchange, and was principally from the 
products of Ohio, with no wine or ardent spirits what- 

On the eighteenth of the same month, the Young 
Men's Mercantile library association was founded. Its 
history will be duly told elsewhere. Forty-four years af- 
terwards Mr. John W. Ellis, of New York, one of the 
illustrious forty-five who founded this noble institution, 
wrote a letter at some length to Mr. Newton, the libra- 
rian, containing reminiscences of 1835 which will bear 
transcription here: 

It must be borne in mind that Cincinnati at that period, in 1835, com- 
pared with the present Cincinnati, was a very insignificant place in re- 
spect to wealth, population, business, and everything which constitutes 
a modern city. The population then was less than forty thousand. Its 
wholesale business was done entirely by the Ohio river, and by the 
canal as far north as Dayton; but for the interior trade almost entirely 
by wagons. For the size of the place, it had a respectable wholesale 
business, extending in a small way to the upper and lower Mississippi, 
along the Ohio, from its mouth as far east as what is now West Vir- 
ginia; but a large proportion of the business with the interior in dry 
goods, groceries, and the other numerous wants of an interior com- 
munity was supplied by wagons, which brought in their products and 
carried out merchandise. There were no railroads whatever at that 
period in the west. The grocery trade was supplied entirely by steam- 
boats from New Orleans. Lighter goods were wagoned by the Na- 
tional road, over the Alleghany mountains, to Wheeling or Pittsburgh, 
and thence by steamboat down the river. When the water in the upper 
Ohio was low, these goods were brought from New York by the Hud- 
son river and Erie canal to Buffalo, thence by lake and Ohio canal to 
Portsmouth, and thence down the river. All these means of convey- 
ance will seem now to the active young men 0$ Cincinnati as very prim- 

Nearly all the retail business of the city was done on Main street, 
from Third street to Sixth street; the wholesale business almost entirely 
on the lower end of Main street and on Front street facing the river. 
Pearl street had just been opened, but extended no further west than 
Walnut street, and a few wholesale stores had begun on that square. 
Fourth, Walnut, Vine, and other streets, now filled with an active busi- 
ness, were then the seat of residences, nearly all built with detached 
houses, surrounded with shrubbery, and the streets lined with trees. 
Central avenue, then Western row, and the Miami canal on the north, 
were the boundaries of population. 

An article contributed by B. D. (Benjamin Drake?) to 
the Western Monthly Magazine and Literary Journal, 
also helps to the understanding of Cincinnati this year. 
More than ordinary attention was given to the Southern 



railroad project, as was seen in our chapter on railroads. 
The manufactures of the year were estimated at five 
millions. With Newport and Corrington, the population 
was thirty-five thousand. Exports were estimated at six 
millions or more. There were fifty stages and sixty mails 
a week; the steamboat arrivals were two thousand two 
hundred and thirty-seven; the imports included ninety 
thousand barrels of flour and fifty-five thousand of whiskey. 
The public improvements in hand were the extension of the 
Miami canal from Dayton to the Maumee bay, near 
Toledo, a part to be completed early the next summer; the 
macadamized turnpike from Chillicothe to Cincinnati; 
extensions of the Cincinnati, Columbia, and Wooster, 
and the Cincinnati, Lebanon, and Springfield turnpikes; 
the Cincinnati and Harrison turnpike, to be finished 
early in 1836, and extend to Brookville, Indiana; the 
Whitewater canal, the Little Miami railroad, etc. 

Many of the houses erected this year would do credit 
to any city in the Union. A number of warehouses were 
put up; also St. Paul's church, two banking-houses on 
Third street, and ten or twelve large, commodious, and for 
the time elegant school buildings, "contributing in a 
high degree to the advancement of our beautiful city," 
says Mr. B. D. A population of one hundred thousand 
was predicted by 1850 — which prophecy, glowing as it 
might have seemed, was exceeded by nearly sixteen thou- 
sand. Real estate is mentioned by B. D. as lower in 
price, in Cincinnati and its Kentucky suburbs, than in 
any other city of the Union having population, business, 
and permanent local advantages of equal magnitude. 

The Ohio Anti-Slavery society was formed this year, 
with headquarters in Cincinnati, and began the issue of 
a weekly paper, of which we shall hear more in 1836. 
By 1840 the society was employing nine travelling agents 
and lecturers, and had become a great power in political 

December nth, John W. Cowan was hanged in Barr's 
woods, near the spot where the Atlantic & Great Western 
railway depot was afterwards situated, for the brutal mur- 
der of his wife and two children on Smith street. 

In the summer of this year the city was honored with 
a visit from the renowned English authoress and thinker, 
Miss Harriet Martineau. She spent some time here; 
and in her subsequent book of Retrospect of Western 
Travel gave to the city the ablest chapter, in the judg- 
ment of the present writer, that has ever been written 

upon it. We make room for a few short extracts : 

There is ample room on the platform for a city as large as Philadelphia, 
without encroaching at all on the hillsides. The inhabitants are already 
consulting as to where the capitol shall stand whenever the nation shall 
decree the removal of the general government beyond the mountains. 
If it were not for the noble building at Washington, this removal would 
probably take place soon, perhaps after the removal of the great south- 
ern railroad. It seems rather absurd to call senators and representatives 
to Washington from Missouri and Louisiana, while there is a place on 
the great rivers which would save them half the journey, and suit almost 
everybody else just as well, and many much better. The peril to health 
at Washington in the winter season is great, and the mild and equable 
temperature of Cincinnati is an important circumstance in the case. 

From this, the Montgomery road, there is a view of the city and sur- 
rounding country which defies description. It was of that melting 
beauty which dims the eyes and fills the heart — that magical combina- 
tion of all elements— of hill, wood, lawn, river, with a picturesque city 

steeped in evening sunshine, the impression of which can never be lost 
nor communicated. We ran up a knoll and stood under a clump of 
bushes to gaze; and went down, and returned again and again, with 
the feeling that if we lived upon the spot we could nevermore see it look 
so beautiful. 

We soon entered a somewhat different scene, passing the slaughter- 
houses on Deer creek, the place where more thousands of hogs in a 
year than I dare to specify, are destined to breathe their last. Deer 
creek, pretty as its name is, is little more than the channel through 
which their blood runs away. The division of labor is brought to as 
much perfection in these slaughter-houses as in the pin manufactories 
of Birmingham. So I was told. Of course I did not verify the state- 
ment by attending the process. 

A volume might presently be filled with descriptions of our drives 
about the environs of Cincinnati. There are innumerable points of view 
whence the city, with its masses of buildings and its spires, may be seen 
shining through the limpid atmosphere, like a cloud-city in the evening 
sky. There are many spots where it is a relief to lose the river from 
the view, and to be shut in among the brilliant green hills, which are 
more than can be numbered. But there is one drive which I almost 
wonder the inhabitants do not take every summer day, to the Little 
Miami bottoms. We continued eastward along the bank of the river 
for seven miles, the whole scenery of which is beautiful; but the unfor- 
gotten spot was the level about the mouth of the Little Miami river, 
the richest of plains or level valleys, studded with farmhouses, enlivened 
with clearings, and kept primitive in appearance by the masses of dark 
forest which filled up all the unoccupied spaces. Upon this scene we 
looked down from a great height, a Niphates of the New World. On 
entering a little pass between two grassy hills, crested with wood, we 
were desired to alight. I ran up the ascent to the right, and was start- 
led at finding myself on the top of a preeipice. Far beneath me ran 
the Little Miami, with a narrow, white, pebble strand, arrow-like trees 
springing over from the brink of the precipice, and the long evening 
shadows making the current as black as night, while the green, up to 
the very lips of the ravine, was of the sunniest, in the last flood of 
western light. For more reasons than one I should prefer Cincinnati as 
residence to any other large city of the United States. Of these rea- 
sons not the least would be that the "Queen of the West" is enthroned 
in a region of wonderful and inexhaustible beauty. 

Another English traveller, the Honorable Charles Au- 
gustus Murray, was also here this year, and made the fol- 
lowing notice in his Travels in North America : 

On the last day of spring I arrived at Cincinnati, that precocious 
daughter of the west, that seems to have sprung, like the fabled goddess 
of war and wisdom, into existence in the full panoply of manufacturing 
and commercial armor. 

I have been in company with ten or twelve of the resident families, 
and have not seen one single instance of rudeness, vulgarity, or incivil- 
ity ; while the shortness of the invitations and absence of constraint and 
display render the society more agreeable, in some respects, than that 
of more fashionable cities. If the proposition stated is merely this, "that 
the manners of Cincinnati are not so polished as those of the best circles 
of London, Paris, or Berlin; that her business, whether culinary or dis- 
played in carriages, houses, or amusements, are also of a lower caste," 
I suppose none would be so absurd as to deny it. I hope few would be 
weak enough gravely to inform the world of so self-evident a truth ; but 
I will, without fear of contradiction, assert that the history of the world 
does not produce a parallel to Cincinnati in rapid growth of wealth and 
population. Of all the cities that have been founded by mighty sover- 
eigns or na:ions, with an express view to their becoming the capitals of 
empires, there is not one that, in twenty-seven [forty-seven] years from 
its foundation, could show such a mass of manufacture, enterprise, 
population, wealth, and social comfort, as that of which I have given a 
short and imperfect outline in the last two or three pages, and which 
owes its magnitude to no adscititious favor or encouragement, but to 
the judgment with which the situation was chosen, and to the admirable 
use which its inhabitants have made thereof. 


Population estimated at thirty-eight thousand — proba- 
bly somewhat too large. Votes four thousand three hun- 
dred and thirty-five. New buildings, three hundred and 
sixty-five. Commerce, eight million one hundred thou- 
sand dollars. The public schools, the mercantile library, 



and the leading public charities, had well begun their or- 
ganic existence. A general committee upon internal im- 
provements was appointed at a public meeting of citizens, 
which proved a very useful committee. Upon it were 
such men as Micajah T. and John S. Williams, E. D. 
Mansfield, Dr. Daniel Drake, Robert Buchanan, John C. 
Wright, George Graham, and Alexander McGrew. Mor- 
tality of the year, nine hundred and twenty-eight, or about 
one in forty. 

This, pretty nearly the middle yefur'of Cincinnati's 
history, was a tolerably eventful one/ On the eleventh 
of April a mob rose against the colored peo ple, and set 
fire to a number of their houses in a locality then known 
as "the swamp,'' just below Western Row, now Central 
avenue, at the then foot of West Sixth street.) Another 
and more serious emeute occurred in July, which resulted 
in the destruction of the Philanthropist newspaper office. 
This paper had been started by Mr. Birney in 1834 at 
New Richmond, Clermont county, where it had been 
repeatedly threatened, but never mobbed ; and was re- 
moved to Cincinnati, on the encouragement of friends 
of the anti-slavery cause there, about three months before 
its destruction. A meeting was held in July, composed 
largely from the most respectable classes in the city, 
largely young men, at which resolutions were passed that 
no abolition paper should be published or distributed in 
the town. On the fourteenth of that month, the publi- 
cation of the Philanthropist still continuing, the printing 
office was violently entered by a mob, and the press and 
materials, which were the property of Mr A. Pugh, the 
printer, afterwards of the Chronicle, were defaced, "pied,' 
and partially destroyed. Even this did not daunt the 
fearless editor, and the publication went on. On the 
twenty-third a great meeting of citizens was held at the 
Lower Market, "to declare whether they will permit the 
publication or distribution of abolition papers in this 
city." A committee was appointed, which requested the 
executive committee of the anti-slavery society to stop 
the publication. They ' refused; when the committee 
published the correspondence, adding remarks which 
deprecated a resort to violence. Nevertheless, on Satur- 
day night, July 30th, a large party, composed, like the 
aforesaid meeting, mainly from the more respectable 
classes in the city and of young men, gathered on the 
corner of Main and Seventh streets, held a short consul- 
tation, then marched down to the office, only two squares 
distant, effected an entrance and again seized the press 
and materials, but this time carried them out in part, 
scattered the type in the street, smashed the press, and 
completely dismantled the office. Part of the press was 
dragged down Main street and thrown in the river. The 
mob even went to Pugh's house to find other materials 
supposed to be there; but found none, and offered no 
violence. The dwellings of Birney, Donaldson, and 
other prominent abolitionists were rather noisily visited, 
but no mischief done to them. It then returned to Main 
street, proposing to pile the remaining contents of the 
office in the street ; but was dissuaded, as neighboring 
buildings might be fired by the blaze. Retiring up Main 
street, a proposition was made to mob the office of the 

Gazette, whose editor, Mr. Charles Hammond, had not 
altogether pleased the malcontents by his course; but 
better counsels prevailed. An attack was made on the 
residences of some of the blacks in Church alley; but 
two guns were fired at the assailants, and they withdrew 
in disorder. A rally and second charge were made after 
a time, when the houses were found abandoned by the 
negroes, were entered and their contents destroyed. 
Some weeks after, upon the return of E. D. Mansfield 
from the Knoxville railroad convention, he and Mr. 
Hammond, Salmon P. Chase, and a few others, deter- 
mined to hold an afternoon meeting at the coutt house, to 
consider the outrage. It was crowded; sundry speeches 
were made; a large committee was appointed to report 
resolutions; but, after all, nothing was done except to 
condemn mobs in general terms, regret the recent occur- 
rence, and commend the plan of the American Coloniza- 
tion society as "the only method of getting clear of slav- 
ery." After the death, in September, 1880, of the Hon. 
W'illiam M. Cony, a tribute was paid to his memory in 
the Cincinnati Commercial, by ex-Governor Charles An- 
derson. In it occurred the following paragraph, which 
we take pleasure in embalming for posterity in the pages 
of this history: 

All Cincinnati was aroused in 1836 into a wild ferocity towards the 
great Abolitionist, James G. Birney, esq. He was a scholar, orator, 
gentleman, Christian, and philanthropist, if ever these sentiments did 
centre in any one man. But his paper, published from the corner of 
Main and Fifth streets, was universally esteemed and denounced as a 
most pestilent nuisance to the city, the State, and the Nation. And 
doubtless, in the morbid and reckless state of the public feeling in the 
southern States, such an issue from Cincinnati did operate injuriously 
against the business and property of the citizens, which was based 
mainly upon their southern trade. A public meeting, was therefore held 
in the court house for the denunciation, warning, and, if necessary, 
the expulsion of so great a culprit. Every man of influence or property 
in Cincinnati, save one alone, was directly or indirectly a party to this 
outrage upon free thought, free speech and a free press. That single 
man was William M. Corry. He alone, amidst the general obloquy 
and indignation, bared his biave breast to this popular tempest of the 
combined plutocracy and mobocracy of the whole city, and ably de- 
fended Mr. Birney's rights. It was in vain. His office was publicly 
pillaged. His press was smashed into splinters. His types were sown 
broadcast from the market place through Main street and into the Ohio 
river. He was driven into exile to Buffalo. 

May 30th occurred the first parade of the Cincinnati 
Gray's; and on the fourteenth of June a volunteer com- 
pany under Captain James Allen, editor of the Cincinnati 
Republican, departed to join General Houston's army and 
aid in the struggle for Texan independence. On the sixth 
of March the subscription books for the Little Miami 
railroad were opened; and on the twentieth of February 
the city, also Newport and Covington, were illuminated 
in honor of the projected Cincinnati & Charleston rail- 
road, which was soon temporarily defeated, by the refusal 
of the Kentucky legislature to grant right of way through 
the State. 

On the thirteenth of January began the memorable de- 
bate between the Rev. Alexander Campbell and Bishop 
Purcell, which was afterwards published and extensively 
circulated. February 23d died Peter Williams, of Delhi, 
the pioneer mail carrier from Cincinnati through the 
wildernesses. General Jackson visited the city March 
1 8th, and was received with great acclamation by admir- 



ing throngs. William Barr, a very prominent old resident, 
died March 21st. On the 24th of that month the city 
debt amounted to two hundred and forty thousand dol- 


New buildings this year, three hnndred and five, not- 
withstanding it was a year of great financial disaster, 
There were five thousand nine hundred and eighty-one 
house in the city. Mr. E. D. Mansfield wrote long sub- 
sequently: "Just after the convention of 1837, say up to 
1848, the growth of Cincinnati continued with great ra- 
pidity. Strange as it may seem, the constant depression 
and want of money did not impede building; on the con- 
trary, it aided Cincinnati. . . For several years 
the city grew rapidly." The deaths this year numbered 
nine hundred and sixty-eight, or about one in thirty-nine. 

On the third of May the first loan for local improve- 
ments was voted by the city, to the amount of six hun- 
dred thousand dollars. 

January 6th, John Washburn was hanged upon a scaf- 
fold erected at the junction of the Walnut Hills and 
Reading roads, for the murder upon the same spot, for 
money, of an inoffensive old man named Beaver. After- 
wards, June 3rd, Hoover and Davis were executed for 
complicity in the same murder; and Byron Cooley, on 
the twenty-fifth of November, for killing John Rambo. 
It was a great year for capital punishments. 

October 28th, a monument to the memory of Wiliiam 
M. Millan was dedicated by Nova Caesarea Harmony 
Lodge No. 2, upon an eminence on the farm of William 
M. Corry, esq., then two and a quarter miles from Cin- 
cinnati, near the Reading turnpike, in a graveyard de- 
signated by Mr. McMillan before his death. A eulogy 
was pronounced by Mr. Corry, which was published in 
pamphlet form, and widely complimented. The monu- 
ment was afterwards removed to Spring Grove cemetery, 
where it now stands. It is of grey freestone, in the 
psuendo-Doric order, and surmounted by a Grecian urn. 

Some observations made upon Cincinnati this year by 
a garrulous American traveller, Professor Frederick Hall, 
M.D., in his Letters from the East and from the West, may 
fittingly be reproduced here: 

Perhaps, I might give you a juster idea of the appearance of Cin- 
cinnati by comparison. You cannot have forgotten how Genoa ap- 
peared to us, as seen from the point where our steamboat anchored or ' 
from that where the American ship-of-war, the Potomac, was stationed, 
farther out in the bay. The view was enrapturing. Our eyes were 
riveted to it. We had never seen its parallel. Rightly do the Italians, 
thought we, style Genoa 'La Superba.' Here, we could not help 
imagining, Vespasian took from Nature the model of his Colosseum 
which he commenced at Rome. The arena of his, often saturated 
with human blood, uselessly, wickedly shed, represents this narrow, 
flat plain, overspread with marble houses and palaces and churches, 
and all the pomp and bustle of a populous and magnificent town. 
The sloping galleries of the Roman Colosseum are a miniature rep- 
resentation of the lofty and ragged Appenines which form the semi- 
circular back-grounds of the city, and on which are perched many a 
sumptuous mansion, many a terraced garden, many an humble cottage, 
and many a moss-clad ruin. 

Were you here, I would conduct you across the Ohio river in the 
convenient steam ferry-boat, lead you to a spot half a mile from the 
water's edge, and there ask you to take a deliberate survey ot Cincin- 
nati and of the country back of it. You would, I think, at once say 
that it bears no slight resemblance to the native city of Columbus. The 
high lands here, though in some degree similar, are less lofty, less 

rocky, and exhibit fewer human habitations; but they are far richer, 
their forms vastly more variegated and more beautiful. You do not, 
it is true, here see anything like the towering light-house of Genoa, or 
the Cathedral of Lorenzo, or- the ' palazzo ducal;' nor are you to ex- 
pect it. Consider the difference in the ages of the two cities. The one 
is an infant at the breast ; the other wears bleached locks. The one is 
not yet fifty years old; the other is two thousand. But, old as she is, 
her population does not exceed eighty-five thousand. That of Cincin- 
nati has already attained to near half of that number; and what will it 
be two thousand years hence, if it continues to increase, as it has done 
during the last quarter of a century? Let fancy stretch away into 
futurity, and view her then. She will see a little world of men — not a 
New York— not a Glasgow— but a London. Since the year 1812 her 
population has received an augmentation of more than twenty-six 
thousand souls. Should she continue to increase in the same ratio for 
two thousand years to come, what will be her numbers? What hill will 
not be crowded with houses? What valley will not pe crowded with 

Another author-traveller of 1837 to the Queen City 
was no less a notable of that day than the great writer 
of sea-tales, Captain Francis Marryat. In his Diary of 
the American Journey, subsequently published, he thus 
notes matters and things here: 

Arrived at Cincinnati. How rapid has been the advance of the 
western country! In 1803 deer-skins, at the value of forty cents per 
pound, were a legal tender; and, if offered instead of money, could not 
be refused — even by a lawyer. Not fifty years ago the woods which 
towered where Cincinnati is now built, resounded only to the cry of the 
wild animals of the forest or the rifle of the Shawnee Indian; now 
Cincinnati contains a population of forty thousand inhabitants. It is a 
beautiful, well-built, clean town, reminding you more of Philadelphia 
than any other city in the Union. Situated on a hill on the banks of 
the Ohio, if is surrounded by a circular phalanx of other hills; so that, 
look up and down the streets whichever way you will, your eye reposes 
upon verdure and forest-trees in the distance. The streets have a row 
of trees on each side, near the curb-stone, and most of the houses have 
a small frontage, filled with luxuriant flowering shrubs, of which the 
althea Frutix is the most abundant. It is, properly speaking, a Yan- 
kee city, the majority of its inhabitants coming from the east; but they 
have intermarried and blended with the Kentuckians of the opposite 
shore — a circumstance which is advantageous to the character of both. 

There are, however, a large number of Dutch and German settlers 
here; they say ten thousand. They are not much liked by the Ameri- 
cans ; but have great influence, as may be conceived when it is stated 
that, when a motion was brought forward in the municipal court for 
the city regulations to be printed in German as well as English, it was 
lost by one vote only. 


New buildings, three hundred and thirty-four. Mortal- 
ity, one thousand three hundred and sixty-five. Votes in 
the city, four thousand five hundred and seventy-three. 

April 25th, the most terrible accident recorded in the 
history of Cincinnati occurred at the Fulton landing, 
then just above the city, in the explosion of the new and 
beautiful steamer Moselle. An elaborate and most inter- 
esting account of this event has been given in the third 
edition of the Annals of the West, the publisher of that 
work having been an eye-witness of the event. We trans- 
cribe the narrative for these pages : 

The Moselle was regarded as the very paragon of western steamboats; 
she was perfect in form and construction, elegant and super o in all her 
equipments, and enjoyed a reputation for speed which admitted of no 
rivalship. As an evidence that the latter was not undeserved, it need 
only be mentioned that her last trip from St. Louis to Cincinnati, seven 
hundred and fifty miles, was performed in two days and sixteen hours— 
the quickest trip, by several hours, that had ever been made between the 
two places. 

On the afternoon of April 25, 1838, between four and five o'clock, the 
Moselle left the landing at Cincinnati, bound for St. Louis, with an un- 
usually large number of passengers, supposed to be not less than two 
hundred and eighty, or, according to some accounts, three hundred. It 
was a pleasant afternoon, and all on board probably anticipated a de- 




lightful voyage. The Moselle proceeded about a mile up the river to 
take on some German emigrants. At this time it was observed by an 
experienced engineer on board, that the steam had been raised to an 
unusual height, and when the boat stopped for the purpose just men- 
tioned, it was reported that one man who was apprehensive of danger 
went ashore, after protesting against the injudicious management of the 
steam apparatus. Yet the passengers generally were regardless of any 
danger that might exist, crowding the boat for the sake of her beauty 
and speed, and making safety a secondary consideration. 

When the object for which the Moselle had landed was nearly accom- 
plished, and the bow of the boat just turned in preparation to move 
from the shore, at that instant the explosion took place. The whole of 
the vessel forward of the wheels was blown to splinters ; every timber 
{as an eye-witness declares), "appeared to be twisted, as trees some- 
times are, when struck by lightning." As soon as theaccident occurred, 
the boat floated down the stream for about one hundred and fifty to 
two hundred yards, where she sunk, leaving the upper part of the cabin 
out of the water and the baggage, together with many struggling hu- 
man beings, floating on the surface of the river. 

It was remarked that the explosion was unprecedented in the history 
of steam. Its effect was like that of a mine of gunpowder. All the 
boilers, four in number, burst simultaneously ; the deck was blown into 
the air, and the human beings who crowded it were doomed to instant 
destruction. It was asserted that a man, believed to be a pilot, was 
carried, together with the pilot-house, to the Kentcky shore, a distance 
of a- quarter of a mile. A fragment of a boiler was carried by the explo- 
sion high into the air, and descending perpendicularly about fifty yards 
from the boat, it crushed through a strong roof and through the second 
floor of a building, lodging finally on the ground floor. 

Captain Pernn, master of the Moselle, at the time of the accident 
was standing on the deck, above the boiler, in conversation with 
another person. He was thrown to a considerable height on the steep 
embankment of the river and killed, while his companion was merely 
prostrated on the deck, and escaped without injury. Another person 
was blown a great distance into the air, and on descending he fell on a 
roof with such force that he partially broke through it, and his body 
lodged there. Some of the passengers who were in the after-part of the 
boat, and who were uninjured by the explosion, jumped overboard. 
An eye-witness says that he saw sixty or seventy in the water at one 
time, of whom comparatively few reached the shore. There were after- 
ward the mutilated remains of nineteen persons buried in one grave. 

It happened, unfortunately, that the larger number of the passengers 
were collected on the upper deck, to which the balmy air and delicious 
weather seemed to invite them, in order to expose them to more certain 
destruction. It was understood, too, that the captain of the ill-fated 
steamer had expressed his determination to outstrip an opposition boat 
which had just started; the people on shore were cheering the Moselle, 
in anticipatiou of her success in the race, and the passengers and crew 
on the upper deck responded to these acclamations, which were soon 
changed to sounds of mourning and distress. 

Intelligence of the awful calamity spread rapidly through the city; 
thousands rushed to the spot, and the most benevolent aid was prompt- 
ly extended to the sufferers, or rather to those within the reach of 
human assistance, for the majority had perished. The scene here was 
so sad and distressing that no language can depict it with fidelity. 
Here lay twenty or thirty mangled and still bleeding corpses, while 
many persons were engaged in dragging others of the dead and 
wounded from the wreck or the water. "But," says an eye-witness, 
"the survivors presented the most touching objects of distress, as their 
mental anguish seemed more insupportable than the most intense bod- 
ily suffering.'' 

Death had torn asunder the most tender ties; but the rupture had 
been so sudden and violent that none knew certainly who had been 
taken or who had been spared. Fathers were distractedly inquiring for 
children, children for parents, husbands and wives for each other. One 
man had saved a son, but lost a wife and five children. A father, 
partially demented by grief, lay with a wounded child on one side, his 
dead daughter on the other, and his expiring wife at his feet. One 
gentleman sought his wife and children, who were as eagerly seeking 
him in the same crowd. They met and were reunited. 

A female deck .passenger who had been saved seemed inconsolable for 
the loss of her relatives. Her constant exclamations were, "Oh! my 
father! my mother! mysisters!" a little boy about five years old, whose 
head was much bruised, appeared to be regardless of his wounds, and 
cried continually for a lost father, while another lad, a little older, was 
weeping for a whole family. One venerable man wept for the loss of 
his wife and five children. Another was bereft of his whole family, con- 

sisting of nine persons. A touching display of maternal affection was 
evinced by a woman, who, on being brought to the shore, clasped her 
hands and exclaimed, "Thank God, I am safe!" but instantly recollect- 
ing herself, she ejaculated in a voice of piercing agony, "Where is my 
child ? " The infant, which had been saved, was brought to her, and 
she fainted at the sight of it. 

Many of the passengers who entered the boat at Cincinnati had not 
registered their names, but the lowest estimated number of persons on 
board was two hundred and eighty. Of these eighty-one were known 
to be killed, fifty-five were missing and thirteen badly wounded. 

On the day after the accident a public meeting was called at Cincinnati, 
at which the mayor presided, when the facts of this melancholy occur- 
rence were discussed, and among other resolutions passed was one 
deprecating the great and increasing carelessness in the navigation of 
steam vessels and urging this subject upon the consideration of Con- 

The Moselle was built at Cincinnati, and she reflected great credit 
on the mechanical genius of that city, as she was truly a superior boat, 
and under more favorable auspices might have been the pride of the 
waters for several years. She was new, having been begun the previous 
December and finished in March, only a month before the time of her 

A committee was appointed at the meeting of citizens, 
to report upon the causes of the disaster. Dr. Locke, 
Jacob Strader, Charles Fox, T. J. Matthews, and J. 
Perm, formed the committee. They made a prolonged 
and careful examination, and published a report in a 
pamphlet of seventy-six pages. It was mainly from the 
pen of Dr. Locke, and is a thoroughly scientific exposi- 
tion of the subject, much of which has permanent in- 
terest and value. 

October 20th, a fire occurred on McFarland street, 
which destroyed two or three small buildings, arid took 
the life of a little son of Mrs. McComas, aged eight 
years. The citizens subscribed one thousand two hun- 
dred and seventy-nine dollars and sixty-six cents the next 
forenoon for the relief of the sufferers. On the twenty- 
third there was another fire on Broadway, between Fourth 
and Fifth, destroying cabinet and turners' shops, and a 
bedstead factory. 

The semi-centennial of the settlement of Cincinnati 
was celebrated in good style this year, Dr. Daniel Drake 
delivering the oration. The invited guests included 
many aged Ohio pioneers of 1785-7-9, and other years. 

The first fair of the Ohio Mechanics' institute was held 
this year and was a gratifying success. 


January 3d, the city buys the entire rights and prop- 
erty of the Cincinnati Water Works company for three 

hundred thousand dollars. 

iary 2 2d, Robert Wright lost an arm by an acci- 
dent in cannon-firing while giving a salute at the Public. 
Landing, in honor of Washington's birthday. 

March 1st, occurred the death of Morgan Neville, a 
prominent citizen, and formerly receiver at the land 
office. On the eighteenth a lad named Winship was 
killed in a menagerie exhibiting here, by an uncaged 

June 10th, the first superior court for the city was 
organized, with David K. Este, judge, and Daniel Gano, 

December 9th, died the well-known pioneer merchant, 
Colonel! John Bartle, aged ninety-five. He came to 
Losantivillel in December, 1789. General Robert Y. 



Lytle, another and yet more eminent resident of Cincin- 
nati, died at New Orleans on the twenty-first of this 

A vigorous attempt was made this year to suppress the 
liquor-selling coffee-houses by making their licenses 
practically prohibitory; but it was evaded by the propri- 
etors taking out tavern licenses, which cost but twenty- 
five dollars and gave the, recipients one more day in 
which to sell liquors. 

The population of the city in 1849 was about forty-two 
thousand five hundred; number of new buildings, three 
hundred and ninety-four — two hundred and eighty brick, 
one hundred and fourteen frame. Mortality list, one 
thousand two hundred and eighty-two, or one in thirty- 





The official census this year exhibited a population for 
Cincinnati of forty-six thousand three hundred and thirty- 
eight, an increase since 1830 of eighty-five per cent. 
The new buildings this year numbered four hundred and 
six — brick two hundred and sixty (in the seven wards re- 
spectively forty-seven, seventeen, thirty-one, twelve, sev- 
enty-six, thirty-three, forty-four), frame one hundred and 
forty-six (in the several wards in order, thirteen, one, 
fourteen, three, forty-three, eighteen and fifty-four). The 
vote of the year was six thousand three hundred and 
forty; the mortality bills one thousand three hundred 
and twenty-three, of whom ninety-seven were strangers. 
They being deducted, the deaths of inhabitants were 
only one thousand one hundred and twenty-nine, or one 
in thirty-nine of the population. 

April 3d, deceased Charles Hammond, a leading ed- 
itor, politician and lawyer of the city, and one of the 
strongest and most accomplished men the place ever 
had. Further notice of him will be made in our chap- 
ters on the bar and on journalism. 

This was the year of the Harrison campaign, in which, 
certainly, Cincinnati, Hamilton county, and all Ohio 
took an exceeding interest. The warm season was full 
of excitement in the Queen City, and there were great 
rejoicings when her favorite son was declared the win- 
ner. The state of the campaign in this region and along 
the river is amusingly illustrated in the remarks of Mrs. 
Steele, an intelligent eastern traveller hereaway this year, 
in her Summer Journey in the West: 

Sixteen miles below Cincinnati is the residence of General Harrison, 
the candidate for the Presidency. It is said he lived in a log cabin; but 
it was a neat country dwelling, which, however, I dimly saw by moon- 
light. To judge from what we have seen upon the road, General Har- 
rison will carry all the votes of the west, for every one seems enthusi- 
astic in his favor. Log cabins were erected in every town, and a small 
one of wicker-work- stood upon nearly all the steamboats. At the 
wood-yards along the rivers it was very common to see-a sign bearing 

the words, " Harrison wood," " Whig wood, " or "Tippecanoe wood," 
he having gained a battle at a place of that name. The western States, 
indeed, owe him a debt of gratitude; for he may be said to be the 
cause, under Providence, of their flourishing condition. He subdued 
the Indians, laid the land out in sections, -thus opening a door for set- 
tlers, and, in fact, deserves the name given him of "Father of the 

The city was also visited this year by the much trav- 
elled Englishman and voluminous writer of his travels, 
the Rev. J. S. Buckingham, who published in all some 
nine volumes of American travel. From several extracts 
relating to Cincinnati, which will appear in different 
places in this history, we select the following for inser- 
tion here : 

The private dwellings of Cincinnati are in general quite as large and 
commodious as those of the Atlantic cities, with these advantages, that 
more of them are built of stone, and much fewer of wood, than in the 
older settlements ; a greater number of them have pretty gardens, rich 
grass-plats, and ornamental shrubberies and flowers surrounding them, 
than in any of the eastern cities; and, though there is not the same os- 
tentatious display in the furniture of the private dwellings here, which is 
met with at New York especially, every comfort and convenience, 
mixed with a sufficient degree of elegance, is found in all the residences 
of the upper and middle classes; and it may be doubted whether there 
is any city in the Union in which there is a more general diffusion of 
competency in means and comfort in enjoyments, than in Cincinnati. 
The stores also are large, well filled, and many of them as elegant in ap- 
pearance and as well supplied with English and French articles as in 
the largest cities on the coast, though somewhat dearer, of course. The 
hotels ate numerous and good, and boarding-houses at all prices abun- 
dant. The Broadway Hotel, at which we remained, appeared to us 
one of the cleanest and most comfortable we had seen west of the Alle- 

Mrs. Steele's Diary of a Summer Journey in the West 
contains the following: 

Cincinnati, July 19th. 
As much as we had heard of Cincinnati, we were astounded at its 
beauty and extent, and at the solidity of its buildings. It well merits 
the name bestowed upon it here — Queen of the West. We have ex- 
plored it thoroughly by riding and walking, and pronounce it a wonder- 
ful city. . . We spent the morning slowly driving up 
and down each street, along the Miami canal, and in the environs of 
the city in every direction, and were quite astonished — not because we 
had never seen larger and finer cities, but that this should have arisen in 
what was so lately a wilderness. Its date, you know, is only thirty 
years back [!]. The rows of stores and warehouses ; the extensive and 
ornamented dwellings; the thirty churches, many of them very hand- 
some, and other public buildings, excited our surprise. Main street is 
the principal business mart. While in the centre of this street, we 
mark it for a mile ascending the slope upon which the town is built, and 
in front it seems interminable; for, the river being low, we do not 
observe we are looking across it to the street of the opposite city of 
Covington, until a steamboat passing, tells us where the city ends. 
Broadway is another main artery of this city — not, however, devoted 
to business, but bounded upon each side by rows of handsome dwellings. 
Third, Fourth, Seventh, Vine, and many other streets, show private 
houses not surpassed by any city we had visited. They are generally ex- 
tensive and surrounded by gardens, and almost concealed from view of 
the passers by groves of shade-trees and ornamental shrubbery; An 
accidental opening among the trees shows you a glimpse of a piazza or 
pavilion, where, among groves and gardens, the air may be enjoyed by 
the children or ladies of the family. 


The publication of the first of Mr. Charles Cist's valuable 
series of volumes on Cincinnati occurred this year, and 
from it a fully sketched picture of the city at this time may 
be made up. The buildings were now largely brick, espe- 
cially in the central and business parts. Dwellings and 
warehouses were not only greater in number, but "greatly 
superior to those previously erected in value, elegance, 
and convenience." Its population, numbering about fifty 



thousand people of all ages, included four hundred and 
thirty-four professional men, two thousand two hundred 
and twenty-six of the mercantile classes, ten thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-six mechanics in seventy-seven 
different trades, and one thousand and twenty-five agents, 
bar-keepers, hotel-keepers, and the like. The capital 
invested in commerce was estimated at five million 
two hundred thousand dollars, and in merchandize, 
twelve million eight hundred and seventy-seven thou- 
sand dollars. There w£re twenty-three lumber-yards, 
with one hundred and thirty-three thousand dollars capi- 
tal and sales in 1840 amounting to three hundred and 
forty-two thousand five hundred dollars. There were 
eight banks, with an aggregate capital of more than six 
millions. The Miami canal was now in operation to 
Piqua, and the extension was completed eighty miles be- 
yond Dayton and was making rapid progress toward De- 
fiance, at the rapids of the Maumee. For two years it 
had paid more than the annual interest upon the debt in- 
curred in its construction, which was considered "the 
highest evidence of its utility.'' The vast water-power 
which it had brought to the city was mostly in use. The 
Whitewater canal was nearly finished. An improvement 
in the Licking, being made at Kentucky's expense, was 
expected to bring benefits to Cincinnati. A steam packet 
was to be immediately put on the river. The Little Mi- 
ami railroad was completed for about thirty-five miles out, 
and more was under contract. Turnpike improvements 
had been steadily extended. The Charleston or South- 
ern railroad scheme was still held in abeyance by the op- 
position of Kentucky, and the depression in the moneyed 
world. The exports on the Miami canal had increased 
from eight thousand five hundred and seven dollars and 
sixty-nine cents in 1828 to seventy-four thousand three 
hundred and twenty dollars and ninety-nine cents in 
1840. The city had one German and six English daily 
papers, with a large number of tri-weeklies, weeklies, and 
monthlies. There were forty-six churches, including two 
synagogues, and a large number of benevolent and char- 
itable societies and institutions, on both public and 
private foundations. Science and literature, education, 
music, and other of the higher interests, were all em- 
bodied in organizations and institutions existing here. 
The fire and water service of the city had been greatly 
improved. The city had been made a port of entry. 
It had now sixty weekly mails, and the revenue of the 
post office in 1840 had been forty-nine thousand eight 
hundred and fifteen dollars and thirteen cents. 
/The city is described by Mr. Cist as still "almost in 
tne-eastern extreme of a valley about twelve miles in cir- 
cumference, perhaps the most delightful and extensive on 
the borders of Ohio." ) With the adjacent parts of Mill 
creek and Fulton towmShips, and Newport and Coving- 
ton, the total population of Cincinnati and suburbs was 
reckoned at sixty thousand. Th e Germans in the city 
now numbered fourteen thousand one hundred and sixty- 
three — three thousand six hundred and thirty in the First, 
one thousand one hundred and thirty-seven in the Sec- 
ond, one thousand nine hundred and twelve in the Third, 
nine hundred and ninety-six in the Fourth, four thousand 

three hundred and twenty in the Fifth, six hundred and 
ninety-five in the Sixth, and one thousanrLfour hundred 
and seventy-three in the Seventh ward. (The American 
population was fifty-four per cent., German twenty-eight, 
British sixteen, French and Italian one,^pd all others 
one per per cent, of the entire population/ About six 
thousand eight hundred children were being educated in 
the public and private schools. 

Great improvements were expected — among them not 
less than five hundred dwellings and warehouses to go up 
during the year, including a larger proportion of ware- 
houses than usual. Several blocks and single buildings 
for stores were going up in March of this year. The 
number of new structures for the twelve months was 
afterwards reported at four hundred and sixty-two. The 
present St. Peter's cathedral, on the corner of Eighth and 
Plum streets, was about erecting, and was finished in 
1844. (7*0 ver the Rhine" was developing rapidly, and a 
new German Catholic church on Main, beyond the 
canal, was to be built shortly. About three-fourths of 
the Germans in those days were said to be Roman Cath- 
olics. ] 

Thff'use of coal for fuel was becoming quite general; 
nine hundred and thirty thousand bushels had been sold 
the previous year, and a sale of more than two millions 
was 1 expected for 1841. 

[Mr. Cist finally " ventured the prediction that within 
one hundred years Cincinnati would be the greatest city 
in America, and by the year a. d. 2,000 the greatest city 
in the world" jn 

During the^early part of this year General Harrison, 
the elect of the people, as well as of the Electoral College, 
by a tremendous majority, made his way to Washington, 
to assume the duties of Chief Magistrate of the Nation. 
Judge Joseph Cox, in an address to the Cinciunati Liter- 
ary club, February 4, 1871, on General William H. Har- 
rison at North Bend, has thus sketched the farewell : 

The -scene of his departure was most affecting. Old men who had 
shared with him the toils of the campaigns among the Indians, their 
wives and children, his old neighbors, the poor, of whom there were 
many who had shared his bounty, gathered to witness his departure, 
cheering for his triumph while their cheeks were wet with tears. The 
boat on which he was to pass up the river lay at the foot of Broadway, 
in Cincinnati. The wharves, streets, and every surrounding vessel and 
house were filled with spectators. Standing on the deck of the steamer, 
with a clear, ringing voice he recalled to the mind of the people that 
forty-eight years before he had landed on that spot a poor, unfriended 
boy in almost an unbroken wilderness to join his fortunes with theirs, 
and that now, by the voice of a majority of the seventeen millions of 
people of this free land, he was about to leave them to assume the Chief 
Magistracy of the greatest Nation of the earth. He assured them that 
he was devoted to the interests of the people, and although this might 
be the last time he would look upon them, they would find him in the 
future true to the old history of the past. Prophetic vision ! Never- 
more was it given to him to look on the faces of those who this day 
cheered him on to his high goal. Before visiting Washington, he went 
to the old homestead on the James river, and there, in the room of 
his mother (then dead many years), composed his inaugural address as 

Less than six months had gone, when the old hero 
came back, but in his coffin. Acclamations were ex- 
changed for sobs and sighs ; tears of joy for tears of 
deepest grief. Judge Cox then depicts^ the final scenes : 

The funeral services took place at the White House, after which the 



body, accompanied by a large civic and military procession, was taken 
to the Congressional burying ground and deposited in the receiving 
vault, to await the arrangements of his family. The nation was 
shrouded in mourning, and the ensuing sixteenth of May was set apart 
as a day of fasting and prayer, upon which, in nearly every town and 
city, the people met in honor of the illustrious dead. 

In the meantime preparations had been made to inter the remains on 
a beautiful hill just west of his home at North Bend, and under the 
guidance of committees of Congress and of the principal cities of the 
country, they were, in July, 1841, escorted from Washington. Arriving 
in Cincinnati, the body lay in state at the house of his son-in-law, Col- 
onel W. H. H. Taylor, on the north side of Sixth street, just east of 
Lodge, and was visited by thousands of his old friends and fellow citi- 
zens. It was then, after suitable religious services, placed on a bier on 
the sidewalk, and the citizens and military filed past it. The funeral 
procession, under charge of George Graham, esq., still living, then 
marched to the river; the corpse was placed on a magnificent catafalque 
on board a steamer, which, with two others lashed side by side and 
loaded with mourners, slowly, with solemn dirges and tolling belts, 
moved to North Bend. Arriving there, a long procession followed the 
remains to the summit of the mound, where they were deposited in the 
vault, beneath a low-built structure covered with turf. There have they 
lain for nearly thirty [now forty] years. 

No marble rears its head to mark 

The honored hero's dust; 
Nor glittering spire, nor cenotaph, 

Nor monumental bust. 
But on the spot his manhood loved 

His aged form's at rest; 
And he built his own proud monument 

Within a nation's breast. 

June 1 6th an ordinance was passed granting to James 
F. Conover and J. H. Caldwell the right to supply gas to 
the_city for the period of twenty-five years. 

In September another anti-negro mob made a terrible 
disturbance, originating in an affray at the corner of 
Broadway and Sixth street, between some Irish and a 
party of negroes, several nights before. There were 
thenceforth fights every night, in that part of the city, be- 
tween the whites and the blacks, until early Friday even- 
ing, when a mob, composed largely of river-men and 
roughs from Kentucky, gathered at the Fifth street mar- 
ket-space, now the Esplanade, and marched thence to a 
negro confectioner's shop on Broadway, next the syna- 
gogue, where they smashed the front of it, but were 
presently met and sharply engaged by the negroes with 
fire-arms. Many were wounded on both sides. The 
mob was addressed by the mayor and Mr. John H. Piatt, 
but without avail. About one o'clock that night the mob 
gained possession of a six-pound cannon from some 
place near the river, loaded it with boiler punchings and 
other missiles, took it to the negro quarter, and fired it 
several times, but without doing much damage. It was 
stationed on Broadway, and fired down Sixth street. 
Many of the negroes became considerably alarmed at 
this demonstration, and incontinently fled to the hills. 
In about an hour the military, which had been called out 
by the mayor, appeared on the scene and kept the mob 
at bay. Through the next day, however, and until three 
o'clock Sunday morning, the mob held its front and de- 
fied its opponents. The citizens held a meeting Satur- 
day morning, and passed facing-both-ways resolutions 
against mobs and Abolitionists. The city council held a 
special meeting to consider the situation; and the ne- 
groes had another meeting in a church, where they ex- 
pressed their willingness to abide by the laws of 1807 — 
give bonds as required by that act, or leave the State. 

About three in the afternoon the mayor, marshal, po- 
lice, and others went to the theatre of still - threatened 
conflict, and marched off two to three hundred negroes 
to jail for safe-keeping. The mob, however, recom- 
menced its violence early, and at different points. The 
Philanthropist office was again sacked, and a number of 
houses inhabited by negroes and the negro church on 
Sixth street were partially destroyed and rifled of their 
contents. An attempt was made to fire the book estab- 
lishment of Truman & Smith, on Main street, which was 
for some reason obnoxious to the roughs. Before morning, 
however, the mob, not receiving fresh accessions, stopped 
its violence, and dispersed through sheer exhaustion. 
Several men were killed in the progress of the affair, and 
twenty or thirty wounded, a few of them dangerously. 
About forty of the mob were arrested. The affair as- 
sumed importance enough to cause the issue of a procla- 
mation by the governor. That night the military turned 
out in force, including a troop of horse and several foot 
companies, with the firemen acting under authority as 
police, and eighty citizens who had volunteered to sup- 
port the officers of the law. 

In October the Western Methodist Anti-Slavery con- 
vention assembled at Cincinnati. It actually could not 
then find a meeting-house of its own denomination open 
to it, but found a hospitable reception in a Baptist church. 
Hon. Samuel Lewis was chairman of this meeting. Fif- 
teen years afterwards the feeling had so changed that one 
of the largest Methodist churches of the city was used 
for a great and enthusiastic Republican meeting, assem- 
bled to promote the election of General Fremont. 


One of the chief events of this year was the arrival 
from Pittsburgh of the young but already celebrated 
English novelist, Charles Dickens, with his wife. They 
staid but a short time, and then embarked on the steamer 
Pike, for Louisville, stopping here also for a day on his 
return. He gave Cincinnati a chapter in his American 
Notes, and treated it much more fairly than some other 
places alleged themselves to have been treated. We ex- 
tract the following: 

Monday, April 4, 1842. 

When the morning sun shines again, it gilds the house-tops of a lively 
city, before whose broad, paved wharf the boat is moored ; with other 
boats, and flags and moving wheels and hum of men around it ; as 
though there were not a solitary or silent rood of ground within the 
compass of a thousand miles around. 

Cincinnati is a beautiful city ; cheerful, thriving, and animated. I 
have not often seen a place that commends itself so favorably and pleas, 
antly to a stranger at the first glance as this does, with its clean houses 
of red and white, its well-paved roads and footways of bright tile. Nor 
does it become less prepossessing on a closer acquaintance. The 
streets are broad and airy, the shops extremely good, the private resi- 
dences remarkable for their elegance and neatness. There is some- 
thing of invention and fancy in the varying styles of these latter 
erections, which, after the dull company of the steamboat, is perfectly 
delightful, as conveying an assurance that there are such qualities still 
in existence. The disposition to ornament these pretty villas and ren- 
der them attractive leads to the culture of trees and flowers, and the 
laying-out of well kept gardens, the sight of which, to those who walk 
along the streets, is inexpressibly refreshing and agreeable. I was 
quite charmed with the appearance of the town and its adjoining sub- 
urb of Mount Auburn, from which the city, lying in an amphitheatre of 
hills, forms a picture of remarkable beauty and is seen to great advan- 



There happened to be a great temperance convention held here on 
the day after our arrival ; and as the order of march brought the pro- 
cession under the windows of the hotel in which we lodged, when they 
started in the morning, I had a good opportunity of seeing it. It com- 
prised several thousand men, the members of various "Washington 
Auxiliary Temperance Societies," and was marshaled by officers on 
horseback, who cantered briskly up and down the line, with scarves and 
ribands of bright colors fluttering out behind them gaily. There were 
bands of music, too, and banners out of number ; and it was a fresh, 
holiday looking concourse altogether. 

I was particularly pleased to see the Irishmen, who formed a distinct 
society among themselves, carrying their national Harp and their por- 
trait of Father Mathew high above the people's heads. They looked 
as jolly and good-humored as ever ; and, working the hardest for their 
living, and doing any kind of sturdy labor that came in their way, were 
the most independent fellows there, I thought. 

The banners were very well painted, and flaunted down the street fa- 
mously. There was the smiting of the rock and the gushing forth of 
the waters ; and there was a. temperate man with a considerable of a 
hatchet (as" the standard-bearer would probably have said) aiming a 
deadly blow at a serpent which was apparently about to spring upon 
him from the top of a barrel of spirits. But the chief feature of this 
part of the show was a huge allegorical device, borne among the ship- 
carpenters, on one side whereof the steamboat Alcohol was represented 
bursting her boiler and exploding with a great crash, while upon the 
other the good ship Temperance sailed away with a fair wind; to the 
heart's content of the captain, crew, and passengers. 

After going round the town, the procession repaired to a certain ap- 
pointed place, where, as the printed programme set forth, it would be 
received by the children of the different free schools, "singing temper- 
ance songs." I was prevented from getting there in time to hear these 
little warblers, or to report upon this novel kind of vocal entertainment 
— novel, at least, to me ; but I found, in a large open space, each soci- 
ety gathered round its own banners and listening in silent attention to 
its own orator. The speeches, judging from the little I could hear of 
them, were certainly adapted to the occasion, as having that degree of 
relationship to cold water which wet blankets may claim ; but the main 
thing was the conduct and appearance of the audience throughout the 
day, and that was admirable and full of promise. 

Cincinnati is honorably famous for its free schools, of which it has so 
many that no person's child among its population can, by possibility, 
want the means of education, which are extended, upon an average, to 
four thousand pupils annually, I was only present in one of these es- 
tablishments during the hours of instruction. In the boys' department, 
which, was full of little urchins (varying in their ages, I should say, from 
six years old to ten or twelve), the master offered to institute an extem- 
porary examination of the pupils in algebra — a proposal which, as I 
was by no means confident of my ability to detect mistakes in that 
science, I declined with some alarm. In the girls' school reading was 
proposed, and as I felt tolerably equal to that art, I expressed my will- 
ingness to hear a class. Books were distributed accordingly, and some 
half-dozen girls relieved each other in reading paragraphs in English 
history. But it was a dry compilation, infinitely above their powers; 
and when they had blundered through three or four dreary passages 
concerning the Treaty of Amiens and other thrilling topics of the same 
nature (obviously without comprehending ten words), I expressed my- 
self quite satisfied. It is very possible that they only mounted to this 
extreme stave in the ladder of learning for the astonishment of a visitor, 
and that at other times they keep upon its lower rounds ; but I should 
have been much better pleased and satisfied if I had heard them exer- 
cised in simpler lessons, which they understood. 

As in every other place I visited, the judges here were gentlemen of 
high character and attainments. I was in one of the courts for a few 
minutes, and found it like those to which I have already referred. A 
nuisance cause was trying; there were not many spectators ; and the 
witness, counsel, and jury formed a sort of family circle, sufficiently jo- 
cose and snug. 

The society with which I mingled was intelligent, courteous, and 
agreeable. The inhabitants of Cincinnati are proud of their city, as one 
of the most interesting in America, and with reason; for, beautiful and 
thriving as it is now, and containing, as it does, a population of fifty 
thousand souls, but two and fifty years have passed away since the 
ground on which it stands (bought at that time for a few dollars), was 
a wildwood and its citizens were but a handful of dwellers in scattered 
log huts upon the river's shore. 

Another bank mob occurred in the city on the first of 

November, caused by the suspension of the Bank of 
Cincinnati and the Miami Exporting company's bank. 
Some movable property, books, and papers, were reached 
and destroyed, and a demonstration was also made 
against two exchange offices; but the City Guard, under 
command of the astronomer, Captain O. M. Mitchel, 
were defending the banks, and after they had fired a vol- 
ley or two on the mob, wounding several, the crowd dis- 
persed and did no further damage. 

The number of new buildings erected this year was 
five hundred and thirty-seven. 


Mr. Cist notes this year as an era in the political ex- 
istence of Cincinnati, as having two natives of the county 
rival candidates for the office of Mayor at the spring 
election — Messrs. Henry E. Spencer and Henry Morse 
— which was certainly a very interesting circumstance, 
but was paralleled in 1845, when the same two were 
again candidates for the office. 

February 28th a disastrous fire and explosion occurred 
in Pugh & Alvord's pork-packing establishment, which 
killed eight persons and wounded fourteen, among them 
several prominent citizens. 

November 2d, the first number of the Cincinnati Com- 
mercial was issued, by Messrs. Curtiss & Hastings. On 
the twenty-eighth the Whitewater canal was opened. 

December 2 2d, S. S. Davies, ex-mayor of the city, de- 
parted this life. 

Number of new buildings this year, six hundred and 


This year was comparatively devoid of events, save 
the inevitable quadrennial excitement of the Presidential 
election. On the twenty-seventh of April the first 
ground was bought for Spring Grove cemetery. The 
eighth of October marked the advent of Millerism, of 
which an interesting account will be found in our chap- 
ter on Religion in Cincinnati. The first, and long the 
only cotton factory in the city, was erected this year by 
Messrs. Samuel Fosdick, Anthony Harkness, and Jacob 

During the summer and fall of this year, Mr. Charles 
Cist pursued his favorite occupation of enumerating the 
buildings, of the city, the results of which he published 
in his Miscellany. He found in the First ward fifteen 
public buildings (including the post office, a theatre, and 
the unfinished observatory), and one hundred and twenty 
dwellings, shops, storehouses, mills, and offices — total 
seven hundred and thirty-five — five hundred and fifty- 
one of brick and one hundred and eighty-four frames. 
Eighty-two had been built in 1844, against twenty-six the 
previous year. The Second ward showed up twenty-two 
public buildings and one thousand and thirty-nine dwel- 
ings, etc., — eight hundred and twenty-five brick and two 
hundred and fourteen frame. One hundred and two of 
these had been put up within the year. The Third ward 
contained but six public edifices, but had one thousand 
one hundred and sixty-two private buildings — two of 
stone, four hundred and thirty-four frame, and seven 



hundred and twenty brick. Some of the new structures, 
one hundred and seventeen in number, are described as 
of great extent and height. Mr. Cist says : 

The Third ward is the great hive of Cincinnati industry, especially 
in the manufacturing line. Planing machines, iron foundries, brewer- 
ies, saw-mills, rolling-mills, finishing shops, bell and brass foundries, 
boiler yards, boat building, machine shops, etc., constitute an exten- 
sive share of its business. 

The Fourth ward, also embracing a large share of the 
heavy business of the city, now had four buildings of a 
public character and one thousand two hundred and 
seven others — four stone, six hundred and fifty-two 
brick, and five hundred and fifty-one frames — one hun- 
dred and seventeen built the same year. Fifth ward — 
public buildings, thirteen; private, one thousand five hun- 
dred and fifty-two; brick, eight hundred and twenty-five; 
frame, seven hundred and twenty-seven ; built this year, 
one hundred and seventy-six. Sixth — public structures, 
ten; private, one thousand and fifty-three; built in 1844 
(seventy-nine less than in 1843), one hundred and seven- 
teen; brick, four hundred and ninety-five; frame, five 
hundred and sixty-eight. Several improvements of a su- 
perior character are noted. Seventh — twelve public build- 
ings, one thousand two hundred and ninety-nine private — 
six hundred and ten brick, seven hundred and one frames; 
two hundred and nineteen built this year. The great edi- 
fice going up, as it had been for four years, was the Roman 
Catholic cathedral, on Plum street. Eighth — seven pub- 
lic and one thousand one hundred and fifty-seven private 
structures — four hundred and three brick, seven hundred 
and sixty-one frame ; built during the year, two hundred 
and twenty-six. "A great number of fine dwellings of 
brick'' are noted as among the new improvements. Ninth 
— fourteen public and one thousand one hundred and 
ninety-eight private buildings; new ones, eighty-two; 
brick, four hundred and seventy-eight ; frame, seven hun- 
dred and thirty-two; stone, two. The total number of 
buildings in the city was ten thousand seven hundred and 
seventy-three, an increase of one thousand two hundred 
and twenty-eight over the previous year. It was also 
thought that as many as five hundred new buildings had 
been put up during the year in the district between the 
corporation line and the base of the hills on the north. 

Many familiar old buildings disappeared this year — 
among them Fairchild's corner, on Main and Front, 
which was a quarter of a century old ; Elsenlock's comer, 
on Walnut and Front, which was one of the earliest en- 
closed lots of Losantiville, and the building upon it the 
favorite resort of the "United Democracy;" also, east of 
Main, above Fifth, an old white frame building, put up 
in the days of Fort Washington, and Andrew's Buck's ho- 
tel, once a fashionable resort. Looking from the corner 
of Main and Fifth, all buildings of a quarter of a century 
before, within the view, had disappeared. 

A classification made of citizens this year, according 
to their pecuniary ability, developed the fact that there 
was only one man (Nicholas Longworth) worth over five 
hundred thousand dollars; six were worth two hundred 
thousand to four hundred thousand dollars; twenty-six 
one hundred thousand to two hundred thousand dollars; 
forty-three fifty thousand*to one hundred thousand dol- 

lars; fifty-six thirty thousand to fifty thousand dollars; 
seventy-three twenty to thirty thousand dollars; eighty- 
two fifteen thousand to twenty thousand dollars; one 
hundred and eighteen ten thousand to fifteen thousand 
dollars; four hundred and twenty-three five to ten thqu- 
sartd dollars; six hundred and forty-five two thousand 
five hundred to five thousand dollars; eight hundred and 
twenty-six one thousand five hundred to two thousand 
five hundred dollars; and thirteen hundred and thirteen 
under one thousand five hundred dollars. It was esti- 
mated that the sale of eight squares in the business part 
of the city would more than pay all the bank debts then 
due by her business men. 


The population of the city this year had grown to seven- 
ty^four thousand six hundred and ninety-nine — an in- 
crease of twenty-eighf thousand three hundred and sev- 
enteen, or sixty-one per cent., in five years. The increase 
was to be yet more remarkable during the five years to 
come.)) The number of new buildings was one thousand 
two hundred and fifty-two — seven hundred and eighty- 
nine brick, four hundred and sixty-three frame. The 
total number of buildings in the city was eleven thousand 
five hundred and sixty, exclusive of stables and the like. 
Among the finer structures in the course of erection this 
year were the Cincinnati college, the Masonic and Odd 
Fellows' halls, the College of Dental Surgery, two Ro- 
man Catholic, two Presbyterian, four Methodist, one 
Welsh, and two Disciple churches. The building of the 
college, on Walnut street, between Fourth and Fifth, 
where its successor now stands, had been burned on the 
nineteenth of January, and a more spacious and elegant 
structure was now going up. 

In May of this year Mr. Cist thus notes in his Misce l- 
lany some interesting facts relating to the trend of the 
Dusiness interests of the city: 

r |The increase of business in Cincinnati compels it to radiate from its 
former centres. Blocks of business stands are forming east, west and 
north of the existing commercial regions.) Thus some thirty large 
ware- and store-houses have been or are just about to be erected on 
Walnut, between Water and Second streets. (Commerce is finding vent 
down Second, Third and J'ront streets to the west, and up Second and 
Third streets to the east.1 That fine block known by the name of 
Hopple's row, and which l»s hardly been a year built, is now occupied 
with lace and dry-goods stores, drug-shops, carpet ware-houses, etc., in 
which goods are offered wholesale to as good advantage as in any other 
part of the city. Among these the dry-good store of Baird & 
Scrmyler may be especially alluded to as a fine establishment. These 

E - e the OjCcupants of the lower buildings ; up stairs is a perfect den of 
ipers in the shape of lawyers and editors. 
We continue Mr. Cist's interesting notices of local 
matters : 

f Our Northwest Territory.— There is nothing in Cincinnati ex- 
k hibits a growth as vigorous as the northwestern part of our city) popu- 
larly called Texas. What constituted originally the Seventh ward was, ( 
only seven years ago, interspersed here and there with dwellings, but 
consisted principally of brick-yards, cattle-pastures and vegetable gar- 
dens, for the supply of markets. Such was the unimproved condition 
of this region, that nearly two hundred and fifty acres, occupied as 
pasturage, were owned by four or five individuals alone) Two hundred 
and fifty acres of pasturage in a city, and that city as thriving as Cin- 
cinnati ! (The whole number of dwellings at that period, within the 
bounds of that ward, were short of three hundred and fifty, and its 
whole population could not have reached to twenty-five hundred souls; 



and these the buildings and inhabitants of a section of Cincinnati more 
than a mile square! 

Now what a change! Eleven hundred new buildings, most of them 
of a character for beauty, permanence and value equal to the average 
of the main body of our city improvements. The streets graded and 
paved to a great extent, churches and public school-houses going up in 
its midst, and well-paved sidewalks, adding to the general finish and 
convenience.) With all these improvements, too, space has been left, 
at the sides and in the fronts of the buildings, for that free introduction 
of shrubbery and flowers which render our city so attractive to stran- 
gers, and so airy and pleasant to ourselves. It is, in short, completely 
rus in urbe, abounding in spots which combine the comfort of a coun- 
try villa with the convenience and advantages of a city residence. 

It may serve to give a striking view of the magnitude and extent of 
the improvements in this region to state that London street has been 
graded from Fulton to Mound street west, which extent, some one 
thousand two hundred feet in length, is now dug down from five to 
ten feet, to fill up one thousand feet farther west and the entire width — 
sixty feet — of the street. The stupendous character of the work may 
be inferred from the volume of earth filled in, which, at the intersection 
of Baymiller street, measures sixteen feet in depth. Tfie greater part 
of this is also paved, and progressing as fast in paving as is prudent, 
the graded ground being covered with stone as fast as it settles to its 
permanent bed. This must become one of the finest entrances to our 
city. /The population of this section of Cincinnati is now, doubtless, 
eleven thousand, the inhabitants having quadruped since 1838. 

A new and important avenue to trade and marketing has been 
opened through this part of the city, by extending Freeman street to 
the Hamilton road. The effect of this will be to direct a large share of 
the travelling to the city, to the intersection of Fifth and Front streets; 
and to bring the pork-wagons into direct communication with the pork- 
houses which must be put up on the line of the Whitewater canal. 

This avenue will also become a formidable rival to Western Row, as 
a connection between the adjacent parts of Indiana and Cincinnati^ 
owing to the scandalous condition into which the upper part of that 
street has been suffered to dilapidate, which renders it impassable in 
winter and unpleasant at all times. • 

Eighth street was now paved to a distance of more 
than two miles west of Main, and was rapidly coming 
into use as one of the chief avenues of travel to and 
from the country. 

Mr. [Elmore] Williams was originally the owner of all that valuable 
property at the corner of Main and Front streets, facing one hundred 
feet on Front and two hundred on Main street, extending from Worth- 
ington Shillito & Co.'s grocery store to Front, and thence Place Traber 
& Co.'s store, west to Main street, and became so under these circum- 
stances: The lot in question was taken up by Henry Lindsey, who 
after holding it a year or more disposed of it to a young man for a job 
of work, whose name Mr. Williams has forgot. The second owner, 
having a desire to revisit his former home in New Jersey, and being 
unwilling to trust himself through the wilderness without a horse, 
begged Mr. Williams, with whom' he was acquainted, the latter then 
residing at the point of the junction of the Licking and the Ohio, to 
take his lot in payment for a horse, saddle and bridle of his, valued at 
sixty-five dollars. After much importunity and principally with the view 
of accommodating a neighbor, Mr. Williams consented, and after 
holding the property a few days, disposed of it again tor another 
horse and equipments, by which he supposed he made ten dollars, 
perhaps. This lot not long afterwards fell into the hands of Colonel 
Gibson, who offered it for one hundred dollars to Major Bush of Boone 
county, in 1793. So slight was the advance for years to property in 
Cincinnati. This lot, probably at this time the most valuable in the 
city, estimating the rent at six per cent, of its value, is now worth three 
hundred and thirty-seven thousand and four hundred dollars. Where 
else in the world is the property which in fifty-four years had risen 
from four dollars to such a value? 

The man is still living, and in full possession of his faculties, bodily 
and mental, who stood by surveying the first cellar-digging in Cincin- 
nati. This was the cellar of the first brick house put up here, and 
which was built by the late Elmore Williams, at the corner of Main 
and Fifth streets. As one-half of the community in that day had never 
seen a cellar, being emigrants from the farming districts, and the other 
half were surveying a novelty in Cincinnati, it may readily be conceived 
there was no scarcity of on-lookers. My informant gives it as his 
judgment that the west half of the Wade dwelling on Congress street, 
is the oldest building now standing in Cincinnati, certainly the only 

one remaining of what were built when he first saw the place. Most of 
the houses were log cabins, and hardly better, so he phrases it, "than 
sugar-camps at that." The city, when he landed, had not five hundred 
inhabitants. He has lived to behold its increase to seventy-five. thou- 
sand. Where will the next fifty years find it? 

June i:th, was held a meeting of the southern and 
western anti-slavery convention in the city, with animated 
and interesting discussions. 

An interesting event occurred on the twenty-eighth of 
September, in the dedication of Spring Grove cemetery. 
Cincinnati had now the beginnings of a worthy "God's 

The city was visited in 1845 by the great English 
geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, who, more than any other 
man in the history of geology, industriously collected 
facts and constructed theories for it. He was out much 
on explorations in this region with Dr. John Locke, who 
had been on the State geological survey; and visited the 
Big Bone lick, in company with Robert Buchanan, Mr. 
Anthony, and other intelligent gentlemen. The following 
are some of Sir Charles' remarks upon the geology and 
paleontology of this part of the valley: 

The Ohio river at Cincinnati, and immediately above and below it, is 
bounded on its right bank by two terraces, on which the city is built, 
the streets in the upper and lower part of it standing on different levels. 
These terraces are composed of sand, gravel, and loam, such as the 
river, if blocked up by some barrier, might now be supposed to sweep 
down in its current and deposit in a lake. The upper terrace is bounded 
by steep hills of ancient fossiliferous rocks. Near the edge of the higher 
terrace, in digging a gravel-pit, which I saw open at the end of Sixth 
street, they discovered lately the teeth of the elephas primigenius, the 
same extinct species which is met with in very analogous situations on 
the banks of the.Thames, and the same which was found preserved en- 
tire with its flesh in the ice of Siberia. Above the stratum from which 
the tooth was obtained I observed about six feet of gravel covered by 
ten feet of fine yellow loam, and below it were alternations of gravel, 
loam, and sand, for twenty feet. But I searched in vain for any accom- 
panying fossil shells. These, however, have been found in a similar 
situation at Mill creek, near Cincinnati, a place where several teeth of 
mastodons have been met with. They belong to the genera mclania, 
lymncea, amnicola, succinea, physa, planorbis, paludina, cyclas, helix 
and pupa, all of recent species, and nearly all known to inhabit the im- 
mediate neighborhood. I was also informed that near Wheeling a bed 
of freshwater shells, one foot thick, of the genus unio, is exposed at the 
height of one hundred and twenty feet above the main level of the 
Ohio. The remains of the common American mastodon (M. gigantius) 
have also been found at several points in the strata in the upper terrace, 
both above and below Cincinnati. Upon the whole it appears that the 
strata of loam, clay, and gravel, forming the elevated terraces on both 
sides of the Ohio and its tributaries, and which we know to have re- 
mained unaltered from the era of the Indian mounds and earthworks, 
originated subsequently to the period of the existing mollusca, but 
when several quadrupeds now extinct inhabited this continent. The 
lower parts, both of the larger and smaller valleys, appear to have been 
filled up with a fluviatile deposit, through which the streams have sub- 
sequently cut broad and deep channels. These phenomena very closely 
resemble those presented by the loess, or ancient river-silt of the Rhine 
and its tributaries, and the theory which I formerly suggested to ac- 
count for the position of the Rhenish loess (also charged with recent 
land and freshwater shells, and occasionally with the remains of the ex- 
tinct elephant) may be applicable to the American deposits. 

I imagined first a gradual movement of depression, like that now in 
progress on the west coast of Greenland, to lessen the fall of the waters 
or the height of the land relatively to the ocean. In consequence of 
the land being thus lowered, the bottoms of the main and lateral val- 
leys become filled up with fluviatile sediment, containing terrestrial 
and freshwater shells, in the same manner as deltas are formed where 
rivers meet the sea, the salt water being excluded, in spite of continued 
subsidence, by the accumulation of alluvial matter brought down, inces- 
santly from the land above. Afterwards I suppose an upward move- 
ment gradually to restore the country to its former level, and, during 
this upheaval, the rivers remove a large part of the accumulated mud, 

9 6 


sand and gravel. I have already shown that on the coast of Georgia 
and South Carolina, in the United States, we have positive proofs of 
modern oscillations of level, similar to those here assumed. 

The rock forming the hills and table-lands around Cincinnati, called 
the blue limestone, has been commonly referred to the age of the 
Trenton limestone of New York, but is considered by Messrs. Conrad 
and Hall, and I believe with good reason, as comprehending also the 
Hudson river group. It seems impossible, however, to separate these 
divisions in Ohio, so that the' district colored blue (No. 15) may be re- 
garded as agreeing with Nos. 14 and 15 in other parts of my map. 
Several of the fossils which I collected at Cincinnati, the encrinites and 
aviculae (of the sub-genus Pterined) in particular, agree with those 
which I afterward procured near Toronto, on the northern shores of 
Lake Ontario. 

After seeing at Cincinnati several fine collections of recent and fossil 
shells in the cabinets of Messrs. Buchanan, Anthony and Clark, I ex- 
amined with care the quarries of blue limestone and marl in the sub- 
urbs. The organic remains here are remarkably well preserved for so 
ancient a rock, especially those occurring in a compact argillaceous 
blue limestone, not unlike the lias of Europe. Its deposition ' appears 
to have gone on very tranquilly, as the lingula has been met with in its 
natural and erect position, as if enclosed in mud when alive, or still 
standing on its peduncle. Crnstaceans of the. genus Trinacleus are 
found spread out in great numbers on layers of the solid marl, as. also 
another kind of trilobite, called Paradoxides, equally characteristic of 
the Lower Silurian system of Europe. The large hotelus gigas, three or 
four inches long, a form represented, in the Lower Silurian of northern 
Europe, by the asaphi with eight abdominal articulations, deserves also 
to be mentioned, and a species of graptolite. I obtained also Spirifer- 
lynx in great abundance, a shell which Messrs. Murchisbn and De 
Verneuil regard as very characteristic of the Lower Silurian beds of^ 
Russia and Sweden. Among the mollusca I may also mention Cept<Bna r 
sericea, Orthls striatula, Belleropkon bilobatus, Aviculte of the 'sub- 
genus Pterinea, Cypricradia, Orthoccras, and others. There were 
also some beautiful forms of Crinoidea, or stone-lilies, and many corals, 
which Mr. Lonsdale informs me differ considerably from those hitherto 
known in Britain — a circumstance probably arising from the small de- 
velopment of coralline limestones in the Lower Silurian strata of our 
island. Several species of the new genus Stenopora of Lonsdale are 
remarkably abundant. 


January 6th, occurred the first annual meeting of the 
New England society; Henry Starr, president. On the 
fifteenth, the post office was removed from near the 
Henrie house to the Masonic building, at the corner of 
Third and Walnut streets. 

March 25th, Messrs. Wright & Graff sold at auction 
seventy-five feet of ground, with buildings thereon, on 
the southeast corner of Third and Walnut, for fifteen 
thousand six hundred and twenty-five dollars; and April 
14th, there was a considerable sale of lots belonging to 
the Barr estate, at the West end. 

April 17th, Miles Greenwood's foundry was burned, 
but he rebuilt promptly and reoccupied September 17th, 
just five months after the fire. 

On the 9th of July the First and Second Ohio infantry 
regiments, commanded by Colonels O. M. Mitchel and 
Curtis, left Camp Washington for the theatre of war in 

August 10th, announcement was made that the Little 
Miami railroad would run its first train to Springfield. 
On the 14th, the Rev. Joshua L. Wilson, for many years 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church, dies. 

September 7th, the Merchants' exchange is opened in 
the college building. On the 28th Edward Byington 
falls by the hand of violence, slain by Theodore Church. 

New buildings to the number of nine hundred and 
eighty were erected. 


New buildings this year, one thousand one hundred 
and forty. The first five-story brick in Cincinnati was 
put up at the corner of Pearl and Walnut streets, by Ed- 
mund B. Reeder — the building afterwards occupied by 
Booth's hardware store. While the cellar was being dug, 
an old bystander gave the interesting information that he 
had once loaded a fiat-boat on that very spot. 

On the twenty-first of August, the first public tele- 
graphic dispatch wired to Cincinnati was received by the 
local press. It was justly accounted a very interesting 

In December another tremendous flood occurred in 
the Ohio, reaching its height about the seventeenth, when 
it stood only six inches lower than in the great freshet of 
1832. The city was better prepared for it, however, and 
although there was much distress and loss, it did not 
entirely renew the excitement and unhappy scenes of fif- 
teen years before. 

On the twenty-second of April, Levi Coffin and family 
moved to Cincinnati. This arrival is solely noticeable 
because it brought a strong reinforcement to the rather 
feeble band of abolitionists in the city, and because it in- 
troduced here a new branch of trade — a grocery store at 
which, no products of slave labor were to be had. Mr. 
Coffin was of- Massachusetts and Maryland stock, but a 
native of. North. Carolina, where he became thoroughly 
impressed, with the ills of slavery, and a confirmed abo- 
litionist. He went in 1822 to Indiana, and taught school 
there awhile, returned to North Carolina, engaged in 
teaching again, but came west finally in the fall of 1826 
and located at Newport, Wayne county, Indiana, where 
he remained for more than twenty years, engaged in 
store-keeping, pork-packing, making linseed oil, and 
managing a station of the Underground railroad. In 
the last named business — quite the reverse of profitable, 
in a pecuniary sense — he was exceedingly zealous, and 
assisted many fugitive slaves in the direction of the 
north star. He says in his volume of Reminiscences: 

"This work was kept up during the time we lived in 
Newport, a period of more than twenty years. The num- 
ber of fugitives varied considerably in different years, 
but the annual average was more than one hundred." 

It was to his house in Newport that the Eliza Harris 
of Mrs. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin went, on her journey 
northward, and told her thrilling story of escape. 

In 1844 he became convinced that it was wrong to sell, 
buy, or use any product of slave toil, and began the 
search for groceries and cotton goods that were, from first 
to last, solely the result of free labor. He found associ- 
ations already existing in Philadelphia and New York, 
manufacturing goods of free-labor cotton, and getting 
sugar and other groceries from the British West Indies 
and other localities where slavery did not exist He 
bought a limited stock of these for his Newport store 
and sold them, necessarily to Abolitionists almost exclu- 
sively, and at a very small profit, compared with that he 
might have realized from slave-labor wares. He traveled 
in the south to find localities where slaves were not used 
in the production of cotton and sugar ; and in one case, 

/.,,. 1,1 - ■ ■ 



where cotton was ruined for his purposes by being neces- 
sarily passed through a gin operated by slaves, he bought 
a three hundred dollar gin in Cincinnati and shipped it 
to Mississippi, relying upon his correspondent there to 
pay for it in cotton. It was thenceforth known as the 
"Abolition gin," and greatly stimulated the production of 
free-labor cotton. 

Mr. Coffin came to Cincinnati in 1847, at the solicita- 
tion of a Union Free-labor convention, held at Salem, 
Indiana, the previous fall, to open a wholesale depository 
of free-labor goods. This he did, though at much pecu- 
niary sacrifice and in the face of much personal obloquy. 
Contrary to his expectation, he had also to remain in act- 
ive service as president of the Underground railroad, as 
he had come now to be generally considered. His Rem- 
iniscences say. 

I was personally acquainted with all the active and reliable workers 
on the Underground railroad in the city, both colored and white. There 
were a few wise and careful managers among the colored people, but it 
was not safe to trust all of them with the affairs of our work. Most of 
them were too careless, and a few were unworthy — they could be bribed 
by the slave-hunters to betray the hiding-places of the fugitives. 
We were soon initiated into Underground railroad matters in Cincin- 
nati, and did not lack for work. Our willingness to aid the slaves was 
soon known, and hardly a fugitive came to the city without applying to 
us for assistance. There seemed to be a continual increase of run- 
aways, and such was the vigilance of the pursuers that I was obliged to 
devote a large share of time from my business to making arrangements 
for the concealment and safe conveyance of the fugitives. They some- 
times came to our door frightened and panting and in a destitute con- 
dition, having fled in such haste and fear that they had no time to bring 
any clothing except what they had on, and that was often very scant. 
The expense of providing suitable clothing for them when it was neces- 
sary for them to go on immediately, or of feeding them when they were 
obliged to be concealed for days or weeks, was very heavy. Added to 
this was the cost of hiring teams when a party of fugitives had to be 
conveyed out of the city by night to some Underground railroad depot, 
from twenty to thirty miles distant. The price for a two-horse team on 
such occasions was ten dollars, and sometimes two or three teams were 
required. We generally hired these teams from a certain German livery 
stable, sending some irresponsible though honest colored man to pro- 
cure them, and always sending the money to pay for them in advance. 
The people of the livery stable seemed to understand what the teams 
were wanted for, and asked no questions. 

Learning that the runaway slaves often arrived almost destitute of 
clothing, a number of the benevolent ladies of the city— Mrs. Sarah 
H. Ernst, Miss Sarah O. Ernst, Mrs. Henry Miller, Mrs. Dr. Ayde- 
lott, Mrs. Julia Harwood, Mrs. Amanda E. Foster, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Coleman, Mrs. Mary Mann, Mrs. Mary M. Guild, Miss K. Emery, 
and others — organized an anti-slavery sewing society, to provide suit- 
able clothing for the fugitives. After we came to the city, they met at 
our house every week for a number of years, and wrought much prac- 
tical good by their labors. 

Our -house was large, and well adapted for secreting fugitives. Very 
often slaves would lie concealed in upper chambers for weeks, without 
the boarders or frequent visitors at the house knowing anything about 
it. My wife had a quiet, unconcerned way of going about her work, 
as if nothing unusual was on hand, which was calculated to lull every 
suspicion of those who might be watching, and who would have been 
at once aroused by any sign of secrecy or mystery. Even the intimate 
friends of the family did not know when there were slaves secreted in 
the house, unless they were directly informed. When my wife took 
food to the fugitives she generally concealed it in a basket, and put 
some freshly ironed garment on the top, to make it look like a basket- 
ful of clean clothes. Fugitives were not often allowed to eat in the 
kitchen, from fear of detection. 

The interest of these statements, as part of a mem- 
orable chapter of local and political history, justifies the 
space we have given to them. Mr. Coffin remained in 
Cincinnati, successfully but modestly conducting his 
business as an Abolition storekeeper and underground 

railway manager so long as necessary; and after the war, 
at a meeting of the colored folk of Cincinnati and vicin- 
ity, to celebrate the adoption of the fifteenth amendment 
to the Constitution, he formally and humorously resigned 
his office as President of the Underground railroad, de- 
claring that " the stock had gone down in the market, 
the business was spoiled, the road was of no further use" ; 
and retired amid much applause. During the war and 
afterwards, he did much good work among the destitute 
and suffering freedmen. He since published his Remin- 
iscences in a thick volume, abounding in interesting nar- 
ratives. After his death a second edition was published, 
with an added chapter giving an account of his closing 
years. He died at his residence in Avondale, September 
16, 1877, at the advanced age of seventy-nine, leaving 
his widow still surviving. 

A terrible riot occurred at the county jail this year, 
resulting in the death of eleven persons, some of whom 
were wholly innocent of any complicity with the mob. 
Two soldiers in the Mexican war had been discharged at 
its close and returned to the city with their land war- 
rants. They were soon after accused of an outrage upon 
the person of the little daughter of the family with whom 
they were boarding, near the Brighton house, and were 
lodged in the old jail, on Sycamore street, the officers 
taking them thither fighting their way with the utmost 
difficulty through an infuriated mob. . Toward evening 
an immense crowd gathered about the place, which was 
'guarded by the finest military companies in the city — the 
Greys and the Citizens' Guards — and several rushes were 
made upon the building. At first the assailants were re- 
pulsed by the firing of blank cartridges; but at last, when 
the soldiers were pressed back, and the ringleaders were 
actually within the doors of the jail, it became necessary 
to fire with ball, which was done with terribly fatal effect, 
stretching eleven persons lifeless at the first fire, some of 
them at a distance from the mob, and not participating 
in it. The people were unarmed and dispersed at once 
in haste, not to return; and the prisoners were saved 
from the threatened vengeance. After a little time for 
reflection, popular feeling settled in favor of the action 
of the officers and soldiery, and finally in favor of the 
prisoners themselves. They were not even brought to 
trial, the grand jury unanimously refusing to bring a bill 
of indictment against them; and there is little doubt that 
the infamous charge was part of a scheme to dispossess 
them of the land-warrants which they had honestly 
earned by hard and dangerous service. Public opinion 
was turned so strongly against their persecutors, indeed, 
that they found it advisable to disappear from the com- 
munity, to escape possible lynching themselves. 

Number of new buildings this year, one thousand 
three hundred and five. 


The number of names upon the directory this year is 
twenty-one thousand five hundred and forty-five, exceed- 
ing the number upon the directory of 1846 by six thou- 
sand nine hundred and forty-five. The addition was 
made this year of Fulton, a tolerably large and densely 

9 8 


populated suburb, equal to about one-third of the former 
dimensions of the city. The Burnet house was erected 
this year by a joint stock company, and was then ac- 
counted the finest hotel building in the country. Many 
distinguished persons were its guests, in the earlier as 
well as the later days. The room once occupied by 
Jenny Lind still bears her name. 

In November or December came the famous Lady 
Emmeline Stuart Wortley. She staid but one day in 
Cincinnati, on account of the crowded hotels, and made 
few remarks upon the place in the book she afterwards 
published. She noted it as a "very handsome city, in a 
remarkably fine situation;" has a good word for the Ger- 
man immigrants; has her attention attracted by "the 
floating wharves, which are rendered necessary by the 
continued and rapid fluctuations of the river." She gives 
the town a malicious little fling at the close : 

It may be confidently stated that Cincinnati, the pride of the banks 
of "La Belle Riviere," is in fact what its name, "Porkopolis," implies 
— the Empire city of pigs, as well as of the west; but it is fortunate that 
they condescendingly allow human beings to share the truly magnifi- 
cent location with them. 

On the first of May, one train per day, each way, be- 
gan to run over the Little Miami railroad to Springfield. 
On the sixth occurred the murder of O- Brasher by 
Jesse Jones; and on the tenth the death of Colonel 
Charles H. Brough, a prominent lawyer of the city, and 
soldier of the Mexican war. 

July 20th was made memorable by the poisoning of 
the Simmons family, and November 30th by the at- 
tempted destruction in the same way of the Forrest fam- 
ily, by the notorious poisoner, Nancy Farrer, in whose 
trial the young lawyer, Rutherford B. Hayes, late Presi- 
dent of the United States, bore a distinguished part. 
She finally escaped the meshes of the law, on the plea of 
insanity, and was sent to the Lick Run asylum. 

Mr. E. D. Mansfield, in his Memoirs of Dr. Drake, 
submits the following valuable remarks and statistics con- 
cerning the fatality and social characteristics of the chol- 
era in Cincinnati this year : 

It commenced at the middle of April, but did not entirely cease until 
the return of frosts; but the intensity of the pestilence may be dated 
from the middle of June to the middle of August. In other words, it 
increased and declined with the heat. Except in the first season, 1832, 
this has been its uniform characteristic in every year of its appearance. 
It was so in 1833, '34, '39, '49, '50, '51, and '52. In the latter seasons it 
was very light. In September, 1849, the Board of Health in Cincinnati 
returned the following number of deaths, between the first of May and 
the first of September — four months : 

Deaths by cholera 4, 1 14 

Deaths by other diseases 2,345 

Aggregate 6,459 

If we add to this the aggregate number of deaths in the last two 
weeks of April, and from the first of September to the fifteenth of Oc- 
tober, during which the number of deaths exceeded the average, we 
shall have for six months at least seven thousand, of which four thou- 
sand six hundred were from cholera. The mortality of the other six 
months, at the aggregate rate, was only one thousand five hundred. ■ 
We have, then, for 1849, a total mortality of eight thousand five hun- 
dred, which (the population of the city being one hundred and sixteen 
thousand) made a ratio of one in fourteen. 

If we examine this mortality socially, we shall arrive at some extraor- 
dinary results. The division of the cemeteries at Cincinnati, by na- 
tionalities and religions, is so complete that it is easily determined how 
many of Americans and how many Protestants died of cholera. Tak- 

ing the number given above, of those who died between the first of May 
and the first of September, we have this result : 

German, Irish, and Hebrews, died of cholera in four months 2,896 

Americans, English, Scotch, and Welsh, " 1,218 

We see thus that the deaths among the Germans and 
Irish are within a fraction of being fourfold that of the Americans and 
double that of the entire population proportionally. A more minute 
and detailed investigation of this matter would, perhaps, prove that the 
proportion of mortality was even more than this against the foreign 

At some time during the forties, probably, but in some 
year or years which we are unable to designate with cer- 
tainty, a series of letters was written from a house now 
within the precincts of the city, which, as collected and 
published by the celebrated English authoress, Mary 
Howitt, under the title of our Cousins in Ohio, form 
one of the most pleasant little books in the Cin- 
cinnati literature. Names in them are carefully con- 
cealed, and even Cincinnati is not once mentioned ; but 
the local coloring is in places unmistakable. "Red 
creek," for example, is undoubtedly Mill creek, and 
Big Bluff creek, very likely, was Lick run; and Stony 
creek Bold-face, which enters the river at Sedamsville. 
The cedar grove mentioned as "the cedars," where lived 
a sister of Mary Howitt and from which the letters were 
written, is now occupied by the Young Ladies' Academy 
of St. Vincent de Paul, a Roman Catholic institution, 
conducted by the Sisters of Charity, beyond Price's 
hill, on the Warsaw turnpike, in the extreme western 
part of the city. It was formerly the property of a Mr. 
Alderson. We present some entertaining extracts from 
the book in question : 

The wooden bridge over the Red creek was now repaired. This was 
but a temporary bridge, the great stone bridge having been swept 
away the former summer, in a thunder-storm ; and this was the third 
that our friends had seen over Red creek since they came into the 
country. When first they came, it was crossed by an old, covered, 
wooden bridge ; and this was burned down one night by a man whose 
horses' feet stuck fast in a hole of the planking, which made him so an- 
gry that he vowed never again to be stopped by the same cause, and 
therefore he set fire to the bridge before he left the place. In the course 
of the summer a new bridge was again to be erected. 

This Red creek was a small tributary of the Ohio. It was a very 
beautiful stream, and its serpentine course could be traced at the cedars, 
although its waters were unseen, by the white trunks and branches of 
the buttonwood trees which grew upon its banks. It was famous in 
Indian tradition, and the children often sang to themselves, in a low, 
chanting strain, one of its legends, which an American poet had beau- 
tifully sung in modern verse. 

This day proved altogether an eventful one. Uncle Cornelius [Col- 
onel Sedam?] told them about the landing of three hundred and ninety- 
five emancipated slaves which he had witnessed [in Cincinnati]. They 
arrived in the steamer at about eight o'clock that morning. They were 
a motley company of men, women, and children, old and young, but 
all decently dressed, and bringing with them their wagons and house- 
hold stuff and considerable property — some people said to the value of 
ten thousand pounds. The history of their emancipation was interest- 
ing. It had been a struggle of nine years' continuance ; but to the 
honor of the south, the law had decided in their favor, and they were 
on their way to Mercer county, in the State of Ohio, which was chiefly 
settled by free colored people, and where a tract of land had been pur- 
chased for them. 

These poor people had been the property of one John Randolph, a. 
wealthy planter of Roanoke, Virginia. During his lifetime he had been 
a strenuous upholder of slavery ; yet, even then, it was said that his con- 
science often rebelled against him, and, but for custom and the fear 



of ridicule, and perhaps of persecution also, he would have liberated 
his slaves. He did, however, all that he believed it possible for him to 
do; he provided in his will for their liberation after his death, and left a 
handsome provision for their transportation to a free State and for their 
maintenance there. 

But this, it is said, did not' satisfy his conscience on his dying bed. 
Being then unable to speak, he called for a pencil and paper, and wrote 
upon it the word, "Remorse." He felt, it is probable, in those last 
moments that even the act of kindness which he had prepared to do 
after his death could not atone to the Almighty for a lifelong practice 
of oppression, against the sinfulness of which his own soul had even 
thus testified. 

He died, and after a long nine years' struggle the slaves were freed 
by law; and thus they now were on their way to what they hoped would 
be a home of freedom and peace. Uncle Cornelius said that the prin- 
cipal street of the city presented a singular sight, and one which they 
who saw would not soon forget. First came in the procession a crowd 
of negroes — men, women, and children, all dressed in coarse, cotton 
garments, but having the appearance of people who, by their dress, 
were in comfortable circumstances. They were on their way from the 
river, up which the steamer had brought them, to the canal, where 
they were again to embark for their new location. Behind them came 
their baggage-wagons, which formed a very long and singular array; 
and altogether it was the most extraordinary company of emigrants 
which had ever been seen in those parts. Many of the women had 
very young babies in their arms ; there were also some very old people 
amongst them, and the one who brought up the rear was a very striding 
figure. He was the oldest and noblest-looking colored man that Uncle 
Cornelius had ever seen; he walked slowly with a. long cane, and had 
something grand and patriarchal in'his aspect and manner. Probably 
he might be one of those who had been brought up with his afterwards 
celebrated master, and, perhaps, when remorse wrung his death-bed 
soul, he might be remembered by him as one to whom a lifelong injus- 
tice had been done. 

Willie, one day, at the beginning of the month, rode with his father 
some miles up the country, to Stony Creek valley, to see the wagon 
loaded with charcoal, for which purpose it had been sent beforehand. 
Charcoal was used to burn in a small stove with coal or wood, in the 
cold mornings and evenings, to warm and cheer the rooms; and a store 
of it was therefore laid in. 

Stony Creek valley was one of the most secluded valleys in the 
neighborhood; the road which ran along it passed through pleasant 
woods, and now and then crossed the rocky bed of the stream. The 
Valley itself was famous for lime and charcoal-burning; it was but little 
cleared of wood, and the houses, .-which were mostly log-cabins, were 
inhabited by Germans, principally charcoal-burners. There was a pleas- 
ant kind of poetical, out-of-the- world character about the whole place; 
and the curling smoke which rose up so dreamily into the sunny sky, 
from the rude charcoal and lime kilns, added greatly to its effect. 



The census of this year was taken under inauspicious 
conditions, on account of the return of the cholera from 
its visitation of 1 84o7jNevertheless the figures obtained, 
one hundred and fifteen thousand four hundred and 
thirty-eight, were very large as contrasted with the forty- 
six thousand three hundred and thirty-eight of ten years 
before, showing an increase in the decade of sixty-nine 
thousand one hundred, or very nearly two hundred and 
fifty per cent. — an average of almost seven thousand 
newcomers every year. The new buildings this year 
numbered one thousand four hundred and eighteen, and 
the total number of buildings was sixteen thousand two 
hundred and eighty-six. The new ones included five 

stone, nine hundred and thirty-nine brick, and four hun- 
dred and sixty-four frame structures. Brick houses had 
advanced in number beyond all others, and were now 
three-fifths of all in Cincinnati. Among new public 
edifices were the German Protestant Orphan asylum, the 
Widow's home, sundry school-houses and engine houses, 
the Episcopal church on Sycamore street, and St. John's, 
at the corner of Seventh and Plum, the First and Seventh 
Presbyterian churches, and two hotels. The City hall 
and new court house were projected, the public offices 
being still at the southeast corner of Fourth and Vine 
streets. Fourteen macadamized roads now entered the 
city, with an aggregate length of five hundred and four- 
teen miles; two canals, together with their extensions, 
reaching out five hundred and sixty miles, and twenty- 
one railways, were in the immediate Cincinnati connec- 
tions, in all measuring one thousand seven hundred and 
thirteen miles, with five hundred and eighty-six miles 
more in progress and one thousand and six undertaken. 
The churches of the city numbered ninety-one, with four 

Mr. Charles Cist, writing for his decennial volume 
(Cincinnati in 1851) of the next year, has the following 
paragraph concerning the heterogeneous character of the 
city's population. Although written thirty years ago, it 
is well worth quotation now: 

The population of the city presents many varieties of physiology. 
The original settlers were from various States of the Union; and the 
armies of Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne, during the Indian wars, left 
behind them a still greater variety of persons. The subsequent immi- 
gration, though largely from the Middle and northern Atlantic States, 
has been, in part, from the more southern. In latter years it has been 
composed, still more than from either, of Europeans. The most 
numerous of these are Germans, next Irish; then English, Scotch, and 
Welsh. Very few French, Italians, or Spaniards have sought it out. 
Lastly, its African population, chiefly emancipated slaves and their 
offspring, from Kentucky and Virginia, is large; and although inter- 
marriages with the whites are unknown, the streets show as many mu- 
latto, griffe, and quadroon complexions as those of New Orleans. 
Thusrjthe varieties of national physiology are very great. 

yThis was a cholera year in Cincinnati, one terribly de- 
structive to human life, and resulting in a panic, which 
at one time almost depopulated the city. The number 
of deaths reached the high figure of four thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-two — more than four per cent, of the 
entire population. J The census was taken this year, and 
Mr. Cist says, in nis Cincinnati in 185 1 : "The popula- 
tion returns were further reduced, from the still greater 
numbers put to flight by the approach and arrival of that 
pestilence. For weeks every vehicle of conveyance was 
filled with these fugitives, who, in most cases, did not 
return in time to be included in the enumeration of in- 
habitants." He thought that, but for this drawback, the 
census would have made a return for-the city of not less 
than one hundred and thirty thousand inhabitants. The 
actual figures obtained were, as we have seen, one hun- 
dred and fifteen thousand four hundred and thirty-eight 
— an increase of two hundred and fifty per cent, in ten 
years, against an increase of ninety per cent, from 1830 
to 1840. No other city in the United States exhibited a 
ratio of increase so large, nor was there any other whose 
absolute increase was so great, except only Philadelphia 
and New York 



February 2d, Mr. John C. Avery, one of the earlier 
sheriffs of the county, died at his home in Cincinnati. 

May 3d, the well known hotel keepers, Messrs. Cole- 
man & Reilly, having become lessees of the new Burnet 
house, gave a grand ball by way of house-warming. 

June 18th, officer Peter Davison, of the police force, 
was murdered by John C. Walker. 

On the first of September the house of refuge was 
opened for the reception of inmates. 

The Little Miami railroad depot, at the corner of 
Front and Kilgour streets, was erected this year. 


The American Association for the Advancement of 
Science, then an infant in years, but a strong and vigor- 
ous one, met in the Queen City this year. At the close 
of the session, in seconding a resolution of thanks to the 
good people of the place tor their hospitalities and court- 
esies, Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institute, very 
handsomely said : 

He had heard much of the Great West, much of the Queen City, and 
had come to put his anticipations to the test. He expected to see a 
boundless, magnificent forest world, with the scattered clearings, and 
log cabins, and energetic New-England-descended inhabitants ; he 
thought to find Cincinnati a thriving frontier town, exhibiting views of 
neat wood houses, with white fronts, ' ' green doors, and brass knock- 
ers ;" but instead of this, he found himself in a city of palaces, reared 
as if by magic, and rivaling in appearance any city of the Eastern 
States or of Europe. But it was not things of mere stone, brick, and 
mortar, which pleased him most in the Queen of the West. Imperial 
Rome had her palaces and noble structures, but in her proudest days 
she boasted not of a Mechanics' Institute, an Academy of Natural 
Sciences, a Mercantile Library Association, or a Young Mens' Lyceum 
of Natural History. These are the pride of Cincinnati, these her noblest 
works. Grateful as we ought to be, and are, for the kindness and 
courtesy shown us as members of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, we are more thankful to the Cincinnatians for 
having founded her literary and scientific associations, and for liberally 
opening her treasuries of knowledge to the world. 

Among the many visits to the city in 1851, was that of 
Lord Morpeth, the Right Honorable the Earl of Carlisle, 
whose tour through this country made a great stir in 
social, political, and other circles. In the lectures pro- 
nounced and printed after his return home, he said the 
following of the Queen City : 

I again turned my face to the west, and passed Cincinnati, which, 
together with all that I saw of the State of Ohio, seemed to me the part 
of the Union where, if obliged to make the choice, I should like best to 
fix my abode. It has a great share of the civilization and appliances of 
the old-settled States of the east, with the richer soil, the softer climate, 
the fresher spring of life, which distinguish the west. It had, besides, 
to me the great attraction of being the first free State which I reached 
on my return from the region of slavery ; and the contrast in the ap- 
pearance of prosperity and progress is just what a friend of freedom 
would always wish it to be. One of my visitors at Cincinnati told me 
he remembered when the town only contained a few log cabins ; when 
I was there it had fifty thousand [!] inhabitants. I shall not easily for- 
get an evening yiew from a neighboring hill, over loamy cornfields, 
woody knolls, and even some vineyards, just where the Miami river dis- 
charges its gentle stream into the ample Ohio. 

The city this year had a population of one hundred 
and thirty-two thousand three hundred thirty-three, an 
increase of nearly seventeen thousand upon the census 
of the year before. 

May 23d, Horatio Wells, of the Cincinnati type foun- 
dry, was accidentally shot. 


The population of the city had now mounted to one 
hundred and forty-five thousand five hundred and sixty- 
three, an increase of thirteen thousand two hundred and 
thirty-three, or nearly twelve per cent, upon that of the 
previous year. 

May 4th, the eighteenth anniversary of the Young 
Men's Mercantile Library association was observed with 
much eclat. A poem was recited by Thomas Buchanan 
Read, and the Hon. J. T. Morehead delivered an address 
upon the Growth of Commerce in the West. 

The same day was characterized by a widely different 
transaction — the murder of William Church by Henry 
Le Count, for which the assassin suffered the extreme 
penalty of the law on the twenty-sixth of the ensuing 
December. This was the first private execution under 
the statute requiring privacy, and was in the jail-yard, 
about which surged an immense multitude, while there 
were many onlookers from the windows which com- 
manded a view of the scene. 

This was the year of Kossuth's tour in the United 
States, in the course of which he visited Cincinnati. 
Francis Pulszky, his compatriot and fellow-traveller, 
makes the following notes of the visit, in the book of 
Sketches of American Society published by himself when 
the tour was over. Says Pulszky: 

I preceded Kossuth thither, in order to deprecate on his part all costly 
processions, pageantry and banquets; and as he was exhausted already 
by speeches, I wished to arrange matters so that he should onlv once 
address the multitude, and once those who had formed themselves into 
associations of friends of Hungary. 

But as soon as I was introduced to the committee of arrangements, 
I saw that my diplomacy must fail. Thirty gentlemen belonged to that 
body, and the great question was just under discussion whether, be- 
sides the mayor of the city, it should be the chairman of the city coun- 
cil, or the chairman of the committee of arrangements, who was to 
occupy the carriage with the ' city's guest ' at the festive entry. I do 
not remember how this grave concern was settled; but, of course, it 
was impossible under such circumstances to carry the proposal that no 
procession should be held. Besides, every coterie claimed a separate 
speech; and the result was that Kossuth had to address 'the Big peo- 
ple' of Cincinnati at a banquet, and others again at 'Nixon's hall,' 
and then the ladies and the Northern Germans, and the Southern Ger- 
mans, and the fashionable public at large, and the lower classes at 
large, and likewise the inhabitants of Covington, the suburbs of Cin- 
cinnati on the Kentucky side. 

But this was not the only consequence of the want of homogeneity 
in the population of Cincinnati. Kossuth several times requested the 
members of the committee to allow that he should himself bear his 
own expenses, and that the appropriation made for his entertainment 
by the city council, which had invited him, should be given to the 
Hungarian fund, The committeemen declined to comply with his de- 
sire; it seemed to them mean to do it. We left Cincinnati; and Mr. 
Coleman, the lessee of the Burnet Honse— the splendid hotel in which 
we had been accommodated— presented his bill to the city council. 

Some other remarks of Pulszky's are in better temper : 

American grandiloquence is too well-known. We can scarcely sup- 
press a smile, when every westerner whom we meet, assures us in the 
first moment of our acquaintance, that America is a great country. 
But when we see Cincinnati, with its one hundred and thirty thousand 
inhabitants, its extensive commerce and navigation; the canal connect- 
ing the Ghi with Lake Erie; the railways radiating in every direction 
from this common centre; its schools and colleges; its astronomical 
observatory; its ninety-two churches and chapels; its ten daily papers, 
and its numerous beneficent institutions; and when we remember that 
in 1788 this city was laid out in the wilderness, we must excuse the 
boast of the American. He has full right to pride himself on his nation 
and on its energies. After the difficulties he has surmounted, and with 



the self-confidence they have inspired in him, he does not know the 
limit which could stop his progress. 


Estimated population, one hundred and sixty-five thou- 
sand; other figures report it more specifically at one hun- 
dred and sixty-one thousand one hundred and eighty-six 
— a large increase in either case. 

The city building, between Plum and Qentral avenue, 
on Eighth street, was erected this year, two hundred and 
five feet long and fifty-two feet wide. — The ground and 
park- in front cost sixty thousand dollars, the building 
about twenty-seven thousand dollars. It is still occupied 
by the city offices, though long since insufficient and un- 
fit for their purposes. The park comprises about one 
and a quarter acres. 

On the ninth of December a remarkable criminal 
trial, known in the bar traditions as the " Kissane forgery 
case," came up for hearing and determination. 

Cincinnati had at least one distinguished visitor this 
year, in William Chambers, the renowned Edinburgh au- 
thor and publisher. In the inevitable book that fol- 
lowed he remarked of Cincinnati, among other things : 

Public education being enjoined and liberally provided for by the 
laws of Ohio, the stranger who takes any interest in such matters will 
find in Cincinnati numerous schools worthy of his notice, in which in- 
struction of the best quality is imparted without charge to all pupils 
indiscriminately. Where free education exists in England, it is a 
charity; here it is a right. The natural fruit of a system so exceed- 
ingly bounteous is an educated population, possessing tastes and as- 
pirations which seek a solacement in literature from the materialities of 
every-day life. I do not know that I ever saw a town of its size so well 
provided as Cincinnati with publishers, libraries and reading-rooms. 
The Young Men's Mercantile Library association has a most imposing 
suite of apartments fitted up as a library and reading-room — the num- 
ber of books amounting to fourteen thousand volumes, and the reading 
room showing a display of desks, on which are placed nearly a hundred 
newspapers. Cincinnati is, I believe, also favorably known for its cul- 
tivation of the fine arts; and its exhibition of pictures, at any rate,_ shows 
that its inhabitants do not employ all their time in mere money-making. 
In the cathedral of St. Peter there are some valuable paintings by Eu- 
ropean artists; one, by Murillo, having been a gift from Cardinal Fesch. 


May 5 th, the new superior court was organized, with 
Bellamy Storer, Oliver M. Spencer, and W. Y. Gholson, 
as judges. 

May 26th a citizen named Arrison was murdered by 
means of an infernal machine. 

July 27th is the date of a notable event in the organ- 
ization of the fire department of the city — the public trial 
of the steam fire engine Citizen's Gift, built in Cincinnati 
and paid for by a popular subscription. 

The population is set down this year at one hundred 
and seventy thousand and fifty seven. 


Population one hundred and seventy-two thousand 
three hundred and seventy. Growth is slower, and the 
rate of increase now falls off year by year. 

On Washington's birthday a grand "dramatic festival" 
or performance is given at the National theatre, on Syca- 
more street, for the benefit of the poor. A number of 
well known citizens take part as amateurs; among them 
Charles Anderson, Judge Flinn, William H. Lytle, Wil- 

liam B. Cassily, and Martin B. Coombs. Four thousand 
dollars are realized from the receipts. 

April 5th there is a sharp fight "over the Rhine" be- 
tween the Know Nothings and the Germans. On the 
tenth — city election day — there is a mob in the Elev- 
enth ward, which destroys a ballot-box and scatters the 

June 14th, an accident occurs in the course of excava- 
tion of the Walnut Hills railway tunnel, which kills five 

August 28th, occurs the opening of the Cincinnati, 
Wilmington & Zanesville railroad. 


The estimate of population for this year, which is also 
continued for the next, is one hundred and seventy-four 
thousand. If this statement be correct, or approximate 
correctness, the town was virtually at a stand-still for one 

February 2d, a vote was given by the citizens, author- 
izing the loan of the city's credit to the amount of six 
hundred thousand dollars, to the Ohio & Mississippi rail- 

April 4th, Police Lieutenant Parker loses his life at the 
hands of an assassin. 

May 20th, the Daily Times publishes the names of fif- 
teen residents of Cincinnati, then still surviving, who had 
lived in the city fifty years or more, and were all more 
than seventy years old ; thirteen others had lived here 
thirty to fifty years; forty-three were sixty to seventy years 
old, and had lived here over thirty years ; and thirty-four 
more, not so old, had lived in Cincinnati more than that 
period. The pioneers were largely'of hardy, long-lived 
stock. A number of additional names were sent in by a 
correspondent the next day. 


May 29th, the city council passes an ordinance prohib- 
itory of the sale of liquor on Sunday, by a vote of twenty- 
six to seven. On the twenty-eighth, Jacob W. Piatt dies. 
On the thirtieth, there is great excitement over a fugitive 
slave case, in the course of which the United States mar- 
shal is stabbed, but not killed. 

June 24th, grand railroad excursions start for St. Louis, 
New York, and Boston, to celebrate the opening of the 
Ohio & Mississippi and the Marietta & Cincinnati rail- 

July 2, a very destructive fire occurs, laying in ashes 
Resor's stave factory, Johnston & Meader's furniture 
factory, and other establishments, with a total loss of 
two hundred thousand dollars. On the twenty-second 
occurs the Loefner murder and suicide, in which Nicho- 
las T. Horton also loses his life by the hand of violence. 

A great coal famine prevailed at one. time this year; 
and fuel of no other kind being available in sufficient 
quantity to afford relief, the price of coal rose to seventy- 
five and eighty cents a bushel. All classes, except the 
coal dealers, were much embarrassed by it, and the poor 
suffered terribly, in some cases actually burning furniture, 
partitions, fences, and whatever else was at hand that 
was combustible. In this exigency considerable pres- 


sure was brought to bear upon the city council to vote 
relief — a measure headed by Hon. Benjamin Eggleston, 
then chairman of the finance committee of the council. 
After much opposition a vote of one hundred thousand 
dollars was obtained, not as a gift, but as a fund for use 
in lifting the blockade. A meeting of presidents of all 
the railways leading into Cincinnati was held and ar- 
rangements consummated for the exclusive use of their 
freight trains for a few days in the transportation of coal. 
This soon afforded relief. Deliveries at first were limited 
to three bushels, at twenty-five cents per bushel, which 
represented actual cost; and were increased as larger 
supplies were received. When accounts were finally 
adjusted the balance against the city was very small, 
while a vast amount of good had been done. 

A similar event occurred in 1863; but in this case an 
absolute grant of one hundred thousand dollars was 
made, which was paid out weekly to the needy in small 
sums, chiefly to the families of soldiers in the army. 


An official census, taken this year, gives the city an enu- 
meration of one hundred and seventy-five thousand nine 
hundred and sixty-eight. The original Pike's Opera 
House is erected, to the great delight of the citizens. 
The report of the Superintendent of the Merchant's Ex- 
change says : "The most splendid opera house in the 
whole country has been built. Whole squares have been 
so changed by replacing the old buildings by new as not to 
be recognized, new streets have been opened, and the city 
rapidly extended over the available space on the west." 

February 29th, Captain J. B. Summons, a prominent 
citizen, exchanges time for eternity. 

April 13th, John Mitchell's chair factory is burned, and 
William Gaither accidentally, killed. On the twenty- 
second, Pryor P. Lee, engineer at the Cincinnati Type 
Foundry, was badly hurt by the explosion of an infernal 
machine. A gas explosion also occurred this year in the 
basement of the Radical Methodist Church on Sixth 
street, and a number were severely injured. 

May 9th, Gregory is murdered by Kendall. 

October 21st, Augustus Ward murders John Mortimer. 

The city had a visit this year from the famous English 
poet, Charles Mackay. He devoted to Cincinnati a 
pleasant letter of some length, but it is hardly so interest- 
ing to read as some of the older accounts of travelers. 


The last of Mr. Cist's valuable volumes was published 
this year, under the title of Cincinnati in 1859. We ob- 
tain from it much of the information which follows. He 
estimates the local population at two hundred and twenty- 
five thousand, which must have included all the suburbs, 
since an enumeration before us, purporting to be official, 
places the number of inhabitants at only one hundred and 
seventy-eight thousand three hundred and fifteen. The 
colored population had been reduced from a ratio in 
1840 of one in twenty to one in thirty-seven. The centre 
of population in the United States had approached nearer 
to Cincinnati, the exact centre being a little below Ma- 

The city now had a river front of about six miles, with 
an average depth to the north corporation line of one 
and one-fifth miles. Its area was four thousand five 
hundred and twenty-one acres, of which about one-quar- 
ter, or one thousand one hundred and twenty-six acres in 
the north part, was not subdivided into city lots. This, 
however, was more than made good by the suburbs on 
the east, west, and north, which were almost as com- 
pactly built as the city itself. The number of brick 
buildings, but twenty-two per cent, of the whole in 18 15, 
was now eighty per cent. It was thought that there was 
no city in the world, equal or greater in population, in 
which there was so large a share of resident property- 
holders. A marked improvement in the style of public 
buildings was noted. Among the more recently built 
were Pike's Opera House, then considered the finest 
public building built by private resources in the world, 
the Central Presbyterian church, and the Masonic 
temple. 1 he Carlisle building and Shillito's former store 
are also mentioned in terms of praise; also the compara- 
tively new post office and custom house at the corner of 
Vine and Fourth streets,, and the Marine hospital on the 
corner of Lock and Six'jji."- _, ; "t 

The vine culture had"begn greatly extended within 
twenty miles of the city, two thousand acres being covered 
with vineyards, and four hundred- thousand gallons of 
wine made per year. Cincinnati 'fe'ad become, probably, 
the most extensive manufacturing eity in the country. 
The capital and yearly expenses invested in manufactures 
and mechanical operations were estimated at ninety 
million dollars, with a profit of thirty-three and one-third 
per cent., or thirty million dollars. Forty-five thousand 
persons were engaged in this department of industry, 
while five thousand six hundred were in trade and com- 
merce, handling values of eighty million dollars, upon 
which ten millions were realized, or a profit of twelve and 
one-half per cent. The value of manufactured products 
for the year was one hundred and twelve million, two 
hundred and fifty-four thousand four hundred dollars, 
against fifty-four million, five hundred and fifty thousand . 
one hundred and thirty-four dollars in 1851, and seven- 
teen million, seven hundred and eighty thousand and 
thirty-three dollars ten years before. The average value 
of raw materials was but fifty per cent, of the entire pro- 
duct. The imports of the year were expected to reach 
eighty-five millions, and exports ninety millions, giving a 
"balance of trade" in favor of Cincinnati of five millions. 
The railway lines running into the city now were the 
Little Miami, the Marietta & Cincinnati, the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Cincinnati & Indiana, and 
the Ohio & Mississippi. The place was in full connec- 
tion with three thousand two hundred and thirty-two 
miles of railroad, and four thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-nine miles of connecting lines were under way. 
Near Cincinnati the Dayton & State Line and the Cin- 
cinnati & Indiana Junction were in preparation. 

The city had two banks, one savings bank, eight pri- 
vate banks, and one emigrant and remittance office.' 
Insurance had been largely developed, and there were 
sixteen local companies and forty-three foreign compa- 



nies represented. The higher interests of the community 
had kept pace with the material in their march. In jour- 
nalism, there were nine daily newspapers, twenty-two 
weeklies, six semi-monthlies, thirteen monthlies, and two 
annuals — a very fine exhibit for nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury ago. Much had been done for science, literature, 
and art. The Ohio Mechanics' institute had nine hun- 
dred and fifty .members, and was handsomely lodged in 
its building on the corner of Vine and Sixth. The Cin- 
cinnati Horticultural society's fairs, then held every spring 
and fall, were very popular, and the society was doing a 
good work in its province. A great deal of excellent 
work in astronomy was being done by Professor Mitchel 
and his pupils at the observatory. The Young Men's 
Mercantile Library association had three thousand and 
seventy members, and a collection of nearly twenty thou- 
sand volumes, with an annual circulation of forty-five 
thousand. The feeling toward fine art had been im- 
proved; and Mr. William Wiswell, at No. 70 West Fourth 
street, was devoting the whole lower floor of his building 
to a free art gallery, which had become a familiar resort, 
especially of evenings. 

Education was also far advanced. The public schools 
employed two hundred and seventy-eight teachers, which 
was twice as many as in 1850, and four times as many as 
in 1840. There was sixteen fine school buildings, hold- 
ing about nine hundred pupils apiece; and instruction 
was also given at public expense in the city infirmary and 
the orphan asylum. The Woodward high school had six 
teachers and one hundred and seventy-six pupils; the 
Hughes high school as many teachers and one hun- 
dred and fifty-nine pupils. The lower schools in- 
cluded twenty district, four intermediate, and six night 
district schools. There was also one night high school 
and one normal school. The expense of all for 1858-was 
one hundred and thirty-eight thousand six hundred and 
five dollars. The Roman Catholic parochial schools had 
seventy-eight teachers and seven hundred and seventy- 
five pupils; private schools and academies over one hun- 
dred and fifty teachers and four thousand students. 
The most prominent of these were the Wesleyan Female 
college, the Cincinnati Female seminary, the Mount Au- 
burn Young Ladies' institute, Herron's seminary for 
boys, the English and Classical school, the Law school 
in Cincinnati college, St. Xavier's college, six medical 
colleges, and Bartlett's Commercial college. 

May 6th, the local bar loses one of its prominent mem- 
bers, W. R. Morris, esq., by death. 

May 16th, Johnson & Meader's furniture factory burns 
again, with ten other buildings. 

August 20th, the Dayton and Michigan railroad is 
opened, giving Cincinnati new connections with Toledo 
and Detroit. 

September 29th, the "Little Giant" from Illinois, Hon. 
Stephen A. Douglas, then in training for a nomination to 
the Presidency the next year, visits the city and is warmly 
received by his friends and admirers. 



The former half of this was filled with the prologue, 
the acts, and the epilogue of the great drama of civil war. 
The events of every one of its years, in Cincinnati and 
Hamilton county, that are worthy of public record, re- 
late almost solely to this; and we have but a meagre rec- 
ord besides for this decade. Special chapters will be 
given, directly after these brief notes, to the part which 
Cincinnati played in the enactment of the mighty tragedy. 


The United States census enumerated the total popu- 
lation of the city as one hundred and sixty-one thousand 
and forty-four. The population by wards, as in other 
years, will be found in a table below. 

This was the year of the visit of the Prince of Wales and 
his illustrious party to Cincinnati, in the course of their tour 
through the United States. They came on the special 
invitation of Mayor Bishop, and were of course elegantly 
entertained while here. 

In January came to the Queen City the excursion of 
the legislatures of Kentucky and Tennessee, upon the 
occasion of the completion of the Louisville & Nashville 
railroad, which soon afterwards was to prove so service- 
able to the cause of the Union, in the transportation of 
men and the material of war. The Solons went on to 
Columbus, by way of Xenia, returned to this city by way 
of Dayton, and thence to their homes. 

On the third of March a lamentable accident occurred 
at the new St. Xavier's church, on Sycamore street, in 
the falling of an extensive wall, burying no less than six- 
teen persons in its ruins — a degree of fatality almost, if 
not quite, unequaled in the history of similar accidents. 

April 18th, the Young Men's Mercantile Library asso- 
ciation completed its twenty-fifth year, and celebrated a 
"Silver Festival" in consequence. 

May 2d, a great hurricane sweeps over and through 
Cincinnati, unroofing buildings and inflicting many other 
but mostly petty losses. 

On the twenty -fourth of that month, the street railroads 
were relieved by the council of the per capita tax which 
had theretofore been imposed. 


Three hundred and thirty-six new buildings were put 
up this year — three hundred and nine of brick and stone, 
and twenty-seven of wood. 

January 9th, officers Long and Hallam, of the police 
force, were killed by the Lohrers, father and son. On 
the twenty-fifth Patrick McHugh was hanged for the mur- 
der of his wife. 

In February President-elect Lincoln passed through 
Cincinnati on his way to Washington to be inaugurated. 
Mayor Bishop made . a reception speech, to which Mr. 
Lincoln replied in terms suited to the momentous crisis 
then impending. 

April 13th, comes the news of the bombardment of 
Fort Sumter, awakening intense indignation and the de- 
sire for speedy and adequate punishment of the South for 



its aggressions. Camp Harrison is soon opened for the 
reception of volunteers, on the race-ground near Cummins- 
ville. On the eighteenth, the conflict having fully opened, 
the city council votes two hundred thousand dollars to 
the war fund. 

May ist, a committee of public safety for the city was 
appointed. On the seventeenth, General Robert Ander- 
son, returning from his luckless post at Sumter, was given 
an enthusiastic public reception for his meritorious con- 
duct there. 

June 20th, the Indiana regiments passing through Cin- 
cinnati were fed at the Fifth street market house. 

August 2d, occurred the first reception to the returning 
volunteers of the three months regiments. There was, 
less joy and enthusiasm on the twenty-ninth, when the 
body of Major General Lyon, killed in the battle of Wil- 
son's creek, near Springfield, Missouri, was received with 
military honors. 

September 27th, an uneasy feeling having prevailed for 
some time in regard to possible danger from the direction 
of Kentucky, measures were taken, but not carried to 
completion, to fortify the city. 

October ist, came the first sad sight of the arrival of 
wounded soldiers from the front of battle. 


January 24th marked the greatest height of. another 
tremendous freshet in the Ohio, which reached within Ta 
few feet of the high-water mark of 1832. 

February 17th, was celebrated the glorious victory of 
Fort Donelson. 

March 10th, death of the well known poet, one of 
the most notable ever resident in Cincinnati, W. W. Fos- 
dick. On the 20th a soldiers' home is opened in the 
Trollopean Bazaar. On the 25th a disturbance occurs 
at Pike's opera house, in consequence of a lecture there 
on public affairs by Mr. Wendell Phillips. 

July 1 8th, a state of alarm prevails in the city in con- 
sequence of rebel movements in Kentucky. A raid by 
John Morgan upon the city is expected, and preparations 
are made for defence. On the second a great war meet- 
ing had occurred at the Fifth street market place. 

August nth, citizens and soldiers attend in large num- 
bers the funeral of Colonel Robert L. McCook, murdered 
by guerrillas while riding sick in an ambulance in advance 
of his troops, in southern Tennessee. A bust of heroic 
size was afterwards set up to his memory in Washington 

September 2d, genuine and well-based alarm again pre- 
vails in consequence of the apparent advance on Cincin- 
nati of a rebel force in Kentucky, under Generals Kirby 
Smith and Heath. On the fourth martial law is pro- 
claimed in the city, and before the next day has gone 
the city is full of volunteers. Ample preparations are 
made here and back of Covington for resistance. The 
famous "squirrel hunters'" campaign follows. By the 
fourteenth the alarm is mainly over, and the militia are 
ordered home by the Governor. 

An enumeration of population this year, founded 
upon the school census, the Directory, or some other ba- 

sis of estimates, yields a total of one hundred and eighty- 
four thousand five hundred and seventeen. 


Population this year, by official estimate, one hundred 
and eighty-six thousand three hundred and twenty-nine. 

New Year's Day the great sanitary fair, for the benefit 
of sick and wounded soldiers, was opened, and culmi- 
nated in a magnificent success. Its operations will be 
detailed at some length in the next chapter. 

In January died Mrs. Mary Barr, who had been a res- 
ident of the city since 1809 — fifty-four years. 

April 4th, the order for the re-organization of the State 
militia, under the name of the Ohio National Guard, was 

May 5th, the place of amusement known as the Palace 
Varieties was burned. On the fifteenth of the same 
month, the operations of the first draft for the army be- 
gan in Cincinnati. 

The John Morgan raid through Hamilton county and 
southern Ohio generally, occurs in early July, and creates 
great excitement in Cincinnati. It is made the subject 
of a chapter in part I of this work. 

The Plum street railway depot — four hundred feet by 
sixty-four — was erected this year. 


This year the present Cincinnati, Hamilton, & Dayton 
depot — four hundred by sixty — was put up at the corner 
of Fifth and Hoadly streets, reaching through to Sixth. 

Very little of stirring interest happened this year, 
apart from the events of the war. The principal scenes 
of conflict were now far away — in northern Georgia and 
by the rivers of Virginia — and it was a comparatively 
quiet year for Cincinnati. 

The estimate of population for the year is one hun- 
dred and ninety-three thousand, seven hundred and 


The estimate is increased this year to a round two 
hundred thousand — probably too great, as all the esti- 
mates and professed enumerations thereafter, until the 
official census of 1870, which shows the incorrectness of 
Ihe figures for a number of previous years. 

A liberal system of public improvements was devised 
and entered upon by the city authorities after the close 
of the war, to remedy defects and neglects which were 
inevitable during the continuance of the great struggle. 
It included the present magnificent and costly structures 
occupied by the Cincinnati Hospital, the Workhouse, 
and the House of Refuge. 


Estimate of population, two hundred and ten thou- 
sand, eight hundred and sixty-six. 

January 27th, the police and fire alarm telegraph, for 
which a persistent pressure had been kept up for years, 
was completed and successfully put in operation. 

March 2 2d, the superb opera house erected by Samuel 
N. Pike was destroyed by fire. It had two thousand sit- 
tings, and on the occasion of Christine Nilsson's first 

4^^^ cf.cfcrli^Cr 



appearance in the city, had held three thousand and 
three hundred people. Its destruction recalled the lines 
of Mr. T. Buchanan Read, the poet-artist, to Mr. Pike: 

Who builds a noble temple unto Art, 
And rears it grandly from the head and heart, 
Hath done a noble service, and his name 
Shall live upon the golden roll of Fame. 

April 3d, deceased Mr. M. D. Potter, the senior pro- 
prietor of the Commercial. 

June 8th, a successful swindle was perpetrated upon 
the Third National bank, whereby it lost the sum of 
four thousand five hundred dollars. 

July nth, another calamity happens to the music and 
amusement-loving people of Cincinnati, in the burning 
of the Academy of Music building. 

The cholera visits the city again this year, and with 
terribly destructive effect. The total number of deaths 
from this cause here was two thousand and twenty-eight 
— one in every ninety-five and seventy-four hundredths 
population, or ten and forty-four hundredths in every 
thousand. On the thirteenth of August there are eighty- 
six deaths by cholera. 

August 21st, the splendid Jewish temple, K. K. Benai 
Jeshurun, at the corner of Eighth and Plum streets, was 

December 1st the great Suspension Bridge is at last 
opened to foot travel. 


New Year's day had a very satisfactory celebration for 
the people of Cincinnati and the Kentucky suburbs, in 
the full opening of the suspension bridge to all kinds of 
carriage as well as foot travel. 

April 4th, three criminals, George Goetz, Alexander 
Aulgus, and Samuel Carr, are hanged for the murder of 
James Hughes. 

Estimate of population for the year, two hundred and 
twenty thousand five hundred. This, and the two esti- 
mates which follow in this decade, are greater than the 
official footings of 1870. The new buildings of the year 
counted up one thousand three hundred and seventy- 


Estimate of the population, two hundred and thirty- 
five thousand. The bonded debt of the city was now 
four million five hundred and seven thousand dollars, 
having increased one million forty-seven thousand five 
hundred dollars within a year, during about which time 
had been erected the workhouse and the hospital, the 
greater part of the Eggleston Avenue sewer had been 
laid, and a material increase in the facilities afforded by 
the water-works had been made. The hospital alone, 
which was occupied this year, cost seven hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars. The aggregate estimated value of 
property in the city was eleven million three hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. 

June 1 8th, a great thunder-storm occurred, during 
which several houses in the city were struck by lightning, 
and one burned. 

On the ninth of July the Varieties theatre was the vic- 
tim of the fire-fiend. 

November 4th, a public building, devoted to a very 
different purpose, the Widows' Home, was also burned. 


The estimated population for this year was put in round 
numbers at a quarter of a million — too great, probably, 
by nearly forty thousand. The city now, according to 
Mr. George E. Stevens's book on Cincinnati, from which 
we condense the following statements, was the largest and 
wealthiest inland city in America. Although but eighty 
years old, it had reached a population as great as Phila- 
delphia had after one hundred and sixty years' settle- 
ment, and as New York had in 1833. It was "moving 
steadily and compactly forward to a magnificent future." 
It "is destined to become the focus and mart for the 
grandest circle of manufacturing thrift on this continent, 
the Edinburgh of a new Scotland, the 
Boston of a new New England, the Paris of a new 
France." Mill creek was still the western boundary, but 
the river front was nearly ten miles long, and the north 
line of the city was more than two miles from low-water 
mark. The front margin of the lower plateau, originally 
a steep bank, had been wholly graded down to a gentle 
declivity, and much of the surface drainage of the city 
passed directly into the river. The wholesale business 
was chiefly on Main, Walnut, Vine, Second, and Pearl 
streets; the retail trade on Fourth, Fifth, and Central 
avenue. The great staples of the Cincinnati markets — 
iron, cotton, tobacco, sugar, etc. — were mainly on Front, 
Water, and Second streets. Pearl street was largely oc- 
cupied by dry goods, notions, clothing, and boot and 
shoe stores. Third was then, as now, the Wall street of 
Cincinnati, containing many of the banks, insurance and 
law offices, etc. The city had four magnificent retail 
shopping establishments. Some superb new buildings 
had gone up, including those we have named, and also 
the St. Paul's Methodist Episcopal church, at the corner 
of Seventh and Smith streets. There were in all one 
hundred and nineteen churches. The Tyler-Davidson 
fountain was in progress. The Garden of Eden park had 
been surveyed, and a force was occupied in grading it. 
Large part of the work on the great reservoir in the park 
for the water-works, had been done. A satisfactory in- 
crease had been observed in the numerous branches of 
productive industry followed in the city. The total esti- 
mated value of products for the year was fifty million dol- 
lars. About twenty-five thousand children were in the 
public schools, and twelve thousand more in private and 
parochial schools and seminaries of learning, among which 
were now two theological seminaries. The death rate 
per year was only eighteen and five one-hundredths in 
one thousand of population; and from the single cause 
of consumption only nine and forty-eight one-hundredths 
per cent, of the deaths occurred, against fourteen and 
two one-hundredths in New York city, and fifteen and 
thirty-eight one-hundredths in Philadelphia. The fire 
department was regarded in efficiency as above any other 
on the face of the earth, and the previous year there had 
been a remarkable exemption from destructive fires in 



The first seven months of 1869 were comparatively de- 
void of interesting events. August was characterized by 
several, however. On the third was opened, in the new 
Sinton building, near the Burnet House, the Exposition 
of Textile Fabrics, which pioneered the magnificent series 
of industrial expositions that have since followed. A 
pretty full history of this notable success, and the annual 
fairs succeeding, will be found in another chapter. On 
the thirty-first of the month, a party of fifty-three Cin- 
cinnatians, about one-third of them ladies, and. including 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Buchanan and many other promi- 
nent residents, started on an excursion to California, by 
way of the Indianapolis, Cincinnati & Lafayette, Toledo, 
Wabash & Western, Hannibal & St. Joseph, St. Joseph 
& Council Bluffs, Union Pacific, and Central Pacific 
railroads. The project was started among the members 
of the Chamber of Commerce, the number going limited 
to sixty, and the expense of round-trip tickets to three 
hundred dollars each. Most of the party returned in a 
body October 8th, after an extremely agreeable tour. A 
neat little book was afterwards made of the letters con- 
tributed by a correspondent with the party to the Cin- 
cinnati Commercial. 

On the twentieth of October the College building, on 
Walnut street, was again desolated by fire. The Mer- 
cantile Library suffered much by the flames, water, and 
hasty removal, and other institutions in the structure sus- 
tained serious loss. 

This year occurred the celebrated struggle over the 
Bible reading practised in the public schools. It began 
at a regular meeting of the School Board September 6th, 
in a proposition for the union of the Roman Catholic 
schools with the public schools, and an amendment 
offered to prohibit the oral reading of religious books, in- 
cluding the Bible, before the pupils of the schools. The 
subsequent transactions are detailed in our special chap- 
ter on Education. 



The Queen City found herself, with all her great ad- 
vantages of situation for commercial and other purposes, 
peculiarly and quite unhappily placed at the outset of the 
great war of the Rebellion. Her growth had been largely 
the result of Southern trade; her business connections 
with the South, by river and rail, were extensive and val- 
uable; while her social connections, through the large 
immigration from some of the slave States to Cincinnati, 
in all periods of her history, through the intermarriage 
of many Cincinnatians with Southern families, and 
through interchanges of visits and courtesies, were ex- 
ceedingly numerous and powerful. Mr. Parton says, in 
his little aitid- in the Atlantic Monthly (February, 1863), 
on the "Siege of Cincinnati," that many leading families 
in the city were in sympathy with the Rebellion, and 

that there were few which did not have at least one mem- 
ber in its armies. But, he adds, "the great mass of the 
people knew not a moment of hesitation, and a tide of 
patriotic feeling set in which silenced, expelled, or con- 
verted the adherents of the Rebellion." The old busi- 
ness relations with the South were speedily broken up, 
and the city soon began to reap a great pecuniary harvest 
by the supply of gunboats and military stores in immense 
quantity, and by the various labors incident to the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of camps and the movement 
of troops. 

Cincinnati, by her local situation, had also much cause 
for fear. It was by far the largest and richest city of a 
northern State upon the border of a slave State. By its 
wealth, and the value of the contents of its banks, its 
warehouses, and manufactories, to the Confederacy, as 
well as by its steadfast and abounding loyalty, its -zeal 
and activity in support of the Union cause, the vengeance 
to be wreaked and the prestige to be gained by its fall, it 
offered a standing and very great temptation to the Con- 
federate arms for capture and plunder. The most nota- 
ble facts of its war history are the menace delivered from 
the southward by the rebel generals in the summer of 
1862, and that from the westward and northward by John 
Morgan a year later. Happily, it was delivered from all 
its dangers to the end; but the peril was none the less 
real and palpable during nearly every year, and in many- 
months of the war. It was keenly felt at the dread be- 
ginning; and when, in April, 1861, at the recommenda- 
tion of Captain George B. McClellan, then the young 
president of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad, his friend and 
former comrade, Captain Nathaniel Pope, of the regular 
army, proceeded to Columbus to give military advice to 
Governor Dennison, he had little to suggest except the 
purchase of some big columbiads for the defence of 
Cincinnati, to be mounted upon the hills on the Ohio 
side, since nothing of the kind could be done in Ken- 
tucky, which was then assuming a position of armed neu- 
trality. The Governor, with some reasonable doubts, 
signed the order for the guns, and they were bought; 
but history is silent as to the further part they played in 
the suppression of the Rebellion. 

The position of Kentucky was of eminent importance 
to the safety of Cincinnati, and for some time excited 
great uneasiness, which was measurably relieved by the 
assurance of Judge Thomas M. Key, of the Ohio State 
Senate, who had been sent to interview Governor Ma- 
goffin, that the Kentucky executive dwelt particularly 
upon "his firm purpose to permit nothing to be done 
that could be viewed as menacing the city of Cincinnati." 
The people of the city, however, were by no means dis- 
posed, in consequence of this assurance, to grant any 
concessions to treason. Mr. Reid says, in his "Ohio in 
the War": 

The first note of war from the east threw Cincinnati into a spasm of 
alarm. Her great warehouses, her foundries and machine shops, her 
rich moneyed institutions, were all a tempting prize to the confederates, 
to whom Kentucky was believed to be drifting. Should Kentucky go, 
only the Ohio river would remain between the great city and the needy 
enemy, and there were absolutely no provisions for defense. 

The first alarm expended itself, as has already been seen, in the pur- 



chase of huge columbiads, with which it was probably intended that 
Walnut Hills should be fortified. There next sprang up a feverish 
spirit of active patriotism that soon led to complications. For the citi- 
zens, not being accustomed to draw nice distinctions or in a temper to 
permit anything whereby their danger might be increased, could see 
little difference between the neutral treason of Kentucky to the Govern- 
ment and the more open treason of the seceded States. They accord- 
ingly insisted that shipments of produce, and especially shipments of 
arms, ammunition, or other articles contraband of war, to Kentucky 
should instantly cease. 

The citizens of Louisville, taking alarm at this threatened blow at 
their very existence, sent up a large delegation to protest against the 
stoppage of shipments from Ohio. They were received in the council 
chamber of the city hall, on the morning of April 23d. The city 
mayor, Mr. Hatch, announced the object of their meeting, and called 
upon Mr. Rufus King to state the position of the city and State au- 
thorities. Mr. King dwelt upon the friendship of Ohio for Kentucky 
in the old strain, and closed by reading a letter which the mayor had 
procured from Governor Dennison, of which the essential part was as 
follows : 

"My views of the subject suggested in your message are these: So 
long as any State remains in the Union, with professions of attachment 
to it, we cannot discriminate between that State and our own. In the 
contest we must be clearly in the right in every act, and I think it bet- 
ter that we should risk something than that we should, in the slightest 
degree, be chargeable with anything tending to create a rupture with 
any State which has not declared itself already out of the Union. To 
seize arms going to a State v. hich has not actually seceded, could give 
a pretext for the assertion that we had inaugurated hostile conduct, 
and might be used to create a popular feeling in favor of secession where 
it would not exist, and end in border warfare, which all good citizens 
must deprecate. Until there is such circumstantial evidence as to cre- 
ate a moral certainty of an immediate intention to use arms against us, 
I would not be willing to order their seizure; much' less would I be wil- 
ling to interfere with the transportation of provisions." 

"Now," said Mr. King, " this is a text to which every citizen of Ohio 
must subscribe, coming as it does from the head of the State. I do 
not feel the least hesitation in saying that it expresses the feeling of the 
people of Ohio. " 

But the people of Ohio did not subscribe to it. Even in the meeting 
Judge Bellamy Storer, though very guarded in his expressions, inti- 
mated, in the course of his stirring speech, the dissatisfaction with the 
attitude of Kentucky. "This is no time,'' he said, "for soft words. 
We feel, as you have a right to feel, that you have a governor who can- 
not be depended upon in this crisis. But it is on the men of Kentucky 
that we rely. All we want to know is whether you are for the Union, 
without reservation. Brethren of Kentucky ! The men of the North 
have been your friends, and they still desire to be. But I will speak 
plainly. There have been idle taunts thrown out that they are cowardly 
and timid. The North submits; the North obeys; but beware! There 
is a point which cannot be passed. While we rejoice in your friendship, 
while we glory in your bravery, we would have you understand that we 
are your equals as well as your friends. '' 

To all this the only response of the Kentuckians, through their 
spokesman, Judge Bullock, was ' ' that Kentucky wished to take no part 
in the unhappy struggle; that she wished to be a mediator, and meant 
to retain friendly relations with all her sister States. But he was greatly 
gratified with Governor Dennison 's letter." 

The citizens of Cincinnati were not. Four days later, when their in- 
dignation had come to take shape, they held a large meeting, whereat 
excited speeches were made and resolutions passed deprecating the 
letter, calling upon the governor to retract it, declaring that it was too 
late to draw nice distinctions between open rebellion and armed neu- 
trality against the Union, and that armed neutrality was rebellion to the 
Government. At the close an additional resolution was offered, which 
passed amid a whirlwind of applause : 

' ' Resolved, That any men, or set of men, in Cincinnati or elsewhere, 
who knowingly sell or ship one ounce of flour or pound of provisions, or 
any arms or articles which are contraband of war, to any person or any 
State which has not declared its firm determination to sustain the Gov- 
ernment in the present crisis, is a traitor, and deserves the doom of a 

So clear and unshrinking was the first voice from the great conserva- 
tive city of the southern border, whose prosperity was supposed to de- 
pend on the southern trade. They had reckoned idly, it seemed, who 
had counted on hesitation here. From the first day that the war was 
opened, the people of Cincinnati were as vehement in their determina- 

tion that it should be relentlessly prosecuted to victory, as the people of 

They immediately began the organization of home guards, armed 
and drilled vigorously, took oaths to serve the Government when they 
were called upon, and devoted themselves to the suppression of any 
contraband trade with the southern States. The steamboats were 
watched; the railroad depots were searched; and, wherever a suspi- 
cious box or bale was discovered, it was ordered back to the ware- 

After a time the general government undertook to prevent any ship- 
ments into Kentucky, save such as should be required by the normal 
demands of her own population. A system of shipment-permits was 
established under the supervision of the collector of the port, and pass- 
engers on the ferry-boats into Covington were even searched to see if 
they were carrying over pistols or other articles contraband of war; but, 
in spite of all efforts, Kentucky long continued to be the convenient 
source and medium for supplies to the Southwestern Seceded States. 

The day after the Cincinnati meeting denouncing his course relative 
to Kentucky, Governor Dennison, stimulated perhaps by this censure, 
but in accordance with a policy already formed, issued orders to the 
presidents of all railroads in Ohio to have everything passing over their 
roads in the direction of Virginia or any other seceded State, whether 
as ordinary freight or express matter, examined, and if contraband of 
war, immediately stopped and reported to him. The order may not 
have had legal sanction ; but in the excited state of the public mind it 
was accepted by all concerned as ample authority. The next day 
similar instructions were sent to all. express companies. 

On the other hand, Cincinnati began active efforts to 
supply the northern armies — not only with competent 
officers and brave men, but with clothing, food and 
munitions of war. Some of the earliest contracts for 
uniforms for the State regiments were taken in the city, 
and Miles Greenwood very soon began at his foundries 
the manufacture of field-guns for twelve batteries ordered 
by the State, as also the rifling of old muskets, convert- 
ing them into what became known as "the Greenwood 
rifle," and was in time highly esteemed by the troops. 

At once upon the sounding of the tocsin at Sumter, 
Cincinnati began her generous offers to and sacrifices for 
the Union. The Guthrie Grays and the Rover Guards 
were among the first militia companies of the State 
whose services were tendered to the governor. The lat- 
ter, with the Zouave Guards and the Lafayette Guards, 
both also of Cincinnati, became, respectively, companies 
A, D and E, in the original organization of the Second 
Ohio infantry ; and the former was made the nucleus of 
the Sixth regiment of volunteer infantry. Colonel Lewis 
Wilson, who had promptly resigned the high office of 
chief of police in Cincinnati, to offer his services to the 
government, was made commandant of the Second. 
General Thomas L. Young, since governor of the State 
and member of congress, foreseeing the trouble that was 
coming, offered his aid to General Scott in organizing the 
volunteer forces, twenty-five days before the rebels fired 
on Sumter; and is thus claimed to have been the first 
volunteer from Hamilton county, and very likely from the 
State, unless the lamented President Andrews, of Kenyon 
college, is to be excepted. Other early offers from pat- 
riotic men in various public and private stations, 
were made by thousands; and the entire demand made 
by the Federal government upon the State of Ohio, in 
the first call for troops (two regiments), could have been 
answered in this city alone, as it was by the State at 
large, within twenty-four hours. Enlistments in Cincin- 
nati were hearty and general from all classes. The con- 
tingent of many thousands furnished to the Federal 



armies by Hamilton county was almost wholly Cincin- 
nati's contingent. The earlier Kentucky regiments, fur- 
nished in pursuance of Governor Dennison's noble utter- 
ance after the insolent and treasonable refusal of Governor 
Magoffin, "If Kentucky will not fill her quota, Ohio will 
fill it for her," were largely filled by Cincinnati men. 
One of the local regiments, the Thirty-ninth, furnished 
the largest number of re-enlisted "veterans," five hundred 
and thirty-four, of any Ohio regiment or other command 
of any arm of the service. The first Major General of 
the Ohio militia (McClellan), and one (Joshua H. Bates) 
of the three brigadiers appointed by the governor at 
once after the outbreak of the rebellion, were of the 
Queen City. A remarkable number of the most distin- 
guished of the Union generals were from Cincinnati — 
Major Generals McClellan, Rosecrans, Mitchel and 
Godfrey Weitzel;* Brevet Major Generals R. B. Hayes, 
August Willich, Henry B. Banning, Manning F. Force 
and Kenner Garrard; Brigadier Generals Robert L. Mc- 
Cook, William H. Lytle,* A. Sanders Piatt,* Eliakim P. 
Scammon, Nathaniel McLean, Melancthon S. Wade and 
John P. Slough ; and Brevet Brigadier Generals Andrew 
Hickenlooper, Benjamin C. Ludlow, Israel Garrard,* 
William H. Baldwin, Henry V. N. Boynton, Charles E. 
Brown,* Henry L. Burnet, Henry M. Cist,* Stephen J. 
McGroarty, Granville Moody, August Moor, Reuben D. 
Mussey, George W. Neff, Edward F. Noyes, Augustus C. 
Parry, Durbin Ward and Thomas L. Young. A number 
of the more eminent commanders of Ohio regiments, of 
the lamented dead of the war, were also Cincinnatians — 
as the young Colonel Minor Milliken, Colonels John F. 
Patrick, Frederick C. Jones, William G. Jones and John T. 
Toland. The first governor of Ohio during the rebellion, 
William Dennison, is a native of Cincinnati ; and another 
of the war governors, the redoubtable John Brough, was 
for a time a lawyer and editor in the citv. Hon. Salmon 
P. Chase, the great secretary of the treasury, whose ad- 
ministration of the National finances during the long 
struggle was so efficient that a leader of the rebellion said 
at its close: "It was not your generals that defeated us; 
it was your treasury" — was long a resident of Cincinnati, 
and went to Washington from this city. A host of other 
Cincinnatians, in various civil and military capacities, 
served with usefulness and honor in the terrible crisis. 
Especially useful to the government were the medical 
men of Cincinnati. The first surgeon-general of the 
State appointed by Governor Dennison at the outbreak 
of the war, on the recommendation of McClellan, was 
Dr. George H. Shumard, of the city, though long absent 
from it, engaged in^ geological surveys and otherwise. 
One of the State board of examiners, before whom all 
candidates for appointment as surgeon or assistant surgeon 
in Ohio commands were compelled to pass, was Dr. John 
A. Murphy, of Cincinnati. More than half the entire 
number of "United States Volunteer Surgeons," who 
entered the service independently of special commands, 
and whose addresses are given in "Ohio in the War," 
were Cincinnati men. One of these, Dr. William H. 
Mussey, ultimately became one of the board of medical 

* Natives of Cincinnati. 

inspectors — small in number, but important and influ- 
ential in their duties — who stood next to the surgeon- 
general and his assistant as the ranking medical officers 
of the army. Another, Dr. William Clendenin, became 
assistant medical director of the army of the Cumber- 
land. Another, Dr. Robert Fletcher, won much distinc- 
tion as medical purveyor at Nashville for the great armies 
operating in Tennessee and Georgia. Some of the regi- 
mental surgeons became scarcely less distinguished; as 
Dr. James, of the Fourth Ohio cavalry, who rose to be 
the chief medical officer of the entire cavalry of the 

Within a time astonishingly short, after the outbreak 
of the war, Camp Harrison was established, upon the 
trotting park in the outskirts of Cumminsville, and troops 
began pouring in thither. General William H. Lytle, by 
whom it was selected, was appointed commander of the 
Camp. The Guthrie Grey regiment, ready by the after- 
noon of April 20th, and several other companies, were the 
first to rendezvous there. Colonel Geffroy, of the Gib- 
son House, set to work in town among the ladies of the 
East End, and soon enlisted a large number of them in 
the patriotic work of collecting materials and making up 
underwear for the soldiers in the parlors of his hotel, 
while the ladies of the West End were soon engaged in 
similar work at a private residence. The Cincinnati Aid 
association was organized by the citizens at large, to help 
support the families of soldiers in the field; and the 
Daughters of Temperance also organized an aid society 
of their own. 

A general meeting of Irish citizens was held at Mozart's 
hall April 20th, at which many volunteeted, and a reso- 
lution was passed to raise an Irish regiment, several 
wealthy men present offering to give a thousand dollars 
each for the purpose. It was raised, and became the 
Tenth Ohio infantry. Ex-Mayor R. M. Moore raised 
one company of it. McCook's German regiment was 
raised with great promptitude, elected its field officers on 
the night of the twenty-third, and went to camp the next 
day, after a triumphal march through the city. The Sto- 
rer Rifles were the first company to get arms. It was 
splendidly equipped with Sharp's rifles, the private prop- 
erty of the men. Many home companies were recruited 
for drill and organization, one or two in every ward; and 
by the nineteenth of April it was estimated that at least 
ten thousand were preparing for military service. On 
that day the news of the attack at Baltimore on Feder- 
al troops was received, and the Germans recruiting for 
Cook's regiment paraded the streets amid great enthusi- 
asm. Len Harris, afterwards a colonel and mayor of 
the city, recruited ninety men the first day after the war 
opened. The printers of the city raised a company 
among themselves. The Lafayette Guards, ordered to 
Columbus, took upon the cars two hundred and seven 
men, although eighty-seven men was then the maximum 
of a company. The loyal enthusiasm for enlistment and 
preparation for war was unbounded. The city authori- 
ties voted a quarter of a million dollars from the sinking 
fund for the purposes of the opening conflict, and the 



people saw to it that the American flag was hung from 
every flagstaff and window where it ought to be floating, 
at one time compelling the officer in charge at the Cus- 
tom house to fling it to the breeze, and several times 
obliging masters of steamers to raise aloft the banner of 
of beauty and of glory. After one or two vessels 
from above had gone by without landing, evidently with 
arms and munitions of war for the South, a committe of 
safety was appointed to see that no more such articles 
passed the city. Messrs. Rufus King, Miles Greenwood, 
William Cameron, Joseph Torrence, J. C. Butler, and 
Henry Handy composed the committee. Their efforts 
were cordially, though always judiciously, seconded by 
an excited populace, which was sometimes on the point 
of mobbing suspected steamers or recusant captains. An- 
other committee — Colonel A. E. Jones, C. F. Wilstach, 
and Frederick Meyer — was also appointed to act in con- 
junction with the city authorities in stopping the ship- 
ment of supplies to the rebels; and still another commit- 
tee of safety, consisting of one person from each ward 
and neighboring township, to act as occasion might de- 
mand in concert with the military and municipal author- 
ities. Joint meetings of Cincinnati, Newport, and 
Covington patriots were held — the first of them April 
18th; and no pains or cost was spared to get ready for 
the coming conflict. 

The sanitary condition of the troops sent to the field, 
and compelled to live under conditions widely different 
from those to which they had been accustomed, early- at- 
tracted the attention of philanthropic and patriotic Cin- 
cinnatians, and called for organized effort. The "Cincin- 
nati Branch of the United States Sanitary Commission,'' 
one of the most efficient societies of the kind formed in 
the north, was the first of their deliberations. Its story 
has been simply and pleasantly told in brief in a volume 
narrating the "History of the Great Western Sanitary 
Fair," published in Cincinnati after the culmination of 

that success. 

Soon after the surrender of Fort Sumter, the President and the Sec- 
retary of War were induced by certain gentlemen to issue an order au- 
thorizing them and their associates to co-operate with the Government 
in the relief of sick and wounded soldiers, and to prosecute such inqui- 
ries of a sanitary character as might further the same end. Under this 
authority these parties organized the United States Sanitary Commis- 
sion, and have since elected to that body a few others not originally act- 
ing with them. They also construed their powers as enabling them to 
create a class of associate members, several hundred in number, resid- 
ing respectively in almost every loyal State and territory. The duties 
of these associates, and the extent to which they share the power com- 
mitted to the original members have never been precisely defined. 

Appointments were made as early as May, 1861, of several such as- 
sociate members, resident in Cincinnati; but no organization of a branch 
commission was effected until the succeeding fall. 

Through the instrumentality of Dr. W. H. Mussey, the use of the 
United States marine hospital, an unfurnished building originally in- 
tended for western boatmen, was procured from Secretary Chase, a ' 
board of ladies and gentlemen organized for its management, and the 
house furnished by the donations of citizens, and opened for the recep- 
tion of sick and wounded soldiers in May, 1861. This institution was 
carried on without cost to the Government, all necessary services of 
surgeons and nurses, and all supplies, having been supplied gratuitously 
until August, 1861, when the success of the enterprise induced the Gov- 
ernment to adopt it, and it was taken charge of by the Medical Director 
of the Department.* 

* Mrs. Cadwell became its matron. Her name is a sacred one with 
thousands of soldiers throughout the west. 

The western secretary of the Sanitary Commission having given no- 
tice to the associate members resident in Cincinnati of their appoint- 
ments, the Cincinnati branch was formally organized, at a meeting at 
the residence of Dr. W. H. Mussey, November 27, 1861. Robert W. 
Burnet was elected president, George Hoadly, vice-president, Charles 
R. Fosdick, corresponding secretary, and Henry Pierce, treasurer. 

The body thus created was left almost wholly without instruction or 
specification of powers. It had no other charge than to do the best it 
could with what it could get. It was permitted to work out its own 
fate by the light of the patriotism and intelligence of its members. If 
any authority was claimed over it, or power to direct or limit its action, 
it was not known to the members for nearly two years from the date of 
its organization. 

The steps actually taken, however, were from time to time communi- 
cated to the United States Sanitary Commission at Washington, and by 
them approved. Delegates more than once attended the sessions of 
that body, and were allowed to participate in its action. The Branch 
were requested to print, as one of the series (No. 44) of the publications 
of the Commission, their report of their doings to date of March 1, 
1862 ; and two thousand five hundred copies of the edition were sent to 
Washington for distribution from that point. 

Previous to the organization of this Branch, an address had been is- 
sued by the United States Sanitary Commission to the loyal women of 
America, in which the name of Dr. Mussey was mentioned as a proper 
party to whom supplies might be sent. A small stock had been received 
by him, which was transferred to the Branch, and circulars were at once 
prepared and issued appealing to the means of such useful action as 
might seem open. A Central Ladies' Aid Society in Cincinnati, for 
Cincinnati and vicinity, was organized,* and the cS-operation of more 
than forty societies of ladies in Hamilton county thus secured. This 
society, it is proper to add, continued its beneficial connection with the 
Branch in vigorous activity, furnishing large quantities of supplies of 
every description, for nearly two years, and until the dispiriting effect 
of the change hereafter to be noticed, in the relations of the branch to 
the work of distribution, paralyzed its efforts, and resulted finally in a 
practical transfer of the labors of the ladies to other fields of no less 
patriotic service. 

The camps and hospitals near Cincinnati were subjected to inspec- 
tion, and all necessary relief was furnished. Concert of action was es- 
tablished with the Volunteer Aid Committee, appointed at a public 
meeting of citizens in October, 1861, of whom Messrs. C. F. Wilstach, 
E. C. Baldwin, and M. E, Reeves, were elected members of the Branch. 
Their rooms, kindly furnished free of expense by the School Board, be- 
came its office and depot ; and finally, in the spring of 1862, a complete 
transfer was made of all the stock in the hands of that committee to the 
Cincinnati Branch, and the former body was merged in this. 

Under the stimulus of constant appeals to the public, and by wise use 
of the means received, the confidence of the community having been 
gained, large quantities of hospital and camp supplies, and some money, 
were received, and the members entered with zeal upon the duty of dis- 
tribution. The force which the United States Sanitary Commission 
then had in the West, consisted of the Western Secretary and a few in- 
spectors, who were engaged in travelling from camp to camp, without 
any fixed quarters. The body was not prepared, and did not profess to 
to undertake this duty. 

A serious question soon presented itself to the mind of every active 
member of the Branch whether to prosecute the work of distribution 
mainly through paid agents, or by means of voluntary service. At 
times there had been differences of opinion upon the subject, and some 
of the members have had occasion, with enlarged experience, to revise 
their views. The result of this experience is to confirm the judgment 
that the use of paid agents by such an organization, in such crises, is, 
except to a limited extent, inexpedient. It has been clearly proved that 
voluntary service can be had to a sufficient extent; and such service 
connects the army and the people by. a constantly renewing chain of 
gratuitous, valuable, and tender labors, which many who cannot serve 
in the field esteem it a privilege to be permitted to perform in the sick 
room and the hospital. 

The members of this Branch felt at liberty to pledge publicly, in 
their appeals for contributions, that the work of distribution should be 
done under their personal supervision, subject of course to the control 
of the proper medical officers of the army; and, until late in the au- 
tumn of 1862, they faithfully kept this pledge, and were able to effect, 
as they all believed, a maximum of benefit with a minimum of com- 
plaint. Fault-finding never ceases while the seasons change; but the 

*Of which Mrs. George Carlisle was president, and Mrs. Judge 
Hoadly secretary. All its members were devoted workers. 



finding of fault with the gratuitous services of men well known in a 
community have no power to injure. 

While their labors were prosecuted under this plan, nearly every 
member of the branch was brought into personal contact with the work 
of distribution. They were present on the battle-field of Shiloh. They 
were first at Perryville and Fort Donelson, at which place they inaug- 
urated the system of hospital steamers. They called to their aid suc- 
cessfully the services of the most eminent surgeons and physicians, and 
the first citizens of Cincinnati. They gained the confidence of the 
legislature of Ohio, which made them an appropriation of three thou- 
sand dollars; and of the city council of Cincinnati, who paid them in 
like manner the sum of two thousand dollars; and of the secretary of 
war and the quartermaster general, who placed at their control, at 
Government expense, a steamer, which for months navigated the 
western waters in the transportation of supplies and the sick and 
wounded. They fitted out, in whole or in part, thirty-two such steam- 
ers, some running under their own management, others under that of 
the governor of Ohio, the mayor of Cincinnati, the United States 
sanitary commission and the war department. 

The relief furnished at Fort Donelson by this Branch constituted a 
marked and at the same time a novel instance of their mode of manage- 
ment, which may properly receive more specific mention here, as it 
elicited high praise from the Western Secretary, and the compliment of 
a vote of encouragement from the United States Sanitary Commission. 
In this case a handsome sum was at once raised by subscription among 
the citizens, and the steamer Allen Collier was chartered, loaded with 
hospital supplies and medicines, placed under the charge of five mem- 
bers of the Branch, with ten volunteer surgeons and thirty-six nurses, 
and- dispatched to the Cumberland River. At Louisville the Western 
Sanitary accepted an invitation to join the party. It was also found 
practicable to accommodate on board one delegate from the Columbus 
and another from the Indianapolis Branch Commission, with a farther 
stock of supplies from the latter. The steamer reached Donelson in ad- 
vance of any uther relief agency. Great destitution was found to exist — 
on the field no chloroform at all, and but little morphia, and on the 
floating hospital Fanny Bullitt, occupied by three hundred wounded, 
only two ounces of cerate, no meat for soup, no wood for cooking, and 
the only bread hard bread — not a spoon or a candlestick. Sufferings 
corresponded. Happily the Collier bore an ample stock, and, with 
other parties on a like errand, who soon arrived, the surgeons' task was 
speedily made lighter, and his patients gained in comfort. The Collier 
returned after a short delay, bringing a load of wounded to occupy hos- 
pitals at Cincinnati, which this Branch had meanwhile, under the au- 
thority of General Halleck and with the aid of that efficient and noble 
officer, Dr. John Moore, then Post Surgeon at Cincinnati, procured 
and furnished. 

This was but the beginning of very arduous and extensive services, 
personally and gratuitously rendered by members of this Branch. They 
traveled thousands of miles on hospital steamers, on their errands of 
mercy, and spent weeks and months in laborious service on battle-fields 
and in camps and hospitals. They aided the Government in the estab- 
lishment of eight hospitals in Cincinnati and Covington, and suggested 
and assisted the work of preparing Camp Dennison, seventeen miles 
distant, as a general hospital for the reception of thousands of patients. 
They bought furniture, became responsible for rent and the pay of 
nurses, provided material for the supply-table, hired physicians, and in 
numberless ways secured that full and careful attention to the care and 
comfort of the soldiers which, from inexperience, want of means, or the 
fear of responsibility, would otherwise, during the first and second years 
of the war, have been wanting. 

During the period to which allusion has been made, the United 
States Sanitary Commission had few resources, and those mostly em- 
ployed in proper service at the East, where the members principally re- 
side. This Branch was called on to aid that body, and, to the extent 
of its means, responded. At one time (early in 1862) it was supposed 
impossible to sustain that organization, except by a monthly contribu- 
tion from each of the several branches, continued for six months; and 
this Branch was assessed to pay to that end the sum of two hundred 
and fifty dollars per month for the time specified, which call was met 
by an advance of the entire sum required, viz. : two thousand three 
hundred and seventy-five dollars. This sum, small as it now seems in 
comparison with the enormous contributions of a later date, was then 
considered no mean subsidy by either of the parties to it. 

In May, 1862, the Soldiers' Home of the Branch was established, an 
institution which, since its opening, has entertained with a degree of 
comfort scarcely surpassed by the best hotels in the city, over eighty 
thousand soldiers, furnishing them threehundred and seventy-two thou- 

sand meals. It has recently been furnished with one hundred new iron 
bedsteads, at a cost of five hundred dollars. The establishment and 
maintenance of the home the members of the Cincinnati branch look 
upon as one of their most valuable works, second in importance only to 
the relief furnished by the "sanitary steamers" dispatched promptly to 
the battle-fields, with surgeons, nurses and stores, and with beds to 
bring away the wounded and the sick; and they may, perhaps, be per- 
mitted with some pride to point to these two important systems 6T relief 
inaugurated by them. The necessity for the last mentioned method of 
relief has nearly passed away ; we hope it may soon pass away entirely, 
never to return. The home long stood, under the efficient superintend- 
ence of G. W. D. Andrews, offering food and rest to the hungry and 
wayworn soldier, and reminding us of the kind hearts and loyal hands 
whose patriotic contributions and patient toil, supplementing the aid 
furnished by the Government through the quartermaster and commis- 
sary departments of the army, enabled them to establish it. To this 
aid of a generous and benign government, dispensed with kindness and 
alacrity by the officers who have been at the heads of these departments 
in this city, this institution is indebted, in great measure, for its exist- 
ence and usefulness. 

The importance of perpetuating the names of all soldiers whose lives 
had been or might be sacrificed in the defense of our Government, being 
an anxious concern of many of the members of our commission, and re- 
garded by them as of so much importance, they early resolved that, so 
far as they could control the matter, not only should this be done, but 
that their last resting place should -be in a beautiful city of the dead, 
Spring Grove cemetery. An early interview was had with the trustees, 
who promptly responded to the wishes of the commission, and gratuit- 
ously donated for that purpose a conspicuous lot, near the charming 
lake, of a circular shape, and in size sufficient to contain three hundred 
bodies. In addition thereto, this generous association have interred, 
free of expense for interment, all the soldiers buried there. This lot 
having become occupied, the commission arranged for another of 
similar size and shape nearly, for the sum of one thousand five hundred 
dollars. The subject of the payment of the same having been pre- 
sented to the legislature of Ohio, the members unanimously agreed 
that, as a large proportion of those who were to occupy this ground as 
their last home were the sons of Ohio, it was the proper duty of the 
State to contribute thereto. In accordance therewith, an appropriation 
of three thousand dollars was made for the purpose, subject to the ap- 
proval of His Excellency, Governor Tod. A third circle, of the same 
size and shape, ' adjacent to the others, was therefore secured at the 
same price. The propriety of this expenditure was approved of by the 
governor, after careful examination of the ground and its value. Two 
of these lots have been filled, and the third is in readiness for occupancy, 
should it become necessary. A record is carefully made on the books 
of the cemetery of the name, age, company and regiment, of each sol- 
dier interred there, that relatives, friends and strangers may know, in all 
time to come, that we for whom their lives were given were not un- 
mindful of the sacrifice they had made, and that we properly appreciate 
the obligations we are under to them, for their efforts in aiding to se- 
cure to us and future generations the blessings of a redeemed and re- 
generated country. 

In view of the work of this branch from the commencement, we can 
not but express our heartfelt gratitude to that kind Providence which 
has so signally blessed its efforts, and made the commission instru- 
mental in the distribution of the large amount of donations which have 
been poured into their hands by full and free hearts for the benefit of 
sufferers who are bravely defending our country and our homes. 

It will be seen that one and a half per cent, of the cash receipts from 
the commencement will cover all expenses for clerk-hire, labor, freight, 
drayage, and other incidental matters; and this comparatively small 
expense is, in great measure, owing to the extreme liberality — which 
should here be gratefully acknowledged — of the free use of the tele- 
graph wires, and the free carriage of hundreds of tons of stores by the 
several express companies, railroads and steamboats. 

With all this liberality, our supplies would long since have been ex- 
hausted by the constantly increasing requirements of our soldiers, had 
not the sagacity and enterprise of a number of energetic and patriotic 
gentlemen suggested the idea of and inaugurated the great western 
sanitary fair of this city, the wonderful result of which realized to the 
commission over a quarter of a million of dollars. 

A very large amount of money and sanitary stores was handled by 
this branch of the commission. From the date of its organization to 
August 11, 1864— long before its final work was done— a total of three 
hundred and thirteen thousand, nine hundred and twenty-six dollars 
and thirty cents had come into its treasury, of which there was still on 



hand, in government securities and cash in the bank, the handsome 
remainder of one hundred and twenty-two thousand, nine hundred and 
five dollars and fifteen cents. Nearly three hundred different articles 
had been purchased or received as donations — some of them in great 
quantity — and used in the soldiers' home or local hospitals, or for- 
warded to the troops. Among these "sanitary stores'' were checker- 
boards, solitaire boards, puzzles, "pretzels," and some other things, of 
which people would hardly think in this connection, but which were 
undoubtedly found useful in aiding the prevention or cure of disease. 
The total value of the sanitary supplies distributed by the branch to the 
close of 1863 — about the middle of the war — was not far from a mil- 
lion of dollais. 

The Great Western Sanitary Fair, to which reference is 
made in the foregoing sketch, had its origin in an impulse 
received from the success of a similar fair held in Chica- 
go in October, 1863. As a result of consultations be- 
tween gentlemen of the Sanitary Commission and the 
National Union association, of some agitation through 
the newspapers, and several meetings, a very extensive 
and efficient scheme for such an exposition was set on 
foot. Mr. Reid says: 

Presently the whole city was alive with the enthusiasm of a common 
generous effort. Those who best know the usually staid and undemon- 
strative Queen City unite in the testimony that she was never before so 
stirred through all the strata of her society, never before so warm and 
glowing, for any cause or on any occasion. Churches, citizens' associa- 
tions, business men, mechanics, took hold of the work. Committees 
were appointed, embracing the leading men and the best workers in 
every walk of life throughout the city; meetings of ladies weie held; 
circulars were distributed ; public appeals filled the newspapers. " 

General Rosecrans, who had been temporarily retired 
from service in the field, but had lost none of his popu- 
larity at home, was secured as president of the fair; and 
his appointment and active efforts contributed largely to 
its success. The fair was opened by an address from 
him on the morning of December 21st, and continued 
through the holidays. So extensive were the prepara- 
tions that five different halls and buildings — two of them 
expressly erected for the purpose, in the Fifth and Sixth 
street market spaces — were needed. Mozart and Green- 
wood halls, and the Palace Garden, were the permanent 
buildings occupied. It was a splendid exhibit and bazaar, 
and led, with the public readings, lectures, and other en- 
tertainments gratuitously at the Mozart hall in aid of the 
movement, to "such a lavish expenditure of money as 
the city had never before dreamed of." The cash re- 
ceipts of the enterprise were about two hundred and 
sixty thousand dollars, of which only eight and one-fifth 
per cent, was absorbed in expenses, and the magnificent 
sum of two hundred and thirty-five thousand four hun- 
dred and six dollars and sixty-two cents was poured into 
the treasury of the Branch. This was a larger sum, in 
proportion to population, than was realized from any 
other fair of the kind, except in Pittsburgh and St. Louis, 
which came later and had superior advantages. 

Mr. Reid says of the operations of this Branch : 

The largest and most noted organization in Ohio for the relief of sol- 
diers was, of course, the "Cincinnati Branch of the United States San- 
itary Commission." This body, throughout its history, pursued a policy 
little calculated to advance its own fame — admirably adapted to ad- 
vance the interests of the soldiers for whom it labored. It had but one 
salaried officer, and it gave him but a meagre support for the devotion 
of his whole time. It spent no large funds in preserving statistics and 
multiplying reports of its good works. It entered into no elaborate 
scientific investigations concerning the best sanitary conditions for large 
armies. It left no bulky volumes of tracts, discussions, statistics, eulo- 

gies, and defences — indeed, it scarcely left a report that might satisfac- 
torily exhibit the barest outline of its work. But it collected and used 
great sums of money and supplies for the soldiers. First of any con- 
siderable bodies in the United States, it sent relief to battle-fields on a 
scale commensurate with the wants of the wounded. It was the first 
to equip hospital boats, and it led in the faithful, patient work among 
the armies, particularly in the west, throughout the war. Its guardian- 
ship of the funds committed to its care was held a sacred trust for the 
relief of needy soldiers. The incidental expenses were kept down to 
the lowest possible figure, and were all defrayed out of the interest of 
moneys in its hands before they were needed in the field — so that every 
dollar that was committed to it went, at some time or other, directly to 
a soldier in some needed form. In short, it was business skill and 
Christian integrity in charge of the people's contributions for their men 
in the ranks. . . . The Cincinnati Branch of the Sanitary 
Commission continued to devote its moneys sacredly to the precise pur- 
pose for which they were contributed. At the close of the war many 
thousand dollars were in the treasury. These it kept invested in United 
States bonds, using the interest and drawing on the principal from time 
to time, as it was needed for the relief of destitute soldiers, and specially 
for their transportation to their homes, in cases where other provision 
was not made for them. Three years after the close of the war, it still 
had a remnant of the sacred sum, and was still charging itself as care- 
fully as ever with its disbursement. 

Another most efficient organization, for which Cincin- 
nati became distinguished during the war, was the local 
branch of the United States Christian commission. The 
religious elements in the city had been stirred profoundly, 
and excited to the most ardent patriotism, by the out- 
break of the war. Some of the earliest volunteers for 
military service had been of the city clergy, of whom at 
least one, the Rev. Granville Moody, achieved great dis- 
tinction and a brigadier's commission, and most of the 
Cincinnati pulpits gave forth no uncertain sound in aid 
of the Union cause. On the third of June, in the first 
year of the war, the association of Evangelical ministers 
in the city adopted the following energetic and whole- 
hearted deliverance: 

Deeply grateful to Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, for his past 
mercies to this nation, and particularly noting at this time His gracious 
goodness in leading our fathers to establish and preserve for us a Con- 
stitutional Government unequalled among the Governments of the 
earth in guarding the rights and promoting the entire welfare of a great 
people — we, the Evangelical ministry of Cincinnati, have been led by a 
constrained sense of accountability to Him, the author of all our good, 
and by unfeigned love for our country, to adopt the following state- 
ment : 

We are compelled to regard the Rebellion which now afflicts our land 
and jeopardizes some of the most precious hopes of mankind, as the 
result of a long-contemplated and widespread conspiracy against the 
principles of liberty, justice, mercy, and righteousness proclaimed in 
the word of God, sustained by our constitutional Government, and 
lying at the foundation of all public and private welfare. In the pres- 
ent conflict, therefore, our Government stands before us as representing 
the cause of God and man against a rebellion threatening the nation 
with ruin, in order to perpetuate and speed a system of unrighteous op- 
pression. In this emergency, as ministers of God, we cannot hesitate 
to support, by every legitimate method, the Government in maintain- 
ing its authority unimpaired throughout the whole country and over 
this whole people. 

Among other demonstrations of loyalty, Archbishop 
Purcell had the flag of the Union raised over St. Peter's 
cathedral in Cincinnati and the churches elsewhere in 
his diocese, and throughout the war cast his immense in- 
fluence among his people steadily for the Federal cause. 
After a time the Cincinnati branch of the United States 
Christian commission was organized, and did a noble 
work. It received and disbursed the sum (including 
eight thousand one hundred and forty-four dollars from 
the Cleveland branch) of one hundred and seventeen 



thousand and thirty-three dollars, besides stores to the 
value of two hundred and eighty-nine thousand six hun- 
dred and two dollars, and publications worth three thou- 
sand and twenty-four dollars. The final statement of the 
operations of the branch says: "From the opening of 
the office at No. 57 Vine street, until it closed, an unin- 
terrupted stream of money and stores poured in upon us 
from the patriotic men and women of the west, and espe- 
cially of the State of Ohio. Soldiers' aid societies, and 
ladies' Christian commissions by scores and hundreds, 
kept us supplied with the means to minister largely to 
the comfort and temporal wants of our noble boys in 
blue." Mr. A. E. Chamberlain, of the firm of A. E. 
Chamberlain & Co., served continuously and faithfully 
as president of the branch, and gave office and store room 
without charge. Mr. H. Thane Miller was vice-presi- 
dent; Rev. J. F, Marlay, secretary; Rev. B. W. Chidlaw, 
general agent; and the committee included some of the 
best-known Christian workers and residents of the city. 

The chief events of the war, as most closely related" to 
Cincinnati — the siege of the city and the Morgan raid- 
are narrated in other chapters. We give here only that 
portion of the orders issued by General Cox, under di- 
rection of General Burnside, during the raid of Morgan, 
which more particularly concerned the city: 

Headquarters, District of Ohio, V 
Cincinnati, July 13, 1863. .) 

I. For the more perfect organization of militia of the city of Cin- 
cinnati, the city is divided into four districts, as follows : First district, 
consisting of the First, Third, Fourth, and Seventeenth- wards, under 
command of Brigadier General S. D. Sturgis ; headquarters, Broadway 
hotel. Second district, consisting of Second, Fifth, Sixth, and Four- 
teenth wards, under command of Major Malcolm McDowell ; head^ 
quarters, Burnet house. Third district, consisting of Seventh, Ninth, 
Tenth, and Eleventh wards, under command of Brigadier General Jacob 
Ammen ; headquarters, orphan asylum. Fourth district, consisting- of 
the Eighth, Twelfth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth wards, under command 
of Colonel Granville Moody ; headquarters, Finley Methodist Episcopal 
chapel, on Clinton, near Cutter street. 

II. The independent volunteer companies will report to Colonel 
Stanley Matthews ; headquarters at Walnut street house. 

By command of Brigadier General J. D. Cox. 

G. M. Bascom, 
Assistant Adjutant General. 



In the early days of 1862, a new name was growing at 
once into popular favor and popular fear among the pru- 
dent rebels of the Kentucky border. It was first heard 
of in the achievement of carrying off the artillery be- 
longing to the Lexington company of the Kentucky 
State guard into the confederate service. Gradually it 
came to be coupled with daring scouts by little squads of 
the rebel cavalry, within our contemplative picket -lines 

* From Reid's " Ohio in the War," volume I, chapter 8, by permis- 
sion, with unimportant omissions and slight changes. 

along Green river; with sudden dashes, like the burning 
of the Bacon creek bridge, which the lack of enterprise, 
or even of ordinary vigilance, on the part of some of our 
commanders, permitted; with unexpected swoops upon 
isolated supply-trains or droves of army cattle; with 
saucy messages about an intention to burn the Yankees 
of Woodsonville the next week, and the like. Then 
came dashes within our lines about Nashville, night at- 
tacks, audacious captures of whole squads of guards 
within sight of the camps and within a half a mile of di- 
vision headquarters; the seizure of Gallatin; adroit ex- 
peditions upon telegraph operators, which secured what- 
ever news about the National armies was passing over 
the wires. Then, after Mitchel had swept down into 
northern Alabama, followed incursions upon his rear, 
cotton-burning exploits under the very noses of his 
guards, open pillage of citizens who had been encour- 
aged by the advance of the National armies to express 
their loyalty. These acts covered a wide range of coun- 
try, and followed each' other in quick succession ; but 
they were all traced to John Morgan's Kentucky cavalry, 
and such were their frequency and daring that, by mid- 
summer of 1862, Morgan and his men occupied almost 
as much of the popular attention in Kentucky and along 
the borders as Beauregard or Lee. 

The leader of this band was a native of Huntsville, 
Alabama, but from early boyhood a resident of Kentucky. 
He had grown up to the free and easy life of a slave- 
holding farmer's son, in the heart of the Blue Grass coun- 
try near Lexington ; had become a volunteer for the Mex- 
ican war at the age of nineteen, and had risen to a first 
lieutenantcy; had passed through his share of encoun- 
ters and "affairs of honor" about Lexington — not with- 
out wounds — and had finally married and settled down 
as a manufacturer and speculator. He had lived freely, 
gambled freely, shared in all the dissipations of the time 
and place, and still had retained the early vigor of a pow- 
erful constitution and a strong hold upon the confidence 
of the hot-blooded young men of Lexington. These 
followed to the war; they were horsemen by instinct, 
accustomed to a dare-devil life, capable of doing their 
own thinking in emergencies, without waiting for orders, 
and in all respects the best material for an independent 
-band' of partisan rangers the country has produced. 
They were allied by family connections with many of the 
people of the Blue Grass region, and it could but result 
that, when they appeared in Kentucky — whatever army 
might be near — they found themselves among friends. 

The people of Ohio had hardly recovered from the 
spasmodic efforts to raise regiments in a day for the sec- 
ond defence of the capital, into which they had been 
thrown by the call of the Government, in its alarm at 
Stonewall Jackson's rush through the valley. They were 
now rather languidly turning to the effort of filling out 
the new and unexpected call for seventy-four thousand 
three-years' men. Few had as yet been raised. Here 
and there through the State were the nuclei of form- 
ing regiments, and there were a few arms; but there was 
no adequate protection for the border, and none dreamed 
that any was necessary. Beauregard had evacuated Cor- 

s -Jl^bsort.J'ud.^^''- 


■■■■■ • .,. ■ 



inth; Memphis had fallen; Buell was moving eastward 
toward Chattanooga; the troops lately commanded by 
Mitchel held Tennessee and northern Alabama ; Kentucky 
was mainly in the hands of her home guards, and, under 
the provisions of a State military board, was raising vol- 
unteers for the National army.- 

Suddenly, while the newspapers were trying to explain 
McClellan's change of base and clamoring against BuelPs 
slow advance on Chattanooga, without a word of warning 
or explanation, came the startling news that John Mor- 
gan was in Kentucky ! The dispatches of Friday after- 
noon, the eleventh of July, announced that he had fallen 
upon the little post of Tompkinsville and killed or cap- 
tured the entire garrison. By evening it was known that 
the prisoners were paroled; that Morgan had advanced, 
unopposed, to Glasgow; that he had issued a proclama- 
tion calling upon the Kentuckians to rise; that the au- 
thorities deemed it unsafe to attempt sending through 
trains from Louisville to Nashville. By Saturday after- 
noon he was reported marching on Lexington, and Gen- 
eral Boyle, the commandant in Kentucky, was telegraph- 
ing vigorously to Mayor Hatch at Cincinnati, for militia 
to be sent in that direction. 

A public meeting was at once called, and by nine 
o'clock that evening a concourse of several thousand cit- 
izens had gathered in the Fifth street market-space. 
Meantime more and more urgency for aid had been ex- 
pressed in successive dispatches from General Boyle. In 
one he fixed Morgan's force at two thousand, eight hun- 
dred ; in another he said that Morgan, with fifteen hun- 
dred men, had burned Perryville, and was marching on 
Danville; again, that the forces at his command were 
needed to defend Louisville, and that Cincinnati must 
defend Lexington ! Some of these dispatches were read 
at the public meeting, and speeches were made by the 
mayor, Judge Saffin, and others. Finally, a committee 
was appointed, consisting of Mayor Hatch, Hon. George 
E. Pugh, Joshua Bates, Thomas J. Gallagher, Miles 
Greenwood, J. W. Hartwell, Peter Gibson, and J. B. 
Stallo, to take such measures for organized effort as 
might be possible or necessary. Before the committee 
could organize came word that Governor Tod had or- 
dered down such convalescent soldiers as could be gath- 
ered at Camp Dennison and Camp Chase, and had sent 
a thousand stand of arms. A little after midnight two 
hundred men, belonging to the Fifty-second Ohio, ar- 

On Sunday morning the city was thoroughly alarmed. 
The streets were thronged at an early hour, and by nine 
o'clock another large meeting had gathered in the Fifth- 
street market-space. Speeches were made by ex-Senator 
Pugh, Thomas J. Gallagher, and Benjamin Eggleston. 
It was announced that a battalion made up of the police 
force would be sent to Lexington in the evening. Ar- 
rangements were made to organize volunteer companies. 
Charles F. Wilstach and Eli C. Baldwin were authorized 
to procure rations for volunteers. The city council met, 
resolved that it would pay any bills incurred by the com- 
mittees appointed at the public meeting, and appropri- 
ated five thousand dollars for immediate wants. Eleven 

hundred men — parts of the Eighty-fifth and Eighty-sixth 
Ohio, from Camp Chase — arrived in the afternoon and 
went directly on to Lexington. The police force, under 
Colonel Dudley, their chief, and an artillery company 
with a single piece, under Captain William Glass, of the 
city fire department, also took the special train for Lex- 
ington in the evening. Similar scenes were witnessed 
across the river at Covington during the same period. 
While the troops were mustering, and the excited people 
were volunteering, it was discovered that a brother of 
John Morgan was a guest at one of the principal hotels. 
He made no concealment of his relationship or of his 
sympathy with the rebel cause, but produced a pass from 
General Boyle. He was detained. 

Monday brought no further news of Morgan, and the 
alarm began to abate. Kentuckians expressed the belief 
that he only meant to attract attention by feints on Lex- 
ington and Frankfort, while he should make his way to 
Bourbon county and destroy the long Townsend viaduct 
near Paris, which might cripple the railroad ' for weeks. 
The Secretary of War gave permission to use some can- 
non which Miles Greenwood had been casting for the 
Government, and Governor Morton, of Indiana, fur- 
nished ammunition for them, the Columbus authorities 
having declined to supply it, except on the requisition of 
a United States officer commanding a post. The tone 
of the press may be inferred from the advice of the 
Gazette that "the bands sent out to pursue Morgan" 
should take few prisoners — "the fewer the better." 
"They are not worthy of being treated as soldiers,'' it 
continued; "they are freebooters, thieves, and murder- 
ers, and should be dealt with accordingly." 

For a day or two there followed a state of uncertainty 
as to Morgan's whereabouts or the real nature of the 
danger. In answer to an application for artillery, the 
Secretary of War telegraphed that Morgan was retreating. 
Presently came dispatches from Kentucky that he was 
still advancing. Governor Dennison visited Cincinnati 
at the request of Governor Tod, consulted with the 
"committee of public safety," and passed on to Frank- 
fort to look after the squads of Ohio troops that had 
been hastily forwarded to the points of danger. 

The disorderly elements of the city took advantage of 
the absence of so large a portion of the police force at 
Lexington. Troubles broke out between the Irish and 
negroes, in which the former were the aggressors; houses 
were fired, and for a little time there were apprehensions 
of a serious riot. Several hundred leading property 
holders met in alarm at the Merchants' Exchange, and 
took measures for organizing a force of one thousand 
citizens for special service the ensuing night. For a day 
or two the excitement was kept up, but there were few 
additional outbreaks. 

While Cincinnati was thus in confusion, and troops 
were hurrying to the defense of the threatened points, 
John Morgan was losing no time in idle debates. He 
had left Knoxville, East Tennessee, on the morning of 
the fourth of July; on the morning of the ninth he had 
fallen upon the garrison at Tompkinsville; before one 
o'clock the next morning he had possession of Glasgow; 


ii 4 


by the eleventh he had possession of Lebanon. On the 
Sunday (thirteenth) on which Cincinnati had been so 
thoroughly aroused, he entered Harrodsburgh. Then, 
feigning on Frankfort, he made haste toward Lexington, 
striving to delay reinforcements by sending out parties to 
burn bridges, and hoping to find the town an easy cap- 
ture. Monday morning he was within fifteen miles of 
Frankfort; before nightfall he was at Versailles, having 
marched between three and four hundred miles in eight 

Moving thence to Midway, between Frankfort and 
Lexington, he surprised the telegraph operator, secured 
his office in good order, took off the dispatches that 
were flying back and forth; possessed himself of the 
plans and preparations of the Union officers at Frankfort, 
Lexington, Louisville and Cincinnati; and audaciously 
sent dispatches in the name of the Midway operator, as- 
suring the Lexington authorities that Morgan was then 
driving in the pickets at Frankfort. Then he hastened 
to Georgetown, twelve miles from Lexington, eighteen 
from Frankfort, and within easy striking distance of any 
point in the Blue Grass region. Here, with the union 
commanders completely mystified as to his whereabouts 
and purposes, he coolly halted for a couple of days and 
rested his horses. Then, giving up all thought of at- 
tacking Lexington, as he found how strongly it was garri- 
soned, he decided — as Colonel Duke, his second in com- 
mand, naively tells us in his History of Morgan's Cav- 
alry — "to make a dash at Cynthiana, on the Kentucky 
Central railroad, hoping to induce the impression that 
he was aiming at Cincinnati, and at the same time thor- 
oughly bewilder the officers in command at Lexington 
regarding his real intentions." Thither, therefore, he 
went; and to some purpose. The town was garrisoned 
by a few hundred Kentucky cavalry and some home 
guards, with Captain Glass' firemen-artillery company 
from Cincinnati, in all perhaps five hundred men. These 
were routed after some sharp fighting at the bridge and 
in the streets; the gun was captured, and four hundred 
and twenty prisoners were taken, besides abundance of 
stores-, arms, and two or three hundred horses. At one 
o'clock he was off for Paris, which sent out a deputation 
of citizens to meet him and surrender. By this time the 
forces that had been gathering at Lexington had moved 
against him, under General Green Clay Smith, with 
nearly double his strength; but the next morning he left 
Paris unmolested, and marching through Winchester, 
Richmond, Crab Orchard, and Somerset, crossed \he 
Cumberland again at his leisure. He started with nine 
hundred men, and returned with one thousand two hun- 
dred, having captured and paroled nearly as many, and 
having destroyed all the Government arms and stores in 
seventeen towns. 

Meantime the partially lulled excitement in Cincinnati 
had risen again. A great meeting had been held in 
Court street market-space, at which Judge Hugh J. 
Jewett, who had-been the Democratic candidate for gov- 
ernor, made an earnest appeal for rapid enlistments, to 
redeem the pledge of the government to assist Kentucky, 
and to prevent Morgan from recruiting a large army in 

that State. Quartermaster-General Wright had followed 
in a similar strain. The City Council, to silence doubts 
on the part of some, had taken the oath of allegiance in 
a body. The Chamber of Commerce had memorialized 
the council to make an appropriation for bounties to vol- 
unteers; Colonel Burbank had been appointed military 
governor of the city, in response to a dispatch requesting 
it, from Mayor Hatch and others; and there had been 
rumors of martial law and a provost marshal. The popu- 
lar ferment largely took the shape of clamor for bounties 
as a means of stimulating volunteers. The newspapers 
called on the governor to "take the responsibility,'' and 
offer twenty-five dollars bounty for every recruit. Public- 
spirited citizens made contributions for such a purpose — 
Mr. J. Cleves Short, one thousand dollars, Messrs. Tyler 
Davidson & Co., one thousand two hundred dollars, Mr. 
Kugler, two thousand five hundred dollars, Mr. Jacob 
Elsas, five hundred dollars. Two regiments for service 
in emergencies were hastily formed, which were known 
as the Cincinnati Reserves. 

Yet, withal, the alarm never reached the height of the 
excitement on Sunday, the thirteenth of July, when 
Morgan was first reported marching on Lexington. The 
papers said they should not be surprised any morning to 
see his cavalry on the hills opposite Cincinnati; but the 
people seemed to entertain less apprehension. They 
were soon to have greater occasion for fear. 

For the invasion of Morgan was only a forerunner. It 
had served to illustrate to the rebel commanders the ease 
with which their armies could be planted in Kentucky, 
and had set before them a tempting vision of the rich 
supplies of the "Blue Grass." 

July and August passed in comparative gloom. Mc- 
Clellan was recalled from the Peninsula. Pope was 
driven back from the Rapidan, and after a bewildering 
series of confused and bloody engagements, was forced to 
seek refuge under the defences at Washington. On the 
southwest our armies seemed torpid, and the enemy was 
advancing. In the department in which Ohio was spe- 
cially interested, there were grave delays in the long- 
awaited movement on Chattanooga, and finally it ap- 
peared that Bragg had arrived there before Buell. 

Presently vague rumors of a new invasion began to be 
whispered, and at last, while Bragg and Buell warily 
watched each the other's maneuvers, Kirby Smith, who 
had been posted at Knoxville, broke camp and marched 
straight for the heart of Kentucky, with twelve thousand 
men and thirty or forty pieces of artillery. With the first 
rumors of danger, Indiana and Ohio had both made 
strenuous exertions to throw forward the new levies, and 
Indiana in particular had hastily put in the field in Ken- 
tucky a large number of perfectly raw troops, just from 
the camps at which they had been recruited. 

Through Big Creek and Roger's Gap Kirby Smith 
moved without molestation; passed the National forces 
at Cumberland Gap without waiting to attempt a reduc- 
tion of the place ; and absolutely pushed on into Ken- 
tucky unopposed, till, within fifteen miles of Richmond 
and less than three times that distance from Lexington 



itself, he fell upon a Kentucky regiment of cavalry under 
Colonel Metcalf and scattered it in a single charge. The 
routed cavalrymen bore back to Richmond and Lexing- 
ton the first authentic news of the rebel advance. The 
new troops were hastily pushed forward in utter igno- 
rance of the strength of the enemy, and apparently with- 
out any well-defined plans, and so, as the victorious in- 
vaders came up toward Richmond, they found this force 
opposing them. Smith seems scarcely to have halted, 
even to concentrate his command; but, precipitating the 
advance of his column, upon the raw line that confronted 
him, scattered it again at a charge (August 29th). Gen- 
eral Manson, who commanded the National troops, had 
been caught before getting his men well in hand} A little 
farther back he essayed the formation of another line, and 
the check of the rout; but, while the broken line was 
steadying, Smith again came charging up, and the disor- 
derly retreat was speedily renewed. A third and more 
determined stand was made, almost in the suburbs of the 
town, and some hard fighting ensued ; but the undisci- 
plined and ill-handled troops were no match for their en- 
thusiastic assailants, and when they were this time driven, 
the rout became complete. The cavalry fell upon the 
fugitives; whole regiments were captured, and instantly 
paroled; those who escaped fled through fields and by- 
ways and soon poured into Lexington with the story of 
the disaster. 

Thither now went hurrying General H. G. Wright, the 
commander of the department. A glance at the condi- 
tion of such troops as this battle of Richmond had left 
him, showed that an effort to hold Lexington would be 
hopeless. Before Kirby Smith could get up he evacuated 
the place, and was falling back in all haste on Louisville, 
while the railroad company was hurrying its stock toward 
the Cincinnati end of the road ; the banks were sending 
off their specie ; Union men were fleeing, and the pre- 
dominant rebel element was throwing off all disguise. 

On the first of September General Kirby Smith entered 
Lexington in triumph. Two days later he dispatched 
Heath with five or six thousand men against Covington 
and Cincinnati ; the next day he was joined by John 
Morgan, who had moved through Glasgow and Danville; 
and the overjoyed people of the city thronged the streets 
and shouted from every door and window their welcome 
to the invaders. Pollard, the Confederate historian, says 
the bells of the city were rung, and every possible mani- 
festation of joy was made. A few days later Buell was 
at Nashville, Bragg was moving into Kentucky, and the 
"race for Louisville," as it has sometimes been called, was 
begun. So swift was the rebel rush upon Kentucky and 
the Ohio border ; so sudden the revolution in the aspect 
of the war in the Southwest. 

We have told the simple story of the rebel progress. 
It would need more vivid colors to give an adequate 
picture of the state into which Cincinnati and the sur- 
rounding country were thereby thrown. 

News of the disaster at Richmond was not received in 
Cincinnati until a late hour Saturday night, August 30th. 
It produced great excitement, but the full extent of its 
consequences was not realized. There were soldiers in 

plenty to drive back the invaders, it was argued; only a 
few experienced officers were needed. The sanitary 
commission hastened its shipments of stores towards the 
battle-field, and the State authorities began preparations 
for sending relief to the wounded; while the newspapers 
gave vent to the general dissatisfaction in severe criti- 
cisms on the management of the battle, and in wonders 
as to what Buell could be doing. Thus Sunday passed. 
Monday afternoon rumors began to fly about that the 
troops were in no condition to make any sufficient oppo- 
sition, that Lexington and Frankfort might have to be 
abandoned. Great crowds flocked about the newspaper 
offices and army headquarters to ask the particulars; but 
all still thought that in any event there were plenty of 
troops between the invaders and themselves. By dusk 
it was known that, instead of falling back upon Cincin- 
nati, the troops were retreating through Frankfort to 
Louisville — that between Kirby Smith's flushed regiments 
and the banks and warehouses of the Queen City stood 
no obstacle more formidable than a few unmanned siege 
guns back of Covington, and the easily crossed Ohio 

The shock was profound. But none thought of any- 
thing, save to seek what might be the most efficient 
means of defence. The city council at once met in extra 
session, pledged the faith of the city to meet any expen- 
ses the military authorities might require in the emer- 
gency ; authorized the mayor to suspend all business and 
summon every man, alien or citizen, who lived under 
the protection of the Government, to unite in military 
organizations for its defence ; assured the general com- 
manding the department (General Wright) of their entire 
confidence, and requested him to call for men and means 
to any extent desired, no limit being proposed save the 
entire capacity of the community. 

While the municipal authorities were thus tendering 
the whole resources of the city of a quarter of a million 
people, the commander of the department was sending 
them a general. Lewis Wallace was a dashing young 
officer of volunteers, who had been among the first from 
Indiana to enter the field at the outbreak of the war, 
and had risen to the highest promotion then attainable 
in the army. He was notably quick to take responsibili- 
ties, full of energy and enthusiasm, abundantly confident 
in his own resources, capable of bold plans. When the 
first indications of danger appeared he had waived his 
rank and led one of the raw regiments from his State 
into the field. Then, after being for a short time in 
charge of the troops about Lexington, he had, on being 
relieved by General Nelson, returned to Cincinnati. 
Here the commander of the department seized upon 
him for service in the sudden emergency, summoning 
him first to Lexington for consultation; then, when him- 
self hastening to Louisville, ordered Wallace back to 
Cincinnati, to assume command and defend the town, 
with its Kentucky suburbs. 

He arrived at nine o'clock in the evening. The mayor 
waited upon him at once with notice of the action of the 
city council. The mayors of Newport and Covington 
soon came hurrying over. The few army officers on 



duty in the three towns also reported; and a few hours 
were spent in consultation. 

Then, at 2 a. m., the decisive step was taken, a procla- 
mation of martial law was sent to the newspapers. Next 
morning the citizens read at their breakfast tables — before 
yet any one knew that the rebels were advancing on Cin- 
cinnati, two days in fact before the advance began — that 
all business must be suspended at nine o'clock; that they 
must assemble within an hour thereafter and await orders 
for work; that the ferry-boats should cease plying, save 
under military direction; that for the present the city po- 
lice should enforce martial law; that in all this the princi- 
ple to be adopted was : "Citizens for labor, soldiers for bat- 
tle." It was the boldest and most vigorous order in the 
history of Cincinnati or of the war along the border.* 

"If the enemy should not come after all this fuss,'' 
said one of the general's friends, "you will be ruined." 
"Very well," was the reply; "but they will come, or, if 
they do not, it will be because this same fuss has caused 
them to think better of it." 

The city took courage from the bold course of its gen- 
eral; instead of a panic there was universal congratula- 
tion. "From the appearance of our streets,'' said one of 
the newspapers the next day, in describing the operations 
of martial law, " a stranger would imagine that some pop- 
ular holiday was being celebrated. Indeed, were the 
millenium suddenly inaugurated, the populace could 
hardly seem better pleased." All cheerfully obeyed the 
order, though there was not military force enough present 
to have enforced it along a single street. Every business 
house was closed; in the unexpectedly scrupulous obe- 
dience to the letter of the proclamation, even the street- 
cars stopped running, and the teachers, closing their 
schools, reported for duty. But few hacks or wagons 
were to be seen, save those On Government service. Work- 
ing parties of citizens had been ordered to report to Col- 
onel J. V. Guthrie; companies of citizen soldiers to 
Major Malcolm McDowell. Meetings assembled in every 
ward; great numbers of military organizations were 

*The following is the text of this remarkable order, which practically 
saved Cincinnati: 


The undersigned, by order of Major-General Wright, assumes com- 
mand of Cincinnati, Covington, and Newport. 

It is but fair to inform the citizens that an active, daring, and power- 
ful enemy threatens them with every consequence of war; yet the cities 
must be defended, and their inhabitants must assist in preparations. 
Patriotism, duty, honor, self-preservation, call them to the labor, and it 
must be performed equally by all citizens. 

First. All business must be suspended. At nine o'clock to-day every 
business house must be closed. 

Second. Under the direction of the Mayor, the citizens must, within 
an hour after the suspension of business (ten o'clock A. m.), assemble 
in convenient public places ready for orders. As soon as possible they 
will then be assigned to their work. This labor ought to be that of love, 
and the undersigned trusts and believes it will be so. Anyhow, it must 
be done. The willing shall be properly credited, the unwilling prompt- 
ly visited. The principle adopted is, citizens for the labor, soldiers for 
the battle. 

Third. The ferry-boats will cease plying the river after four o'clock 
A. m., until further orders. 

Martial law is hereby proclaimed in the three cities; but until they can 
be relieved by the military, the injunctions of this proclamation will be 
executed by the police. Lewis Wallace, 

Major General Commanding. 

formed; by noon thousands of citizens in fully organized . 
companies were industriously drilling. Meanwhile, back 
of Newport and Covington, breastworks, rifle-pits, and 
redoubts had been hastily traced, guns had been mounted, 
pickets thrown out. Toward evening a sound of ham- 
mers and saws arose from the landing; by daybreak a 
pontoon bridge stretched from Cincinnati to Covington, 
and wagons loaded with lumber for barracks and material 
for fortifications were passing over. 

In such spirit did Cincinnati herself confront the sud- 
den danger. Not less vigorous was the action of the 
governor. While Wallace was writing his proclamation 
of martial law, and ordering the suspension of business, 
Tod was hurrying down to the scene of danger for con- 
sultation. Presently he was telegraphing from Cincinnati 
to his adjutant-general to send whatever troops were ac- 
cessible without a moment's delay. " Do not wait," he 
added, "to have them mustered or paid — that can be 
done here — they should be armed and furnished ammuni- 
tion." To his quattermaster he telegraphed: "Send five 
thousand stand of arms for the militia of the city, with 
fifty rounds of ammunition. Send also forty rounds for 
fifteen hundred guns (sixty-nine calibre)." To the peo- 
ple along the border, through the press and the military 
committees, he said : 

Our southern border is threatened with invasion. I have therefore 
to recommend that all the loyal men of your counties at once form 
themselves into military companies and regiments to beat back the en- 
emy at any and all points he may attempt to invade our State. Gather 
up all the arms in the county, and furnish yourselves with ammunition 
for the same. The service will be of but few days' duration. The soil 
of Ohio must not be invaded by the enemies of our glorious Govern- 

To Secretary Stanton he telegraphed that he had no 
doubt a large rebel force was moving against Cincinnati, 
but it would be successfully met. The commander at 
Camp Dennison he directed to guard the track of the 
Little Miami railroad against apprehended dangers, as 
far up as Xenia. 

The rural districts were meanwhile hastening to the 
rescue. Early in the day — within an hour or two after 
the arrival of the Cincinnati papers with news of the 
danger — Preble and Butler counties telegraphed offers 
of large numbers of men. Warren, Greene, Franklin, 
and half a score of others, rapidly followed. Before 
night the governor had sent a general answer in this 
proclamation : 

Cincinnati, Septembers, 1862. 
In response to several communications tendering companies and 
squads of men for the protection of Cincinnati, I announce that all 
such bodies of men who are armed will be received. They will repair at 
once to Cincinnati, and report to General Lew Wallace, who will com- 
plete their further organization. Nonebut armed men will be received, 
and such only until the fifth instant. Railroad companies will pass all 
such bodies of men at the expense of the State. It is not desired that 
any troops residing in any of the river counties leave their counties. 
All such are requested to organize and remain for the protection of their 
own counties. David Tod, Governor. 

Before daybreak the advance of the men that were 
thenceforward to be known in the history of the State as 
the "Squirrel Hunters," were filing through the streets. 
Next morning, throughout the interior, church and fire- 
bells rang; mounted men galloped through neighbor- 
hoods to spread the alarm ; there was a hasty cleaning of 



rifles and moulding of bullets and filling of powder-horns 
and mustering at the villages ; and every city-bound train 
ran burdened with the gathering host. 

While these preparations were in progress, perhaps 
Cincinnati might have been taken by a vigorous dash of 
Kirby Smith's entire force, and held long enough for 
pillage. But the inaction for a day or two at Lexington 
was fatal to such hopes. Within two days after the proc- 
lamation of martial law the city was safe beyond per- 
adventure. Then, as men saw the vast preparations for 
an enemy that had not come, they began, not unnaturally, 
to wonder if the need for such measures had been im- 
perative. A few business men complained. Some Ger- 
mans began tearing up a street-railroad track, in revenge 
for the invidious distinction which, in spite of the danger, 
had adjudged the street-cars indispensable, but not the 
lager-beer shops. The schools had unintentionally been 
closed by the operation of the first sweeping proclama- 
tion, and fresh orders had to be issued -to open them; 
bake-shops had been closed, and the people seemed in 
danger of getting no bread ; the drug-stores had been 
closed, and the sick could get no medicines. Such over- 
sights were speedily corrected, but they left irritation.* 

The Evening Times newspaper, giving voice to a senti- 
ment that undoubtedly began to find expression among 
some classes, published a communication which pro- 
nounced the whole movement "a big scare," and ridiculed 
the efforts to place the city in a posture of defense, t 

To at least a slight extent the commander of the De- 
partment would seem to have entertained the same opin- 
ion. After two days of martial law and mustering for the 
defense of the city, he directed, on his return from Louis- 
ville, a relaxation of the stringency of the first orders, and 
notified Governor Tod that no more men from the in- 
terior were wanted. The next day he relieved General 
Wallace of the command in Cincinnati and sent him 
across the river to take charge of the defences; permitted 
the resumption of all business save liquor selling, only re- 
quiring that it should be suspended each afternoon at 

* The following order, issued by the mayor, with the sanction of 
General Wallace, obviated the difficulties involved in the literal suspen- 
sion of all business in a great city : 

First. The banks and bankers of this city will be permitted to open 
their offices from one to two P. M. 

Second. Bakers are allowed to pursue their business. m 

Third. Physicians are allowed to attend their patients. 

Fourth. Employes of newspapers are allowed to pursue their busi- 

Fifth. Funerals are permitted, but only mourners are allowed to 

leave the city. 

Sixth. All coffee-houses and places where intoxicating liquors are 
sold, are to be closed and kept closed. 

Seventh. Eating and drinking-houses are to close and keep closed. 

Eighth. All places of amusement are to close and keep closed. 

Ninth. All drug-stores and apothecaries are permitted to keep open 
and do their ordinary business. 

George Hatch, Mayor of Cincinnati. 

f Within an hour or two after this publication, General Wallace sup- 
pressed the Times; for this article, as was generally supposed, although 
it was subsequently stated that the offensive matter was an editorial re- 
viewing the militaiy management on the Potomac. The zealous loyalty 
of the paper had always been so marked that General Wallace was 
soon made to feel the popular conviction of his having made a grave 
mistake, and the next day the Times was permitted to appear again as 

four o'clock, and that the evenings should be spent in 
drill ; systematized the drain upon the city for labor on 
the .fortifications, by directing that requisitions be made 
each evening for the number to be employed the next 
day, and that these be equitably apportioned among the 
several wards.* 

The day before the issue of this order had witnessed 
the most picturesque and inspiring sight ever seen in 
Cincinnati. From morning till night the streets re- 
sounded with the tramp of armed men marching to the 
defence of the city. From every quarter of the State 
they came, in every form of organization, with every 
species of arms. The "Squirrel Hunters," in their home- 
spun, with powder-horn and buckskin pouch; half-organ- 
ized regiments, some in uniform and some without it, 
some having waited long enough to draw their equip- 
ments and some having marched without them; cavalry 
and infantry ; — all poured out from the railroad depots 
and down toward the pontoon bridge. The ladies of the 
city furnished provisions by the wagon-load; the Fifth- 
street market-house was converted into a vast free eating 
saloon for the Squirrel Hunters; halls and warehouses 
were used as barracks. 

On the fourth of September Governor Tod was able 
to telegraph General Wright : "I have now sent you for 
Kentucky twenty regiments. I have twenty-one more in 
process of organization, two of which I will send you this 
week, five or six next week, and the rest the week after. 
I have no means of knowing what number of 
gallant men responded to my call (on the militia) for the 
protection of Cincinnati; but presume they now count by 
thousands." And the next day he was forced to check 
the movement: 

Columbus, September 5, 1862. 
To the Press: 

The response to my proclamation asking volunteers for the protection 
of Cincinnati was most noble and generous. All may feel proud of the 
gallantry of the people of Ohio. No more volunteers are required for 
the protection of Cincinnati. Those now there may be expected home 
in a few days. I advise that the military organizations throughout the 
State, formed within the past few days, be kept up, and that the mem- 
bers meet at least once a week for drill. Recruiting for the old regi- 
.ments is progressing quite satisfactorily, and with continued effort there 
is reason to believe that the requisite number may be obtained by the 
fifteenth instant. For the want of proper accommodations at this point, 
recruiting officers are directed to report their men at the camp nearest ■ 
their locality, where they will remain until provision can be made for 
their removal. Commanding officers of the several camps will see that 
every facility is given necessary for the comfort of these recruits. 

David Tod, Governor. 

*This order, which was hailed by the business community as sensible 
and timely, and which certainly gave great mitigation to the embarrass- 
ments caused by the suspension of business, was as follows: 

"Headquarters, Department of the Ohio, ) 
"Cincinnati, September 6, 1862. J 
"General Order No. n. 

"The resumption of all lawful business in the city of Cincinnati, ex- 
cept the sale of liquor, is hereby authorized until the hour of four o'clock 
p. M., daily. 

1 'All druggists, manufacturers of breadstuffs, provision dealers, rail- 
road, express and tiansfer companies, persons connected with the public 
press, and all persons doing business for the Government, will be al- 
lowed to pursue their vocations without interruption. 
"By command of Major General Wright. 

"N. H. McLEAN, 
"Assistant Adjutant General and Chief of Staff." 



The exertions at Cincinnati, however, were not 
abated. Judge Dickson, a well-known lawyer of the city, 
of radical Republican politics, organized a negro brigade 
for labor on the fortifications, which did excellent and 
zealous service. Full details of white citizens, three 
thousand per day — judges, lawyers and clerks, merchant- 
prince and day-laborer, artist and artisan, side by side — 
were also kept at work with the spade, and to all pay- 
ment of a dollar per day was promised. The militia 
organizations were kept up; "regiments of the reserve" 
were formed; and drilling went on vigorously. The 
Squirrel Hunters were entertained in rough but hearty 
fashion, and the ladies continued to furnish bountiful 
supplies of provisions. 

Across the river regular engineers had done their best 
to give shape to the hasty fortifications. The trenches 
were manned every night, and after an imperfect fashion 
a little scouting went on in the front. General Wallace 
was vigilant and active, and there was no longer a possi- 
bility that the force under Kirby Smith could take the 

At last the rebel detachment which had marched 
northward under General Heath began to move up as if 
actually intending attack. One or two little skirmishes 
occurred; and the commander of the department, de- 
ceived into believing that now was the hour of his greatest 
peril, appealed hastily to Governor Tod for more militia. 
The governor's response was prompt: 

Columbus, September 10, 1862. 
[To the Press of Cleveland.] 
To the several Military Committees of Northern Ohio: 

By telegram from Major-General Wright, commander-in-chief of 
western forces, received at two o'clock this morning, I am directed to 
send all armed men that can be raised immediately to Cincinnati. You 
will at once exert yourselves to execute this order. The men should be 
armed, each furnished with a blanket, and at least two days' rations. 
Railroad companies are requested to furnish transportation of troops to 
the exclusion of all other business. David Tod, Governor. 

The excitement in the city once more sprang up. 
Every disposition was made for defence, and the attack 
was hourly expected. The newspapers of September 
nth announced that before they were distributed the 
sound of artillery might be heard on the heights of Cov- 
ington; assured readers of the safety of the city, and ex- 
horted all to "keep cool." Business was again sus- 
pended, and the militia companies were under arms. 
The intrenchments back of Covington were filled; and, 
lest a sudden concentration might break through the 
lines at some spot and leave the city at the mercy of the 
assailants, the roads leading to it were guarded, and only 
those provided with passes could travel to or fro, while 
the river was filled with gunboats, improvised from the 
steamers at the wharves. 

But the expected attack did not come. As we now 
know, Kirby Smith had never been ordered to attack, 
but only to demonstrate; and about this very time the 
advance of Buell seemed to Bragg so menacing that he 
made haste to order Smith back to his support. General 
Wallace gradually pushed out his advance a little, and 
the rebel pickets fell back. By the eleventh all felt that 
the danger was over. On the twelfth Smith's hasty re- 
treat was discovered. On the thirteenth Governor Tod 

checked the movement of the Squirrel Hunters, an 
nounced the safety of Cincinnati, and expressed his con- 

On this bright Saturday afternoon the "regiments of 
the reserve'' came marching across the pontoon bridge, 
with their dashing commander at the head of the column. 
Joyfully these young professional and business men 
traced their way through Front, Broadway, and Fourth 
streets to the points where they were relieved from the 
restraints of military service, and permitted to seek the 
pleasures and rest of home. An examination of the 
dockets and daybooks of that eventful fortnight will show 
that the citizens of Cincinnati were absent from their 
usual vocations ; but Monday, the fifteenth, brought again 
to the counting-rooms and workshops the busy hum of 

General Wallace took his leave of the city he had so 
efficiently served in a graceful and manly address : 

To the people of Cincinnati, Newport, and Covington: 

For the present, at least, the enemy has fallen back, and your cities 
are safe. It is the time for acknowledgments: I beg leave to make you 
mine. When I assumed command, there was nothing to defend you 
with, except a few half-finished works and some dismounted guns; yet 
I was confident. The energies of a great city are boundless; they have 
only to be aroused, united and directed. -You were appealed to. The 
answer will never be forgotten. 

Paris may have seen something like it in her revolutionary days, but 
the cities of America never did. Be proud that you have given them 
an example so splendid. The most commercial of people, you sub- 
mitted to a total suspension of business, and without a murmur adopted 
my principle, " citizens for labor, soldiers for battle." 

In coming time strangers, viewing the works on the hills of Newport 
and Covington, will ask, "Who built these intrenchments?" You can 
answer, "We built them." If they ask, "Who guarded them?" you 
can reply, "We helped in thousands." If they inquire the result, your 
answer will be, "The enemy came and looked at them, and stole away 
in the night." 

You have won much honor. Keep your organizations ready to win 
more. "Hereafter be always prepared to defend yourselves. 

Lewis Wallace, 
Major General Commanding. 

He had done some things not wholly wise, and had 
brought upon the people much inconvenience not wholly 
necessary. But these were the inevitable necessities of 
the haste, lack of preparation, and the pressure of the 
emergency. He took grave responsibilities, adopted a 
vigorous and needful policy, was prompt and peremptory 
when these qualities were the only salvation of the city. 
He will be held in grateful remembrance so long as Cin- 
cinnati continues to cherish the memory of those who do 
her service. 

As the regiments from the city were relieved from duty, 
so the Squirrel Hunters were disbanded and sought the 
routes of travel homeward, carrying with them the thanks 
of a grateful populace. 

While the attack was expected, there were many in 
Cincinnati who thought that the enemy might really be 
amusing the force on the front while preparing to cross 
the river at Maysville, above, and so swoop down on the 
city on the undefended side. To the extent of making 
a raid into Ohio at least, such an action was actually en- 
tertained, and was subsequently undertaken by Colonel 
Basil W. Duke, of John Morgan's command, who was 
left to occupy the forces near Cincinnati as long as possi- 
ble after Kirby Smith's withdrawal. He went so far as 



to enter Augusta, on the river above Cincinnati, where he 
was encountered by a determined party of home guards, 
and given so bloody a reception that after a desperate 
little street-fight he was glad to abandon his movement 
and fall back in haste to Falmouth, and thence, soon 
after, toward the rest of the retreating forces. 

Work on the fortifications was prudently continued, 
and some little time passed before the city lapsed into 
its accustomed ways; but the "siege of Cincinnati" was 
over. The enemy was before it about eight days — at no 
time twelve thousand strong. 

As most of those who were in charge of the operations 
during the siege were Cincinnatians, a list of the whole 
is subjoined : 

On the staff of Governor Wallace.— Chief of Staff, Colonel J. C. 
Elston, jr.; Chief of Artillery, Major C. M. Willard; Aid-de-camps, 
Captains James M. Rose, A. J. Ware, jr., James F. Troth, A. G. Sloo, 
G. P. Edgar, E. T. Wallace; Volunteer Aid-de-camps, Colonel J. V. 
Guthrie, Lieutenant Colonel G. W. Neff, Majors Malcolm McDowell, 
E. B. Dennison, Captains James Thompson, A. S. Burt, Thomas 
Buchanan Read, S. C. Erwin, J. J. Henderson, J. C. Belman. 

Negro Brigade, Camp Shaler. — Commander, Judge Dickson; Com- 
missary, Hugh McBirney; Quartermaster, J. S. Hill. 

Fatigue Forces, — In charge, Colonel J. V. Guthrie; Commissary, 
Captain Williamson; Quartermaster, Captain George B. Cassilly. 

Camp Mitchell. — Under Captain Titus. 

Camp Anderson. — Under Captain Storms. 

Camp Shaler, back of Newport. — Under Major Winters. 

River Defence. — In charge, R. M. Corwine; Aid, William Wiswell, 
jr. Men in Mill Creek, Green, Storrs, Delhi, Whitewater, Miami, Co- 
lumbia, Spencer, and Anderson townships subject to orders of above. 

Collection of Provisions. — Committee appointed by General Wal- 
lace: William Chidsey, T. F. Rogers, T. Horton, T. F. Shaw, and A. 
D. Rogers. 

In command of Cincinnati. — Military Commander, Lieutenant Col- 
onel S. Burbank, U. S. A. ; Aid, John B. Caldwell; Provost Marshal, 
A. E. Jones. 

Employment of Laborers for Fortifications. — Hon. A. F. Perry, 
assisted by Hon. Benjamin Eggleston, Charles Thomas, and Thomas 




January was the eventful month of this year. On the 
fifteenth a stone wall at the corner of Third and Elm 
streets fell with destructive effect, crushing buildings and 
burying one or two persons in the ruins. On the seven- 
teenth a remarkably curious storm of thunder and light- 
ning occurred. On the thirtieth Colonel John Riddle, 
ofthe old Cincinnati family, departed this life, followed 
May 2d by Mr. Adam N. Riddle. 

February 19, the Kentucky legislature was given a 
banquet in Cincinnati, to prepossess the members in fa- 
vor of legislation in behalf of the Southern railroad. 
On the twentieth Cavagna's dairy, with valuable blooded 
stock, was burned. 

April 8th, Policeman Sears lost his life by violence, at 
the hands of George Lynch. 

July 9th, George Jaques was killed by a fall from the 
spire of the new St. Paul's Methodist church. 

June 16, the new Saengerfest hall was "opened, and in 
the same, September 6th, the first great industrial exposi- 
tion was formally opened. 

The census of the year developed a population of two 
hundred and sixteen thousand two hundred and thirty- 
nine. Families, forty-four thousand nine. hundred and 
thirty-seven; average number in each family, five and 
four-hundredths persons; dwellings, twenty-four thousand 
five hundred and fifty; persons in each dwelling, aver- 
age, eight and eighty-one hundredths; new structures in 
the county, one thousand and thirty-four; valuation of 
them, two million four hundred thousand five hundred and 
ninety dollars; churches in the county, two hundred and 
twenty-five; church buildings, two hundred and fourteen; 
valuation, five million one hundred and eight thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-nine. The vast majority of 
new structures and churches, of course, belonged to the 
city. . 

The annexations of the year to the corporation of Cin- 
cinnati aggregated twelve and three-fourths square miles. 


Down to and including this year, we have been in- 
debted for many items in these annals to the enterprise 
of the Cincinnati Daily Commercial, which, in its issue 
of January 1, 1872, comprised several columns of notes 
of events in the city, from the beginnings to that date. 
For our annals of the decade we acknowledge indebted- 
ness almost exclusively to such of the local papers as 
have published, at the close of a year or the beginning 
of the next, chronological statements of the ' leading 
events of the twelve-month. 

This year was constructed the fine Odd Fellows' hall, 
on Fourth street, at the northeast corner of Home, built 
at a cost of seventy thousand dollars, exclusive of the 
ground on which it stands. 

Cincinnati was declared a port of entry. 

January 6th, died Dr. Wesley Smead, a leading founder 
of the widows' home and one of the old bankers of the 
city. On the twenty-second the Central Christian church, 
on Ninth street, is dedicated. On the thirtieth, the Cin- 
cinnati Firemen's Relief society is organized. 

February 4th, there was a grand jubilee of the Ger- 
mans throughout the city, over the unification of the 
Fatherland; fifth, the Evangelical Lutheran church, on 
Race street, is dedicated; twenty-first, fire at the Bethel 
— damage fifteen thousand dollars. 

March 17th, death of Colonel William Schillinger, an 
old resident, aged eighty-nine. 

April : 3th, the new bicameral city council holds its first 
meeting, with a board of aldermen and a board of coun- 

May 3d, the United States Distillers' association meets 
at the Burnet house; fifth, fire in Blymyer, Norton & 
Company's factory— loss forty thousand dollars; fifteenth, 
great fire on Sycamore street; Mills, Johnson & Compa- 
ny's whiskey establishment burned out — loss two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, insurance one hundred and 
twenty-one thousand five hundred dollars. 

June 5th, the extensive picnic riot at Parlor Grove; 



twenty-fifth, demonstration by the Catholics, in celebra- 
tion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Pius Ninth's pon- 

July 2d, rededication of St. John's Methodist Episcopal 
church, corner Longworth and Park streets; during the 
month generally, and for some time before and after, 
much agitation on both sides about the observance of 

August 8th, corner stone of new Odd Fellows' hall, cor- 
ner of Fourth and Home streets, laid with imposing cer- 

September 6th, opening of the Second Industrial ex- 
position with great eclat; eighteenth, President Grant 
visits the city; twenty-second, purchase of the Markley 
farm, for water works purposes, voted by the board of 
aldermen; twenty-fourth, laying of corner stone of Church 
of the Atonement (Catholic), on Third street; thirtieth, 
one death from yellow fever. , 

October 5th, dedication of the Tyler-Davidson foun- 
tain; ninth, contribution of one hundred thousand dol- 
lars by the city, and fifty-five thousand one hundred and 
eighty-five by citizens, for relief of sufferers by the Chicago 
fire; twenty-fourth, the board of councilmen ratify the 
purchase of the Markley farm. 

November 26th, dedication of McLean chapel, on 
Ninth street, near Freeman. 

December 23d, first meeting of the "Reunion and Re- 
form" organization, in the college building; twenty-sixth, 
the park commissioners recommend the purchase of Bur- 
net woods for a park. 

The "city has a notable visitor this year in Sir James 
Macaulay, M. A., M. D., of Edinburgh, the editor of the 
Leisure Hour. He gives two interesting and frank, but 
agreeable chapters to Cincinnati, in his book of travels, 
Across the Ferry, subsequently published. We make 
only the following extracts : 

To a traveler going westward, Cincinnati may appear a half-grown, 
half-settled, recent city ; but, coming back upon it as I did from Chi- 
cago, it had a staid, compact, and almost venerable look. Smoke has 
helped to impart this aspect of premature antiquity. It is one of the 
smokiest and ' ' Auld Reekie " like cities in America. The brick-built 
streets have a sombre appearance in the older districts. 

Forty years ago, when Chicago was beginning its existence, Cincin- 
nati had its court house, gaol, college, medical school, museum, public 
library, five classical schools, forty-seven common schools, and twenty- 
five churches, and was a place of great trade and extensive manufac- 

I consider Cincinnati at the present time one of the most "represent- 
ative" and fairly average of the great cities of the States. It is equally 
removed from the condition of the older cities of the east and the south, 
and of the newer cities of the west, such as Chicago or San Francisco. 
Boston and Philadelphia, Charleston and New Orleans, date from old 
British times, and, with Republican institutions, retain the continuity of 
social life and historical tradition from before the War of Independence. 
Cincinnati has sprung up since American nationality began, but has 
existed long enough to acquire all the distinctive features of American 
life and character, both soeial and political. The foreign or immigrant 
element, both Irish and continental, in its population, is larger, and in- 
fluences the affairs of the city in the same ways, and much in the eame 
proportion, as they do the whole Union. The difficulties which Ameri- 
can statesmen have to encounter, in political and social life, from di- 
versities of nationality and of religion, here present themselves in a 
marked manner. Observing this, I saw that in Cincinnati I could 
study the present position and future prospects of the American 
republic better than in most other cities, and therefore prolonged my 
stay beyond the proportion of time required for mere sight-seeing ; in 
which, indeed, there is not much to attract the traveler. 


The total mortality of the city this year was singularly 
large, being five thousand two hundred and nineteen, or 
one in every forty-one and thirty-five hundredths of the 
population. This was due largely, however, to the terri- 
ble devastations of small-pox, which swept off one thou- 
sand one hundred and seventy-nine of the inhabitants. 

Robinson's opera house was built this year, at the 
northwest corner of Ninth and Plum streets, by John 
Robinson, the veteran circus manager. The extensive 
cellar underneath was constructed for the purpose mainly 
of wintering his menagerie, 

February 1st, the national convention for the amend- 
ment of the constitution so as to recognize Christianity, 
met in Cincinnati; on the eleventh, the Christian church 
on Ninth street was dedicated; on the twentieth, the 
Merrell drug mill, on Third street, was burned, with a 
.loss of fifty thousand dollars. 

March 3d, the board of trade rooms, at No. 122 Vine 
street, were opened; on the sixth, six steamers burned 
at the public landing — loss two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars; on the eighteenth, terrible boiler explosion 
at Woods & Conahan's soap-factory, on Central avenue, 
killing two men and three children, and injuring others. 

April 7th, deaths of George Shillito and Colonel 
Henry W. Burdsal; ninth, a sixteen-foot rise in the Ohio 
in twenty-four hours — heavy loss of coal in barges; four- 
teenth, funeral services at Wesley chapel of Rev. M. P. 
Gaddis, and consecration services at St. Peter's of the 
Catholic bishops Dwenger and Gilmour; seventeenth, 
strike and riotous demonstrations of coal shovelers and 
cart drivers; twenty-second, coal exchange organized; 
twenty-sixth, new Odd Fellows' temple on Fourth street 

In May the National Liberal Convention meets at 
Exposition hall, and on the third nominates Horace 
Greeley for President and B. Gratz Brown for Vice Pres- 
ident; nineteenth, robbery and riot at the East End; 
twenty-second, terrible tornado in the eastern suburbs. 

June 4th, reception of the musical composer, Franz 

July 10th, meeting of the National Society of stove 
manufacturers at College hall; fourth, death of Mr. Wil- 
liam Smith, ex-superintendent of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, and editor of the Price Current. 

August 1 6th, first prosecutions in the city under the 
Adair liquor law, creating great sensation among the 
liquor dealers. 

September 2d, death of Mr. Henry J. Miller, ex-pres- 
ident of the Cincinnati Gas and Coke company, at Niag- 
ara Falls; fourth, opening of the Third Industrial Exposi- 
tion; eighth, organization of the Newsboys' and Boot- 
blacks' association; twentieth, visit of Horace Greeley to 
the city, and enthusiastic reception. 

October 5th and 7th, attacks on political processions 
and small riots; eighteenth, Burnet Woods leased by the 

November 8th, the epizootic appears among the horses, 
and thirteenth and fourteenth, the citizens organize to 
drag the fire-engines. 



December 9th, the Bethel fair opened in Exposition 
Hall ; four men killed and others injured by the fall of 
a scaffold at the water works ; twentieth and twenty-sec- 
ond, intensely cold weather — a drunken man freezes to 
death, and several kitchen-range pipes explode, with seri- 
ous results; twenty-eighth, one million two hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars voted to aid the construction of the 
Chesapeake & Cincinnati railroad. 


/The annexations of suburban tracts to the city were 
/substantially completed this year by the admission of 
Columbia February i, 1873, of Cumminsville March 
1 8th, and Woodburn June 9th, all together amounting^ 
to four and one-fourth square miles, and increasing the 
area of the city to fifteen thousand, two hundred and 
sixty acres, or twenty-four square miles. In 1870 it had 
but seven square tpiles, or four thousand, four hundred 
and eighty acres, on which dwelt over two hundred thou 
sand people, making Cincinnati the most densely-crowded 
city in America, and alm ost in the world. __ 

The new Ohio & Mississippi railroad depot, on the 
corner of Mill and Front streets, was erected this year. 

This was the year of the great financial panic follow- 
ing the suspension of the banking-house of Jay Cooke 
& Company, at Philadelphia, in September. Cincinnati 
met the storm bravely, although much suffering was ex- 
pected, especially during the winter, among the families 
of operatives and others thrown out of employment. 
But Mayor Johnston, in his next succeeding message, was 
enabled to present this encouraging view: 

There was a stagnation of business; a large number of public and 
private improvements were suspended. Laborers were thrown out of 
employment, and that expressive term called "hard times ' was every- 
where in vogue. From this state of things, Cincinnati was a sufferer, 
but probably in a less degree than almost any other city. The panic, 
in fact, brought into strong relief the solid capital and comparatively 
small liabilities of our citizens, and we were thus enabled better to 
weather the storm, which was so destructive to other communities that 
were not in our favorable condition. Not only was our wealth tried 
and vindicated, but there was a similar triumphant result on the side of 
charity and humanity. While many of our wealthy citizens were con- 
tributing to relieve, so far as they could, the unfortunate, the municipal 
authorities also took prompt and energetic action. Soup and lodging 
houses were established and placed in charge of a committee of Coun- 
cil, and thereby a large amount of suffering and destitution was relieved 
or prevented. It was also properly deemed advisable that such public 
works as were of an indispensable character should be pushed vigor- 
ously forward, in order to afford the largest amount of employment to 
our laboring population. By these means the winter, which providen- 
tially was a very mild one, was passed without bringing with it that 
misery which was so generally feared and anticipated. With the open- 
ing of spring there is no disagreeable change. Not in several years 
have there been so many building permits applied for as at the present 
time ; and this is one of the best signs of returning prosperity. The 
future has a more promising appearance than was deemed possible a 
few months ago, and I think the indications are not to be mistaken that 
the progress of Cincinnati, in the increase of its wealth and in its gen- 
eral prosperity, will be more marked in the decade now nearly half 
through than at any previous period of its history. 

Epidemic or Asiatic cholera also came this year, to add 
another scourge to the calamities of 1873. The first 
death from this source was reported on the fourteenth of 
June; the last fatal case terminated October 18th. Mean- 
while two hundred and seven persons died of it in the 
city, being one in every one thousand one hundred and 
ninety-three of population, besides some deaths probably 

of this disease^but reported as caused by cholera infan- 
tum, cholera morbus, and acute diarrhoea. These, it was 
noted, were greater in number than the average from such 
reported causes in other years. The Board of Health 
was active and efficient in sanitary precautions for the 
city, in exhortations to citizens and otherwise; but all 
their efforts were unable completely to avert the scourge. 
An interesting and elaborate special report upon Cholera 
in Cincinnati in 1873 was subsequently made by Dr. J. 
J. Quinn, health officer, and is embodied in the annual 
reports of the city for this year. Some deaths from the 
disease also occurred at Carthage, seven miles from the 

This year was comparatively uneventful. January 9th 
four fires occurred in the city within twenty-four hours. 

February 4th the Globe rolling mill was burned, with a 
loss of seventy-five thousand dollars; ninth, the new 
rooms of the McMicken School of Design were formally 
opened; twentieth, the County Infirmary, at Carthage, 
was opened. 

March 12th, the ordinance for the annexation of Cum- 
minsville was adopted by the people; fifteenth, Judge 
Humphrey Leavitt, formerly of the United States Dis- 
trict Court for Southern Ohio, died. 

May 6th, the Musical Festival was hopefully opened; 
ninth, the funeral of Bishop Mcllvaine, who died March 
14th, at Florence, Italy, was attended; sixteenth, the 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children and 
Animals began active operations. 

June 8th, a great fire occurred in coal-oil stores, de- 
stroying one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars' 
worth of property, and turning thirty families out of 
doors; thirteenth, second coal-oil fire, costing thirty-five 
thousand dollars; sixteenth, the cholera appeared in the 

July 1st, five of the street-railway companies consoli- 
dated; twenty-fifth, death of Stephen Molitor, a promi- 
nent German editor; twenty-eighth, the corner-stone of 
the Second Presbyterian church is laid. 

August 14th, Probate Judge William Tilden died at 
Sandusky; seventeenth, death of Major Daniel Gano, for 
many years clerk of the county, from paralysis; twenty- 
eighth, the corner-stone of Mt. Lookout Observatory is 

September 2d, the Cincinnati stock-yards are opened, 
and the Fourth Industrial Exposition. 

October 13th, the City Council appropriates fifteen 
thousand dollars for the relief of the sufferers from yellow 
fever at Memphis, and there is general resumption of 
payments by the banks. 

November 7th, death of Piatt Evans, sr.; one hundred 
thousand dollars city bonds voted for park improvements. 

December 12th, the first contract on the Southern 
railroad is awarded, and the amount allowed by the 
courts to owners of the site of the government building 
is fixed at six hundred and ninety-five thousand one hun- 
dred and thirty-three dollars and sixty-three cents; fif- 
teenth and sixteenth, workingmen's troubles— -a com- 
mittee wait upon the mayor to demand relief, and issues 
a manifesto; second and twenty-third, the adjourned 



session of the State Constitutional Convention meets in 
the Spencer House; twenty-sixth, general strike of en- 
gineers and firemen on the Panhandle railroad. 


January 5th the Zoological Society was organized. On 
the sixth and seventh there were thirty hours of continu- 
ous snowfall, and telegraphic and railway communica- 
tions were mostly suspended. On the nineteenth ten 
thousand dollars' worth of diamond rings was stolen from 
Duhme's jewelry store. On the twentieth the ladies' 
temperance crusade began to awaken general attention. 
On the twenty-ninth the Strobel picture-frame factory 
was destroyed, with a loss of sixty-five thousand dollars. 

In February, a notable religious revival occurred in 
some of the city churches. On the thirteenth the struct- 
ures on the site of the new government building were 
sold. On the twenty-fifth the Public Library building 
was formally dedicated ; oration by the Hon. George H. 

March 5th occurred the first mass meeting of the tem- 
perance crusaders, in Wesley chapel; seventh, the gift by 
Mr. Joseph Longworth of fifty thousand dollars to the 
School of Design; twelfth and sixteenth, visitation of sa- 
loons by temperance ladies, and twenty-seventh, wild ex- 
citement in Fourth street over a temperance prayer- 
meeting ; twenty-eighth, great mass-meeting at Exposition 
Hall in favor of liquor license. 

April 9th, large anti-license meeting at Pike's Opera 
House; 14th to 1 6th, session of the Cincinnati Presby- 
tery, which approves the women's crusade; 1 6th, mass 
meeting at Pike's to promote municipal reform, com- 
mittee of safety appointed; 26th, grand State convention 
at Wesley Chapel, in opposition to liquor licenses, with 
enthusiastic meetings in various churches. 

May 4th, a praying band at a saloon is wet down with 
a hose; nth, one hundred thousand dollars is given to 
the Bethel by David Sinton; 12th, Lanning's planing- 
mill, on Plum street, is burned — loss sixty thousand dol- 
lars; r4th, excitement and mobs occur in the West End 
over the temperance prayer-meetings, and there is a riot on 
Freeman street from this cause the next day ; 1 7th, forty- 
three female crusaders are arrested, and have a prayer- 
meeting in the station house ; 20th, they are dismissed, 
with an admonition by the Police Judge; 28th, another 
municipal-reform mass meeting, at Wesley Chapel. 

June 1st, new building of the Y. M. C. A. dedicated; 
June 4th, reunion of the Pioneers of the Miami Valley. 

July 27th, great flood in Licking river; heavy loss of 
barges and coal. 

August 13th, mass meeting in behalf of temperance at 
Pike's, and another on the 27th to celebrate the defeat of 
the license clause in the new State Constitution; 26th, 
Burnet Woods Park opened to the public. 

September 2d, the Fifth Industrial Exposition opens 
with great eclat; 7th, the Grand Opera House opens ; 
14th, the Grand Hotel opens; 24th, Exposition regatta. 

October 26th, new Mozart Hall opened ; 30th, Dumont 
& Company's machine and boiler works burned — loss 
seventy-five thousand dollars. 

November rst, temperance crusade temporarily re- 
vived ; 6th, Werk's soap and candle factory burns — loss 
two hundred thousand dollars ; 9th, Mr. David Sinton 
gives thirty-three thousand dollars to the Y. M. C. A., 
and the Cincinnati Orchestra gives its first concert ; 20th, 
deaths of S. B. W. McLean, formerly of the Daily En- 
quirer, andof Peter Ehrgott, a prominent German resident. 

December 2d, death of Rev. Charles B. Davidson, 
D.D.; nth, Griffith's planing-mill burned — loss seventy- 
five thousand dollars; 2 2d, general raid of the police 
upon the gamblers ; 29th, the Secretary of the Treasury 
visits Cincinnati ; 30th, death of Judges J. Bryant Walker 
and Jonathan Cilley. 


Some of the events of this year were peculiarly notable. 
September was rich in public events — particularly open- 
ings. On the 7th of that month the Fifth Industrial Ex- 
position was opened ; on the 9th the Cincinnati Base-ball 
Park ; on the 1 8th, the Zoological Garden ; and on the 
27th, the Chester Driving Park, with races. October 3d 
the Hebrew Union College was opened, with exercises in 
the synagogue of Rabbi Wise. January 3d, the Second 
Presbyterian church, on Elm street, was dedicated. On 
the 13th of the same month the Queen City Club selected 
the site for its club-house. March 29th, ground was 
broken on the Kentucky side for the Cincinnati Southern 
Railway bridge. April nth, Mr. W. S. Groesbeck made 
his gift of fifty thousand dollars for free concerts in Bur- 
net Woods Park, and May 17th Mr. R. R. Springer his 
of one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars for the 
Music Hall. November 28th, the fund for the hall neces- 
sary to secure Mr. Springer's gift was raised. At the 
Zoo a unique event occurred March 24th, in the com- 
bat of an escaped lioness and a donkey, in which the 
former was ingloriously defeated. Both have since died, 
and their stuffed skins are fitly mounted in the Carnivora 
House, at the Garden. April 1 7th, an infernal machine 
was exploded in St. Xavier's Catholic church building, in 
course of erection, but without doing serious injury. 
June 1 8th, a slight shock of earthquake was felt at Cin- 
cinnati. In May, a remarkably successful Musical Festi- 
val was held. The greatest fire was that in John Hol- 
land's gold-pen manufactory, which was damaged to the 
amount of one hundred thousand dollars, January 9th. 

An unusual number of noteworthy deaths occurred 
this year, including those of Hon. S. S. L'Hommedieu; 
Father William Taylor, believed by many to have been 
the first male child born in Cincinnati ; Dr. Thomas E. 
Thomas, Professor of Biblical Literature in Lane Semin- 
ary; Rev. C. H. Taylor, D.D., pastor of the Third Pres- 
byterian church ; Rev. Erwin House, another well-known 
clergyman; Judge Bellamy Storer, one of the most 
famous jurists in Ohio ; Judge Robert Moore, formerly 
of the court of common pleas; Benjamin Pine, an old 
pioneer, and Charles Avery, a centenarian ; Robert A. 
McFarland, financial editor of the Daily Enquirer ; Mr. 
George Dominick, a prominent business man ; General 
McKee, and many others. 

A fresh visitation of small-pox added again to the 



customary mortality, some weeks furnishing at least one- 
third of the deaths. The Board of Health exhibited 
great energy and skill in checking and preventing it. 


The centennial year was not signalized by events 01 
commanding importance in the Queen City. 

On the fifth of February a panic occurred at Robinson's 
new opera house, through a false alarm of fire, by which 
several persons were killed, and the whole city put for a 
time in fear. Washington's Birthday was celebrated by 
an important social event, the Continental Costume Re- 
ception. The twenty-eighth of February, Mardi Gras, 
was devoted to a ridiculous street-parade and other 
mummeries, during which Mrs. Mary A. Thornton, one 
of the earliest and oldest residents of the city, was killed 
by falling' from a platform while viewing the procession. 

March 14 a further loan of the city's credit to the 
Southern railroad, to the amount of six million dollars, 
was voted by the citizens. 

May 15 Dom Pedro, emperor of Brazil, visited the 
city. On the twenty-first the Catholic societies had a 
parade, through pouring rain, in honor of Archbishop 
Purcell, whose fiftieth anniversary of accession to the 
priesthood was celebrated two days thereafter. On the 
twenty-sixth a fire occurred at Melodeon hall, destroying, 
with other things, Dubufe's famous painting of the prodi- 
gal son ; loss said to be one hundred and fifty thousand 

April 4 the College Hill Narrow-guage, and June 6 the 
Westwood Narrow-guage railroads were opened to the 

June 14 the National Republican convention met in 
Cincinnati, and on the sixteenth nominated Rutherford 
B. Hayes, a former Cincinnatian, President, and William 
A. Wheeler, of New York, for Vice-President. 

July 4, the Centennial anniversary of National Inde- 
pendence was enthusiastically celebrated. The First 
regiment Ohio national guard went into camp the same 
day at Oakley, and remained three days. 

The remainder of the year was comparatively unevent- 
ful. The necrology of 1876 includes the names of Judge 
William B. Caldwell, deceased March 21, and Judge 
David K. Este, April 1, at the advanced age of ninety- 
one. Mr. John Gerke, an ex-treasurer of Hamilton 
county, also died this year, and Dr. Stephen Bonner, a 
well-known philanthropist of the city. 


This was an average, but not an extraordinary year, 
for the number and importance of its local events. 

On the twelfth of January two steamers, the Calumet 
and the Andes, were sunk in front of the city by the 
breaking up of ice in the Ohio and its tributaries. 

March 25th ex-President Grant reached the city, and 
on the twenty-ninth was honored with a reception by the 
Queen City club, which opened its superb club-house at 
the corner of Seventh and Elm streets with a reception 
on the twentieth of December. 

April 4th, a banquet was given to A T. Goshorn, in 
token of his successful and eminent labors as- director- 

general of the Centennial exhibition. On the twentieth 
the first passenger train passed over the entire length of 
the Cincinnati Southern railroad. Four days afterwards, 
the corner-stone of the new government building was 
laid with due ceremony. 

A vigorous temperance movement, under the lead of 
Francis Murphy, began May 22. 

The Cincinnati & Eastern railroad (narrow guage) was 
opened to travel June 3. 

July 23d the corner-stone of the new structure for the 
Children's home was laid, and on the corresponding day 
of August the McCook monument in Washington park 
was unveiled. 

President Hayes visited the city September 15th, and 
was received with great acclamation. On the fourth of 
the same month the Ohio Archaeological association met 
in Cincinnati, and on the next day the National Anthro- 
pological association. On the twenty-sixth of September 
the Ohio College association opened a three-days' session 
in the hall of the old college building. 

The Caledonian society celebrated its fiftieth anniver- 
sary November 30th. 

The greatest fire of the year occurred December 10th, 
in the burning of the Meader furniture factory, with a 
loss of one hundred thousand dollars. 

Among the dead of 1877 were Mr. and Mrs. Vachel 
Worthington, who died July 7th and September 9th, re- 
spectively; and Mrs. Deborah Sayre, of one of the pio- 
neer families, December 29th. 

There were some labor-strikes this year, and at times a 
great and dangerous excitement prevailed, threatening the 
peace of the city. One extensive strike lasted ten days ; 
but no life was lost nor any property destroyed. The cit- 
izens made up a contribution and bought a Gatling gun, 
which was presented to the police force for use in case of 
an emergency; and one hundred of them were sworn in- 
to service as special policemen, and were on duty for ten 


A yellow-fever year in Cincinnati. The first case was 
that of a merchant from New Orleans, named Hines, at the 
Grand hotel; the last October 9th. A quarantine was or- 
dered August 17th, against all steamers arriving from the 
South, which were to remain five hundred feet below 
Keek's Landing until visited, inspected, and officially per- 
mitted to land. In all thirty-five cases occurred, of which 
but two were those of residents, the others coming from 
abroad. Seventeen of them were fatal. The fever also 
appeared this year at Gallipolis and other points on the 

The notable events of this year, as summarized by the 
daily papers at its close; were as follows, in chronological 
order: January 12th, death of Mrs. Angela Podesta An- 
eta, a native of Italy, aged one hundred and nine years; 
January 2 2d, organization of the Builders' Exchange; 
January 23d, David Sinton gives ten thousand dollars 
to the Bethel; February 17th, assignment of the Catholic 
institute, liabilities one hundred and ninety-six thousand 
dollars; February 17th, death of Hon. Larz Anderson, 
an old, esteemed, and wealthy citizen; March 4th, the 



Miami Valley Savings bank suspended with a deficiency 
of eighteen thousand dollars; March 14th, formal open- 
ing of the Builders' Exchange; April 8th, Music hall 
opened to the public; April 26th, death of Mrs. May A. 
Slough, of a pioneer family, aged seventy-four years; 
May 2d, proposal to grant two million dollars more bonds 
to the Southern railroad defeated, on popular vote, by a 
majority of two hundred and nineteen; May 6th, open- 
ing of the Women's Loan exhibition; May 17th, Ameri- 
can Social Science association meets at Cincinnati; open- 
ing address by the Hon. W. S. Groesbeck; June 5th, the 
Music hall is pronounced a success by the experts; 
June 1 2th, the Republican State convention is held at 
the Music hall; June 15th, death of Dr. O. M. Lang- 
don, Ex-Superintendent of the Longview asylum; June 
1 6th, burning of the Co-operative foundry, loss forty 
thousand dollars; June 20th, first commencement exer- 
cises of Cincinnati university; July 16th, death of Mrs. 
Nancy W. Miller, a pioneer, aged eighty-two years; July 
17th, National Narrow-guage Railroad convention at the 
Highland House; July 2 2d, death of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Yeatman, aged seventy-one years; August 1st, yellow fe- 
ver in the city, two cases, one fatal; September 2d, 
opening of the new store of John Shillito & Company; 
October 14th, opening of the College of music; October 
16th, Fifth annual congress of the Protestant Episcopal 
church, at Pike's Opera House; October 24th, the Wood- 
ward statue unveiled; November 30th, death of Profes- 
sor Arthur Forbriger, Superintendent of drawing in the 
Cincinnati Public schools; December 5th, formal open- 
ing of the Children's home; December 16th, Bodmann 
tobacco factory burned, loss seventy-five thousand dol- 
lars, insurance full; December 22d, funeral at Sedams- 
ville of Mr. Thomas H. Yeatman, of the well-known 
pioneer family; December 29th, completion of one hun- 
dred thousand dollars subscription for Exposition build- 
ings. In the autumn months diphtheria and scarlet fever 
extensively prevailed, with a fatality from the former of 
fifty-eight, and one hundred and eighty-one from the lat- 


The Fire Underwriters of the State met in convention 
at Cincinnati February 12th. On the fifteenth Henri- 
etta Wood, a colored woman kidnapped twenty-six years 
before by Zebulon Ward, opposite Cincinnati, was 
awarded two thousand five hundred dollars damages 
against Ward by the United States court sitting in this 

April 19th a blackguard journalist named Lester A. 
Rose was soundly beaten in the streets by a son of the 
Hon. Alphonso Taft, in punishment for a scurrilous pub- 
lication reflecting upon Judge Taft's domestic relations. 

May 10th a lecture by Henry Ward Beecher in the 
city was made the occasion of a "bread-and-water ban- 
quet" by the Cincinnati Socialists, in memory of a re- 
mark attributed to him. National conventions of A. O. 
H. and Railroad ? Master Mechanics meet in Cincinnati. 

June 1st John King, a crippled newsboy, achieved 
greatness by presenting his library, a valuable collection 
of twenty-five hundred volumes, to the public library. 

July 1st the national convention of music teachers met 
in Cincinnati. On the twenty-first the city issued quar- 
antine edicts against arrivals from Memphis. 

On the fifteenth of September the seventh industrial 
exposition was opened with great eclat; many distin- 
guished persons, including the President and several gov- 
ernors present, and an immense multitude. 

November 7th General Joseph Hooker was buried 
with solemn and imposing obsequies at Cincinnati. 

December 7th a temporary closing of the Sunday 
theatres in the city was effected; on the ninth the last 
rail on the Cincinnati Southern railroad was laid. On 
the eighth of the same month Gaff's stockyards, with nine 
hundred and fifty head of cattle, were destroyed by fire. 

For ninety-two years the annals of Cincinnati, as Cin- 
cinnati, come down — nine decades, and two year's, in part, 
to spare. As an appendix, therefore, to the story of the 
Ninth Decade, we supply the historic notes of 


January 8th, a freshet submerges the northwestern part 
of the city. The next day the treasurer of the produce 
exchange defaults in the amount of thirty-one thousand 
five hundred dollars. On the fifteenth a reception in 
honor of ex-Governor Richard M. Bishop, then just re- 
tired from the executive office, was given at Lytle Hall ; 
sixteenth, Bishop Elder was appointed coadjutor to Arch- 
bishop Purcell; eighteenth, the superior court decides in 
favor of the validity of the street railroad ordinance passed 
by the city council; twenty-first, the National Association 
of Distillers meets at the Burnet house, and the semi- 
centennial reunion of the First Congregational church 

February 6th, the city council passes an ordinance fix- 
ing the price of gas at one dollar and seventy cents per 
thousand feet; nineteenth, the net profit of the Seventh 
Industrial Exposition is announced as twenty thousand 
and forty-two dollars and twenty cents; thirteenth, the 
Cincinnati railroad company receives the right to operate 
the whole Southern railroad; twentieth, the Irish agita- 
tor, Parnell, arrives in the city, and a great meeting is 
held by his countrymen in Music Hall; twenty-third, ex- 
Mayor Robert M. Moore dies; twenty-sixth, the first cot- 
ton reaches the city over the Southern railroad ; twenty- 
ninth, Colonel Enoch T. Carson is appointed chief of 
police, and the public schools celebrate Longfellow's birth- 

March 1st, the free kindergarten for poor children is 
opened in the old Spencer house ; third, the trouble in 
the college of music develops, resulting afterwards in 
the resignation of Theodore Thomas, musical director; 
sixth, the Hamilton county Republican club opens its 
doors, with Judge Taft as president; eighth, the first 
through passenger train from Cincinnati to Chattanooga 
departs; seventeenth, the grand reception and banquet 
in honor of the opening of the Southern railroad is given 
to three thousand Southerners; twenty-second, a formida- 
ble strike of cigar makers ends ; twenty-ninth, the fair for 
the benefit of the Widows' Home opens. 

April 5 th, the fortieth anniversary of the Union Bethel 



is celebrated; sixteenth, a destructive wind and rain storm 
occurs in the Ohio valley; nineteenth, the total receipts 
of the'Widows' Home fair are announced as thirty thou- 
sand five hundred and twenty-four dollars and three cents; 
twentieth, the new board of health is organized; thirtieth, 
the Methodist Episcopal quadrennial conference opens in 
Pike's opera house. 

May 4th, John Short, millionaire, dies; fifth, the Pot- 
tery club gives its first reception; ninth, the German 
Protestant Orphan Asylum gets its semi-annual benefit, 
with receipts two thousand five hundred and sixteen 
dollars and eighty-five cents; twentieth, the Methodist 
conference votes, by two hundred and twenty-nine to one 
hundred and thirty-nine, that the denomination shall not 
have a colored bishop ; twenty-fourth, the conference lays 
on the table the question of lay representation; twenty- 
seventh, the profits of the May musical festival are four- 
teen thousand three hundred and fifty-seven dollars and 
seventy-eight cents; twenty-eighth, the cooperage com- 
pany is burned out, losing fifty thousand dollars, and four 
hundred men being thrown out of employment. 

June 6th, the affairs of the Consolidated Street Car 
railroad company are wound up, and the Street rail- 
road company begins operations, with a capital of four 
and a half millions; ninth, the exhibition of the school 
of art and design opens; on the nineteenth, the Sunday- 
schools celebrate the Robert Raikes centennial at Music 
Hall; twenty-first, the two leading English evening papers, 
the Times and the Star, consolidate under the name of 
Times-Star; twenty-second, the National Democratic 
convention opens at Union Hall, and on the twenty- 
fourth nominates General Hancock for President and W. 
E. English for Vice-President; twenty-ninth, George M. 
Herancourt, the oldest brewer in the city, dies, leaving a 
a fortune of one million dollars. 

July 1 st, the Cincinnati Northern railroad company is 
organized, to complete and operate the Miami Valley 
Narrow-gauge road; fourteenth, Henry Resting, the 
heaviest man in the city, dies; thirty-first, the county 
commissioners authorized the issue of fifteen thousand 
dollars in bonds, in aid of the county Agricultural society. 

August 1 6th, the elephant "Hatnee" arrives at the Zoo- 
logical gardens ; twenty-fourth, the annual convention of 
deaf mutes is held at the Highland house, and the State 
tournament of Ohio archers occurs at the Zoo; twenty- 
seventh, the College Hill club wins the championship at 
this tournament. 

September 7th, the old-time telegraphers have a reun- 
ion in the city ; eighth, the annual Industrial Exposition 
opens, and Mr. Charles W. West offers one hundred and 
fifty dollars toward the founding of an art museum; tenth, 
Hon. William M. Corry dies; fifteenth, Thomas LeBou- 
tillier, prominent business man, dies; twenty-second, Gen- 
eral B. F. Butler delivers a Democratic campaign speech 
to an immense crowd at Fifth street market space; twenty- 
third, Marmet's coal elevator burned — loss seventy-five 
thousand dollars; same day, the Bell and Edison tele- 
phone exchanges are consolidated; twenty-ninth, the 
eleventh annual meeting of the American Bee-keepers' 
society occurs at the Bellevue house; thirtieth, reunion 

of Little Miami pioneers at Mount Lookout, and form- 
ation of a pioneer society. 

On the eleventh of September of this year the Rev. 
P. B. Aydelott, D. D., almost if not quite the only re- 
maining representative of the faraway old-time clergy of 
the city, departed this life, in his eighty-sixth year. He 
was born in Philadelphia, January 7, 1795, studied med- 
icine and then theology, was ordained to the Episcopal 
ministry in 1820, preached in New York, in Maryland, 
and at Philadelphia, and came to Cincinnati in 1828 as 
rector of Christ church. His views subsequently changed 
to Presbyterianism, aud he became pastor of the Lane 
seminary church, and subsequently did much ministerial 
service in the city. As old age came on ■ he spent much 
time in writing religious books and tracts, and in visiting 
the sick. For many years he was a director, and for the 
last ten years of his life president of the Western Tract 
society, of Cincinnati. 

In October, on two successive days (26th and 27 th) 
died two old citizens of Cincinnati. One came in 1832, the 
other in 1804. The former was Philip Hinkle; the latter 
was Edward Deering Mansfield, one of the most re- 
nowned and useful citizens of southwestern Ohio. No 
name in the records of Cincinnati, during six decades, 
recurs more frequently or honorably than his. He was 
born in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1801, and came 
with his father, General Jared Mansfield, to Cincinnati, 
four years afterwards. He was educated in the log-cabin' 
schools here, in the Episcopal academy at Cheshire, Con- 
necticut, and at the West Point military academy, Prince- 
ton college and the Litchfield law school. He began 
practice in Cincinnati in 1825, and soon became promi- 
nent and influential, though rather in literature and pub- 
lic affairs generally than in law. In 1836-7 he was a 
professor in Cincinnati college, and about the same time 
very active in promoting the scheme of a railway from 
this city to Charleston; was from 1836 to 1852 editor of 
the Chronicle (part of the time a daily, and there was one 
year of a Monthly Chronicle, a very creditable literary mag- 
azine), and of the 'Atlas, and afterwards of the Railroad 
Record; was several times a member of the legislature, and 
was the first and only State commissioner of statistics; and 
also did much public service in authorship, education and 
otherwise. His last years were spent in busy retirement 
at his farm '"Yamoyden," near Morrow, Warren county, 
where he died full of years and honors. 

Mr. Hinkle was born at Hinkletown, Pennsylvania, 
October 24, 181 1, almost exactly sixty-nine years before 
his death. He was a carpenter by trade t and came from 
New Orleans to Cincinnati in the spring of 1832. Here 
he amassed wealth as a builder, a dealer in lumber and a 
constructor of houses for shipment to Kansas and other 
new States. He dispensed his money generously, and 
was an especial benefactor of the Bethel, of Lane semi- 
nary, and the Western Female seminary, at Oxford. His 
death was greatly mourned at the Bethel, where impres- 
sive commemoration services were held on the following 

October 1st, Senator Conkling speaks at the Highland 
house; ninth, the fund for the West Art museum is 



raised — three hundred and thirteen thousand five hun- 
dred and thirty-two dollars ; twenty-first, the Abend Post, 
German daily newspaper, suspends publication. 

November 17th, death at Riverside of Major Peter 
Zinn, an old and famous resident of the city and suburbs; 
nineteenth, coldest day of an uncommonly cold snap for 
the season ; twenty-ninth, death of Oliver Perrin, a prom- 
inent merchant. 

December 3d, the city schools celebrated Dr. O. W. 
Holmes' birthday; tenth, the board of public works de- 
cided to try Mr. David Sinton's smoke consumer on the 
pumping-houses; eleventh, Gay's bucket factory burns, 
and five firemen lose their lives; twelfth, the grand 
Trades Unions' balls occur; thirteenth, the Bank of 
Cincinnati turns over its business to the new Citizens' 
bank; twenty-fourth, articles of incorporation were filed 
for the Cincinnati Central railroad; Christmas night, 
grand performance of Handel's oratorio of the "Mes- 
siah" at Music hall; twenty-seventh, the board of educa- 
tion passes an order prohibiting married women from 
teaching in the public schools; twenty-eighth, the Cin- 
cinnati Mutual Life Insurance association is incorpor- 


The first quarter of this year, which is all we are able 
to comprehend in this closing section to the annals of 
ninety-two years, was marked by nothing else so much 
in and about the city, at least in the view of the local 
historian, as the death of old citizens and pioneers, or 
representatives of pioneer families. 

February 5th, at College Hill, in her eighty-second 
year, died Mrs. Jane White Cist, widow of Charles Cist, 
the author, editor, and antiquary to whose industry the 
writer and reader of this history, especially of these 
annals, is greatly indebted. Mr. Cist was a country store- 
keeper and postmaster at Harmony, Pennsylvania, when 
married to Miss White November 18, 1817. They came 
to Cincinnati, with four small children, February 22, 
1 8*7, in a flatboat from the mouth of Beaver river. They 
removed to College Hill in August, 1853, where Mr. 
Cist died September- 5, 1869. Mr. Lewis J. Cist, the 
poet and essayist, is one of their children. 

One of the oldest printers of Cincinnati died Febru- 
ary 23d, at New Burlington, Springfield township, where 
he had resided on a small farm for the preceding fifteen 
years. He was a native of London, England, came to 
the city about 1822, was a printer's apprentice under the 
famous Moses Dawson, of the Enquirer, and afterwards 
worked for many years in the Cincinnati offices. When 
he first began at the trade here, the old-fashioned buckskin 
balls for inking the type had not yet been superseded by 
the composition roller. 

On the twelfth of this month, at his residence on 
Betts street, which was named from him, Smith Betts, a 
wealthy and prominent citizen, departed this life. He 
was born July 5, 1806, in Cincinnati, to which William 
Betts, his father, had come six years before, from New 
Jersey, with a profitable cargo, which, exchanged for a 
farm, laid the foundation of a fortune. 

March 1st, at the Loring house, Cincinnati, deceased 

one of the most widely and favorably known of the old 
residents of the Queen City — Mr. George Graham, who 
had been one of the most useful citizens of his time. 
He was born in Stoystown, Somerset county, Pennsyl- 
vania, in November, 1798, and came to this city in 1822, 
here entering into the wholesale dry goods business. He 
was afterwards a commission merchant, boat-builder and 
owner, a State legislator in 1830-1, for eleven years 
thereafter a very active and intelligent member of the 
board of education, to whom various reforms and the 
building of superior school-houses for that day were due, 
was an active promoter of the building of the Harrison 
turnpike and the founding of Jeffersonville, Indiana; 
and for nearly half a century was conspicuously identi- 
fied with almost everything that'had the well-being of his 
adopted city in view. He was one of the charter mem- 
bers of the Lafayette lodge No. 81, Free and Accepted 
Masons, organized in 1824 in honor of the visit of the 
Marquis de Lafayette to this city, and delivered the 
address of welcome when the distinguished patriot visited 
the lodge. He was one of the five citizens who bought 
the original Cincinnati water works from Samuel W. 
Davies, and managed them for some years. His is a 
great and venerable name in the history of Cincinnati. 
His daughter is the wife of Mr. John M. Newton, of 
College Hill, librarian of the Young Men's Mercantile 
Library association. 

The same day, at the Cincinnati hospital, William Hal- 
ler died, at about sixty-two years of age. He had 
achieved considerable local notoriety as a socialist, com- 
munist, and free-thinker. 

Joseph Bates died March 8th, at East Walnut Hills. 
He was the oldest child of Clark and Rachel Bates, who 
in the Indian and pioneer times, and for many years 
afterwards, occupied the well-known Bates place in the 
Mill creek valley, opposite the present workhouse, where 
General Mansfield, father of the late E. D. Mansfield, 
lived for a time. Here the elder Bates died in 1853, 
aged eighty-four. His wife survived until 1861. They 
had seventeen children, of whom three are living at the 
time we write— Ethan S. Bates, president of the Spring 
Grove Avenue railroad, Henry M. Bates, and Mrs. Jane 

In January, a company of Cincinnati capitalists was 
formed to introduce the electric light, of which a spec- 
imen was nightly flashed from the front of the Daily 
Commercial office. February 12th, the demolition of the 
Trollopean Bazaar, on East Third street, was begun by 
its new owners, Messrs. Emery Brothers, who were to 
build a tenement house upon its site, after the pattern of 
the French flats. During the first week in this month, 
the renowned French actress, Sarah Bernhardt, performed 
at Pike's to crowded houses; and during the last week 
the Operatic Festival, under the auspices of the College 
of Music, presented to immense audiences at the Music 
hall, and upon a scale never before approached in this 
country, a number of the .finest operas known to the 
lyric stage. 



The following comparative statement, as between 1879 
and 1880, of the valuation for taxation of new structures, 
of personalty, and of bonds, etc., will help to an under- 
standing of the material status in Cincinnati at this period, 
as well as illustrate growth during a single year : 








w 3 

ty, 1880. 

ty, 1879. 

New Struct- 
ures, 1880. 

New Struct- 
ures, 1879. 


$ 680,506 

$ 653,660 

$ 42,485 

$ 56.850 


$ 86,700 








3d. . . 







4th. . 








































21, OOO 


10th . . 


3 9.033 













249.3 2 S 

































17th . . 

75 2 .i39 




I06, 189 





448, 140 




19th. . 







20th . . 







21st . . 







22d. . . 







23d. . . 



96, 150 




24th . . 
























ISt .. 






10, 192 


2d .. 








3d .. 








































9th. . 





10th . . 





nth. . 

f * ^ 




12th . . 


18. 596 

I3.5 80 



nth& 12th 




14th . . 

> , > 




15th . . 




16th . . 


17. 483 


17th . . 










20th . . 



2 ISt . . 



22d . . 



23d .. 



24th . . 


















The omission of some notice of this, one of the most 
marked characteristics of the Queen City during large 
part of its wonderful history, would be unpardonable in a 
work of this class. Fortunately, the historian is spared 
the necessity of making the elaborate and painful research 
and personal inquiry necessary to present even an outline 

sketch of the inception and growth of the Teutonic ele- 
ment here, by the well-directed labors of Governor Koer- 
ner, of Illinois, and his collaborators in the preparation 
of his valuable work, The German Element in the 
United States. It is published in the language of the 
Fatherland, from which the following pages have been 
neatly translated for these columns by Miss Maria A. 
Roelker, assistant in the Cincinnati public library. 


In Cincinnati, the principal business city of the Ohio 
valley, the influence of the German element made itself 
felt quite early. Already," in the first years of the legal 
existence of the village, two Germans were elected for the 
chief municipal office — David Ziegler, from Heidelberg, 
1802 and 1803; and Martin Baum, from Hagenau, Al- 
satia, 1807 and 181 2. Zeigler was the first president of 
the then rather insignificant village. 


But it was especially Baum (born at Hagenau, July 15, 
1761; died in Cincinnati December 14, 1831), who did 
so much for the rise of the German element in Cincin- 
nati and the Ohio valley. Through his great wealth, which 
he had won through many different business enterprises 
and used again, he helped a great deal to raise the west. 
Already, in the year 1803, it was principally Baum who 
called to life the first bank in the west, the "Miami 
Exporting company," whose president he remained for 
many years. Through this company, which carried on 
at the same time a great transportation business, Baum 
became one of the most important promoters and im- 
provers of the navigation of the rivers of the west. He 
called to life the first sugar refinery, the first,iron foundry, 
the first woollen factory, the first steam flouring mill, and 
other industrial establishments of that kind. A great 
number of persons found work and profit in his different 
factories; and, since he could not find enough good and 
skillful workmen in the backwoods, he would enlist in 
Baltimore and Philadelphia newly arrived immigrants; 
and in this way led the first current of emigration towards 
the west. Moreover, the first ornamental garden, as well 
as the first vineyard, which Baum laid out at Deer creek, 
at present within the city boundaries, marks him as one 
of the most assiduous men of the west. 

Not only did Baum help more than anybody else 
towards the progress of business life, but his taste for art, 
science, and literature, attracted the more cultivated men 
who settled here, where nature had done so much to 
beautify their colony. The foundation of the Lancas- 
terian school (181 3), out of which arose the Cincinnati 
college (181 8), was, besides Judge Burnet's, principally 
Baum's work. He was also many years an active mem- 
ber of the board of the college, and its first vice-presi- 
dent. Baum was also one of the original stimulators and 
founders of the first public library of the west (February, 
1802); of the Western museum (1817); of the literary 
society (18 18); of the society for the promotion of agri- 
culture in the west (1819); and of the Apollonian soci- 
ety (1823). In the year 181 2 he was nominated for Con- 
.gress, but refused to be a candidate, because he could not 



spare the time he would be compelled to be absent from 
his extended business. 

If we consider that he was in those days the wealthiest 
and most respected citizen of the town; that he was also 
president of the Cincinnati branch of the bank of the 
United States; and that he stood in connection with the 
most important men of the land, it is clear that Baum 
was to the German element in the first period a power- 
ful support. His house, the most elegant in the town, 
was open to all intellectually great men who visited Cin- 
cinnati, and German literary men were especially wel- 
come. Julius Ferdinand voi» Salis, cousin of the well 
known German lyric poet, Count Johann Gaudenz von 
Salis, lived with him about the year 1817. He had trav- 
elled through the Orient as a natural philosopher, "and 
wrote here," says Klauprecht, "in the retirement of this 
western market town, his experiences and impressions of 
the cradle of mankind for a German publisher, when in 
the year 181 9 death took the pen out of his hand." 


At the same time lived also at Baum's country seat in 
the Deer creek valley, an anchorite, Christian Burkhalter, 
formerly secretary to Prince Blucher. He was born in 
Neu-Wied, and, driven by religious fanaticism, emigrated 
to America in 1 8 1 6. He afterwards joined the Shakers who 
founded Union village in Warren county, Ohio, in 1820, 
where the Duke of Weimar met him in 1826. Burkhal- 
ter left the Shaker community again later, and founded in 
Cincinnati (1837) the German Whig newspaper, West- 
licher Merkur, whose conductor and editor he remained 
till 1841. In that year the name of the paper was changed 
into Der Deutsche im Westerly and was edited by Burk- 
halter and Hofle. But, as also here the result was not 
equal to the expended work, the paper passed in the same 
year over into the hands of Rudolph von Maltiz, and was 
named the Ohio Volksfreund. Burkhalter retired now 
from taking active part in a German newspaper, and be- 
came a silent partner in the Cincinnati Chronicle, edited 
by Pugh, Hefley (Hofle), and Hubbell. Already, in the 
year 1836, Burkhalter had taken part, with the well-known 
Abolitionist, James G. Birney, in the publication of the 
Philanthropist, one of the first Abolition papers in the 
land, which appeared in Lebanon, Warren county, Ohio, 
after the printing rooms in Cincinnati of Achilles Pugh, 
editor of the same, were demolished by a mob in the 
summer of 1836. 


In the year 1817 Albert von Stein came also to Cincin- 
nati. He had gained already in the United States quite a 
name as an able engineer. He was the promoter and 
builder of the Cincinnati water-works, the first water- 
works of the country which were worked by pumps. 
Afterwards Stein was for a while engaged in Philadelphia 
as draughtsman for Wilson's Illustrated ' Ornithology. 
Since then he has built the water-works at Richmond 
and Lynchburgh, Virginia, the Appomatox canal, near 
Petersburgh, Virginia, and the water-works of New Or- 
leans, Nashville, and Mobile. Of the last-named works 
Stein was the owner till his death (1876). He was at the 

time eighty-four years old. His family has still posses- 
sion of the works. 


At this time (1817), and soon after, Catholic and Prot- 
estant communities formed themselves, not only in Cin- 
cinnati, but also at other places in Ohio. Dr. Friedrich 
Reese, a very learned, active, and popular man, after- 
wards Bishop of Detroit, was the first German Catholic 
priest in Cincinnati (1825). He was born at Vianen- 
burgh, near Hildesheim, and had, like Pio Nono, first 
served in the cavalry, and then studied theology. He 
died at Hildesheim December 27, 1871, after having 
been called to Rome and given up his episcopate in 
1841. In Cincinnati Reese was the founder of the scien- 
tific school, the Athenaeum, which passed afterwards 
into the hands of the Jesuits, and was changed by them 
into the present St. Xavier college. 

On a visit to Germany, (1828-29), through Reese's in- 
fluence the Leopoldinen institution in Vienna was called 
to life, and is still in existence, for the aid of poor Catho- 
lic missionaries. Reese wrote a History of the Bishopric 
of Cincinnati, which was published in 1829 at Vienna, 
and was otherwise busy in literary pursuits. Joseph Zas- 
lein, Jakob Gulich, and Ludwig Heinrich Meyer, were 
the first German Protestant pastors in Cincinnati. 


It is not our plan to follow the development of the 
different religious societies; but it can be stated that, 
particularly in Cincinnati, as well the Catholic as the 
Protestant churches of the Germans soon flourished; and 
the first named especially possess considerable real estate. 
The Catholics published, in 1837, the Wahrheits Freund, 
the first Catholic periodical of the country, at first super- 
intended by the present Archbishop of Milwaukee, J. M. 
Henni, which soon found a wide circulation through the 
whole west. On the Protestant side appeared for a 
while Der Protestant, under the superintendence of 
Georg Walker; and afterwards (1838) Der Christliche 
Apologete, a Methodist paper, conducted by Wilhelm 
Nast, which found also in their circles a great number of 


born July 18, 1807, studied theology, and especially phi- 
losophy, at the same time with David Strauss, in the cel- 
ebrated Tubingen institute. He emigrated to the United 
States in 1828; accepted, at first, a position as tutor in a 
private family in New York; then became teacher of the 
German language at the military school at West Point 
(1831-2); went over to the Methodist church, and be- 
came professor of the classic languages at different col- 
leges; organized German Methodism in Ohio; founded 
the Christliche Apologete, whose permanent editor he re- 
mained, and later the Sonntagschul Glocke, a juvenile 
paper, both the principal organs of German Methodism, 
of which he is the acknowledged father. His original 
theological works and translations are very numerous. 
In 1844 he went as missionary of the Methodist church 
to Germany, and labored there with some good results 
for this form of Christianity. He visited also the Evan- 





gelical Alliance convention at Berlin in 1857, trying to 
win a field for Methodism there. 

Dr. Nast is a learned theologian and philolbgjst. He 
has gained a high position in the religious circles of this 
country, and has done a great deal for the preservation of 
the German element, and especially the German language. 
If he had not founded the German Methodist papers, 
which gained such wide circulation, the Germans who 
went over to the Methodist church 'would have become 
quite alienated from their language and German thinking 
by other religious papers, to them the most favored and 
often their only reading. And there is no question, as 
orthodox as the father of German Methodism may be, 
his thorough education at a German university, under 
the direction of a man like F. C. Baur, has given him a 
scientific and intellectual turn of mind which must have 
saved him, in comparison with his many American fel- 
low-workers, from a too extreme tendency. He has pre- 
served, at least as a spiritual discipline, a great attachment 
for his Fatherland, and persuaded many of his young 
friends to visit German universities, although he must 
have been aware that they would change their narrow re- 
ligious views for wider and riper ones. He is called 
everywhere a man of high character, who has gained in 
every relation of life the esteem of his fellow men. 


Cincinnati was especially a good soil for political news- 
papers. Already,in the year 1 826, appeared there Die Ohio 
Chronik, a weekly paper ; but it did not live long. In the 
year 1832 Karl von Bonge, Albert Lange (later a resident 
of Terre Haute), and Heinrich Brachmann published for 
election purposes a so-called campaign paper, for the. in- 
terest of the Whig party. On the seventh of October, 
1834, appeared the Weltburger, edited by Hartmann, whose 
energies were first directed against the Democrats; but it 
changed in a short time its tendency and name, when it 
went into the hands of Benjamin Boffinger, who called it 
Der Deutsche Franklin, and worked for the interest of 
the Democratic Presidential candidate, Mr. Van Buren. 
But the Whig party succeeded before the election (1836) 
. in regaining the Franklin. 

The Democrats founded now the Volksblatt, directed 
and edited by Heinrich Rodter, with the help of several 
of the most esteemed Germans, as Rumelin, Rehfuss, 
August Renz, and others. 


born March 10, 1805, at Neustadt, on the Hardt, had 
already in his youth been engaged in his father's paper- 
factory. Overflowing with animal spirits, his youthful 
years had been rather stormy. Serving a short time in a 
Bavarian light cavalry regiment at Augsburg, helped a 
good deal to make a Philistine out of him. Returning 
home, he began to study law; bul the political excite- 
ment which spread after the July revolution, especially 
along the Rhine provinces, also took hold of him. He 
became acquainted with the journalists, Dr. Wirth and 
Siebenpfeiffer, and other leaders of the agitation, as 
Schiller, Savoye, Geib, and Pistorius. He was especially 
active at the Hambacker fe"te; and to escape the judicial 


trial threatening him, he left his well-beloved Pfalz in 
the summer of 1832, and came to Cincinnati, but went 
soon after to Columbus, where he became the director 
of a German Democratic paper. He returned after a 
short time to Cincinnati, where he directed the newly- 
founded Democratic paper, the Volksblatt, from the year 
1836 to 1840. 

While many German newspapers, especially in small 
towns, had been so far only shallow party papers, true imita- 
tions of similar American presvproducts, Rodter succeed- 
ed in bringing a higher active tendency into his Volksblatt, 
and smoothed the way to a better, more worthy develop- 
ment of the German press in his State. The opposition 
paper, formerly Der Deutsche Franklin, then called West- 
lichee Merkur, did not fight with the same weapons, and 
so gave rise to many bitter attacks in Rodter's paper, 
though he did not on his side violate decency conspicu- 
ously. The example of the German press in other States 
prevented that. 

The Alte und Neue Welt, and several other papers in 
'Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, especially the New Yorker 
Slaats-Zeitung and the Anzeiger des Western in St. Louis, 
had appeared already several years before, and won a 
great number of readers by their pointed, intelligent and 
well-written articles. 


It became a necessity very much felt, to establish a 
German society, like others already existing in different 
parts of the country, to ward off ruptures and discords, 
which had become in our old Fatherland the source of 
all troubles, and the cause of political weakness and 
want of freedom of the people. At a meeting held by 
more than two hundred of the most esteemed German 
citizens, at the city hall, July 31, 1834, it was resolved 
that the founding of such a society was a necessity; 
"that as citizens of the United States we can take that 
part in the people's government which our duty and right 
commands, and that through reciprocal aid we may mu- 
tually assure ourselves of a better future, to assist those 
in need, and to secure generally those charitable aims 
which are impossible to the single individual." The 
principal workers at this meeting were Heinrich Rodter, 
Johann Meyer, Karl Libeau, Ludwig Rehfuss, Salomon 
Menken (father of the formerly celebrated actress, Adah 
Isaaks Menken), Daniel and Karl Wolff, Raymund 
Wetschger, and others. Karl Rumelin, Dr. Sebastian 
Huber, J. D. Felsenbeck, Karl and Johann Belser, and 
many others, joined the meetings for organization on the 
fourteenth and eighteenth of August. Heinrich Rodter 
was the first president of the society, which is still in ex- 
istence, although only as a small mutual aid association 
of its members. The mania for organizing military com- 
panies had by this time (1836) also reached Cincinnati 
from the cities of the east. Through Rodter's influence 
the German Lafayette Guard was founded, whose first 
captain he became. 


Upon the whole, the endeavor to secure the rights of 
the German element made itself particularly felt in Cin- 



cinnati. Rodter was also elected a member of the city 
council, and enjoyed generally at the time a great popu- 
larity among his fellow-citizens. In the year 1840 he 
sold the Volksblatt to Stephen Molitor, and removed to 
Columbus, where he devoted himself again to the fabrica- 
tion of paper, which he had been taught in youth. But 
he did not feel happy in Columbus. Returning to Cin- 
cinnati he studied law again, and in 1 847-8 was elected 
a member of the legislature of Ohio. The law which se- 
cures workingmen a lien on houses built by them, as also 
the law which reduced the naturalization expenses for 
foreigners, were both proposed by him, and were passed 
through his exertions. Although he belonged, up to the 
time of his death, to the Democratic party, he voted for 
the abolition of all those oppressive laws which existed in 
most of the free States, as well against the free negroes as 
the slaves. He gave also his voice for S. P. Chase as 
senator of the United States, although he was well ac- 
quainted with his opinions against slavery and every- 
thing connected with it. For a few years he became the 
partner of the eminent lawyer J. B. Stallo, but returned 
to journalism again in 1850, and bought the Ohio Staats 
Zeitung, which he conducted under the name of Demo- 
kratisches Tageblatt till the year 1854. In the year 1856 
he was elected justice of the peace by a large majority, 
but died the following year. 


comes from an old and worthy family of Wurtemberg, 
which had given to the country during the last century 
very able officials. His father devoted himself to com- 
merce and manufactures, and lived at Heilbronn, where 
Rumelin was born, March 19, 1814. After attending 
the scientific schools of his native town till the year 1829, 
he exchanged the college for his father's counting-room. 
In a few years he obtained a position as clerk in a busi- 
ness house at Wimpfen. He had felt for some time a 
great inclination to emigrate to America. This was in- 
creased when, in the year 1832, a great emigration from 
Wurtemberg and Hessen took place, which received an 
overwhelming impetus through Duden's letters. His 
father gave him, against his expectation, permission to 
carry out his plans. Our young traveller arrived in 
Philadelphia August 27, 1832, after a journey of eighty- 
seven days. As he did not succeed in finding at once a 
suitable position, he took hold with good courage of any 
opportunity of work offered to him, hard though it might 
be, holding every kind of work honorable. After some 
time he obtained a position in a store belonging to an 
Irishman, who had many Irish customers. This gave 
him an opportunity to make closer acquaintance with 
this class of people. 

His attachment to the Democratic party, which he has 
preserved through his whole life, had taken hold of him 
already in Philadelphia, where he arrived just at the 
time of a presidential election. Jackson was for him a 
hero of the first magnitude. His studies and experience 
at home had already given him an enthusiasm for free 
trade and a prejudice against paper money and a bank- 

*Thisname is now spelt "Reemelin." 

ing system. Besides, he thought he recognized among 
the partisans of Clay, or in the Whig party, an inclina- 
tion towards Puritanism which was naturally repugnant 
to his genuine German nature. However, taking his 
youth into consideration, and his short experience on 
American soil, one may doubt whether his decided party 
spirit was founded from the very beginning on personal 
conviction and a critical examination of the pending 
party questions. He followed perhaps more an unde- 
fined feeling, as almost all Germans did at the time. 
The name Democracy had already a certain charm for 
them. It was natural to compare and identify the wealthy 
merchants, the great church lights, and the owners of 
factories, who belonged mostly to the Whig party, with 
the European aristocracy. The philosophical apprecia- 
tion of both parties, no doubt, occurred to Rumelin, as 
with many others, somewhat later. 

After a year's stay he felt a longing to go further west. 
After a wretched and dangerous journey (on the boat 
which brought him from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati, the 
cholera had broken out, claiming many victims), he ar- 
rived at the last-named town, to be attacked himself by 
this terrible disease. He then found a situation in a 
store, and again began to interest himself in politics and 
public life. He was one of the founders of the German 
society, which was called to life in 1834, and remained a 
member for forty years, when he removed his homestead 
several miles outside of the city. In the year 1836, dur- 
ing the Presidential campaign, the formerly Democratic 
German weekly paper, Der Deutsche Franklin, the only 
German paper, went over into the hands of the other 
party. Rumelin belonged to those who felt very much 
annoyed about it. He took part in founding a new Dem- 
ocratic journal, the Volksblatt, whose manager Rodter 
became. The means which the Germans had were but 
small, but their zeal was great. The printing-room was 
moved to the building where Rumelin was in business, 
free of rent. He learned himself the secret of the black 
art, set the types and printed the sheets, and in case of 
necessity even became paper carrier himself. The regu- 
lar carrier was a baker, who had to carry around his 
"bretzels'' at the same time, which, as Rumelin said him- 
self, went off faster than the papers. He wrote also 
many articles for the paper, and proposed repeatedly the 
founding of a German university. Sickness prevented 
him from taking part in the first Pittsburgh convention. 
But Rumelin, as well as Rodter and Rehfuss, went stump- 
speaking during the campaign of 1836, and, as it seemed, 
with success; for Hamilton county, in which Cincinnati 
is located, and which had given in 1834 a majority for 
the Whigs, gave from 1836 to 1840 a majority to the 

Rodter became the owner of the Volksblatt, which went 
afterwards into Molitor's hands. It remained Democratic 
till the year 1856, when the German Democracy of the 
north went over in great numbers to the Republican party. 

* Among the men to whom this change is to be especially attributed 
ought to be mentioned C. Backhaus, Dr. Roelker, who has worked 
beneficially for the city in every direction, and Bishop Henni, who 
worked quietly, but,effectively. 


I3 1 

In the year 1836 Rumelin became partner of his for- 
mer employer and did a good business, especially by 
having always a good assortment of imported German 
groceries in stock. "A part of his earnings he invested in 
real estate. He wrote also now for American journals. 
He speaks of this in his written communications to the 
present editor as follows : 

I represented by it the German affairs, for it seemed to me absurd 
that we Germans should talk about these matters only among ourselves, 
exciting mutually our zeal. I thought the Americans ought to be won 
for them too, if our steps were to have lasting results. 

In the year 1837 he married a Swiss lady, born in Cin- 
cinnati. She had lived several years in Switzerland, but 
had been educated in New England. She combined the 
American and German nature in a pleasant blending, and 
has been to him a true companion through his life. 

In the spring of 1843 Rumelin sold his business to re- 
tire to the country, but undertook first a trip to his old 
home. After his return he was fleeted from Hamilton 
county to the house of representatives of Ohio for the 
years 1844 and 1845, and in 1846 for two years to the Sen- 
ate. In the house of representatives he brought it about 
that the message of the governor, as well as the reports of 
the officials, should be printed in the German language. ■ 
The minority report in favor of the annexation of Texas, 
not on account of, but in spite of slavery, excited great 
attention, and was reprinted in many Democratic papers. 
His speeches, by which he criticised very sharply the then 
defective method of taxation, showed a thorough study of 
political economy. 

In the years 1846, 1847, 1848 Rumelin studied law in 
the office of Judge Van Hamm, passed his examination, 
and was admitted to the bar. He continued the study 
scientifically, but felt no inclination to make a profession 
of it. In the year 1849 he niade a second visit to the 
Fatherland, and wrote travelling correspondence for the 
New York Evening Post, one of the first papers of the 
Union, superintended by William Cullen Bryant and 
John Bigelow. These letters were reprinted by several 
other papers. They contained many new ideas which 
were here but partly appreciated. Though Rumelin had 
the welfare of his newly adopted country very much at 
heart, he was. not an absolute admirer of all our institu- 
tions, and was not altogether blind towards our weak- 
nesses. What he thought he would always speak out 
candidly. While in Germany he was elected a member 
of the convention which was to draw up a new constitu- 
tion for Ohio. He received the news of his election 
when the pilot brought the latest papers on board the 
steamer entering the New York harbor, on which he . 
had returned from Germany, in April, 1850. 

In this convention (1850-51) Rumelin was one of the 
most prominent and active members. It is to his 
especial credit that the article of the constitution which 
prevents the legislature from making arbitrary divisions 
in the electoral districts, is due to his exertions. Both 
parties had made the greatest abuse of this right of 
"dividing districts, so that very often, by arranging the 
counties ingeniously into electoral districts, the minority 
of the people managed to get the majority in the legisla- 

ture. According to the present constitution of Ohio the 
division is made every ten years, and is regulated ac- 
cording to the number of inhabitants by constitutional 
provision. Rumelin has lived to see several other States 
adopt the same measures to prevent corruption. He 
opposed with all his energy the secret ring of the Dem- 
ocratic party called the "Miami Tribe," which had 
formed itself for personal purposes, with intention to 
control the whole party; made many enemies by it in- his 
own party, and lost his chance as candidate for Congress, 
but he had the satisfaction of seeing the ring broken 
through his active co-operation. During the celebrated 
election campaign between Fremont and Buchanan, he 
declared himself for Fremont, as many Democrats had 
done, simply because Fremont belonged himself to the 
Democratic party. He did not want to join the Repub- 
lican party. A trip to Germany prevented him from 
taking personal part in this campaign. This journey was 
partly occasioned by family matters, partly by business 
matters, which he had to settle as president of a railroad 
in Europe, and partly, also, to visit European reform 
schools and learn about their management, having been 
appointed commissioner for reform schools in Ohio, by 
Governor Chase. After having visited these institutions 
to his satisfaction in England, where he made the ac- 
quaintance of Earl Derby, grandfather of the present 
Lord Derby, who was especially interested in the im- 
provement of these schools, he went with him to France 
on a similar tour of inspection. The reform schools of 
Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, and Germany, were also 
visited by him. Those in France he found to be model 
institutions, especially the one in Mettray, near Tours. 
His report, signed by all the members of the commis- 
sion, was laid before the legislature; a law for the erec- 
tion of a reform school for juvenile delinquents was 
made, and Governor Chase appointed Rumelin one of 
the superintendents, but he resigned the position in 
1859. During the years 1854-9 Rumelin was also a 
member of the permanent State commission of the 
banks, as also of a special commission to examine frauds 
of the treasury. A very extensive and interesting report 
of nearly two thousand pages, mostly written by Rume- 
lin, was the result of this examination. 

Although Rumelin had already, for some time before 
the year i860, cast off party fetters, and had often voted 
and worked for men of the opposite party, if he thought 
them more worthy for the office, he could not, during 
the Presidential campaign of Lincoln, Douglas, Bell and 
Breckinridge, make up his mind to vote for any one of 
the first-named. He belonged to those few Germans 
who felt that they had to give Breckinridge the preference 
over Lincoln as a statesman; Rumelin was personally 
acquainted with Breckinridge, and respected him highly. 
However, he was getting tired of politics. He was of the 
opinion that nothing but a misunderstanding of the real 
opinions existing north and south, and the ambition of 
the leaders on both sides, had caused the war. He retired 
to country life. He had owned for several years a beauti- 
ful country place near Cincinnati, and had planted an 
orchard and a vineyard, having sent for the best sorts of 



trees and slips to Europe. He said this love for farming 
had been in the family for several generations. He was 
not a book-farmer only, but took hold of the plough, 
the spade and the axe with his own hands most heartily. 

During the years 1865 and 1866 we find him again in 
Germany, where he took his oldest son to a university. 
He visited at the same time Italy, Hungary, Servia and 
Bosnia. His reports concerning these travels appeared 
in the New York Commercial Bulletin. In i87ito 1872 
he was manager of the magazine, the Deutscher Pionier, 
in Cincinnati, and made in 1872 his sixth journey to 
Europe, to take two of his sons to a university and his 
daughters to a young ladies' institute. In Strasburg and 
Wurzburg he attended, in his fiftieth year, lectures upon 
his favorite studies, political economy and the science of 
government. In the year 1876 he was elected by popu- 
lar vote for two years to the honorary office of a member 
of the board of control for Hamilton county. That he 
voted for Tilden in 1876, as many thousands of Germans 
have done, who otherwise belonged to the Republican 
party, is easily understood. The Democratic party nom- 
inated him as their candidate for the important and re- 
sponsible office of Auditor of State, although Rumelin's 
opinions about financial questions differed from theirs. 
But all Democratic candidates were beaten by a consider- 
able majority during that election (October 15, 1879). 

At present Rumelin is engaged in writing a book; a 
critique upon American politics, which will be, no doubt, 
of great interest. We have spoken already about his 
many letters of correspondence for newspapers, and his 
activity in the - State ■ Legislature. He has written also 
many articles for agricultural journals. A long article of 
his about the climate of Ohio has been published in the 
reports of the agricultural bureau of the State. In the 
year 1859 he published a Vine-dresser's Manual, and in 
1868 The Wine-maker's Manual. His most important 
work up to this time is his Treatise on Politics as a Sci- 
ence, published by Robert Clarke & Company in Cincin- 
nati in 1875. 


The first belles-lettres journal in the country appeared 
during the year 1843, under the management of Emil 
Klauprecht. Born at Mainz in 1815, he came during the 
year 1832 to the United States, and went at first to Padu- 
cah, Kentucky, on the Ohio. In 1837 he chose Cincin- 
nati for his home, and carried on a lithographic business 
very successfully, but turned soon to journalism. In 
1843 he published the first belles lettres periodical, the 
Fliegende Blatter, with lithographic illustrations, the first 
German illustrated paper of the United States. Soon 
after he became editor of a Whig paper, the Republikaner, 
which he made for ten years the principal organ of this 
party in the Western States. He wrote also a number of 
novels, and an historical work, the Deutsche Chronik in 
der Geschichte des Ohio Thales (German Chronicle in 
the History of the Ohio Valley). This work goes back 
to the beginning of the history of the Territories and 
States of the west, contains a great deal of interesting 
material, and must have required a studious research 
among historical sources, but, as regards a clear, easily 

surveyed, and chronologically arranged representation, it 
is not a success. During the years 1856 to 1864 he was 
engaged on the Cincinnati Volksblatt, and was then ap- 
pointed consul of the United States for Stuttgart, which 
position he filled till 1869, when an inscrutable whim of 
the Grant administration appointed a colored gentleman 
in his place, a Mr. Sammis, from Pensacola, formerly a 
barber by profession, who, it was said, could neither read 
nor write. Since that time Klauprecht devotes himself 
at Stuttgart to literary work. He writes for the Augs- 
burger Allgemeine Zeitung, and sends also from time to 
time articles for the Westlichsn Blatter, the Sunday num- 
ber of the Cincinnati Volksblatt. Klauprecht is a very 
talented man, and added in Cincinnati a great deal as 
well to the public as to social life. By nature he was in- 
clined to irony and sarcasm, was of a very lively nature, 
as almost all the children of the golden city Mainz are, 
and entered journalism at a very unfortunate time, when 
both parties entertained mutually very hostile feelings. 
He had chosen the unpopular side, that of the Whigs; 
and had therefore the wind and the sun against him. As 
well in the English as the German papers, at this time in 
Cincinnati a rude tone had taken possession of the press, 
which seemed to take a delight in personal rancor. 
Klauprecht knew how to return these attacks with usury, 
and there is no question that he, spirited as he was, on 
this field had the better of his opponents. He accus- 
tomed himself to repay the abuse of others in a similar 
manner, but when a German editor attacked the honor 
of his family, he allowed himself to be carried away to 
revenge his right by a pistol-shot, which wounded his 
adversary dangerously. Tried before a court, he was 
sentenced to a year's imprisonment, to the great surprise 
of the people, as such offences are usually not only ex- 
cused but often even approved. He was, however, par- 
doned by the governor, to the general satisfaction, before 
the time set for his imprisonment. Klauprecht certainly, 
for more than ten years, exerted a decided influence as 
an able journalist and a leader of his party, in the city 
and the State. As consul he filled his office most excel- 


Another editor of the Volksblatt at that time, and after- 
wards of the Volksfreund, was Heinrich von Martels, 
whose life was a very eventful one. He was born in 
1803, at the Castle Dankern, in the dukedom of Aren- 
berg-Meppen, attended the college at Osnabruck, entered 
the cavalry of Hanover as cadet, and was, in 1822, sec- 
ond lieutenant of the Cuirassiers. As captain of the 
Sixth infantry regiment he took his leave of absence, and 
traveled in 1832, accompanied by his father and his 
brothers, to the United States, following Duden's tempt- 
ing call, and settled in Missouri, in the neighborhood of 
Duden's farm. He himself returned, however, again in 
1833, as he had left his heart with a lady of high station 
in Osnabruck; for, as he tells us in his book, published 
in 1834 at Osnabruck, Der Westliche Theil der Ver- 
einigten Staaten von Nordamerika, (The Western Part 
of the United States of North America), this city of the 
peace of Westphalia had robbed him of his heart's peace. 



Fiction and truth are intermingled in this book in the 
strangest manner ; but one can not take it ill towards the 
author, as it betrays at any rate a very amiable character. 
His loyalty for England's great king (the sailor-king, 
William IV,) is rather extravagant, but, as another king 
has remarked, "loyalty is, even in exaggeration, beauti- 
ful." However, the author talks with a similar enthu- 
siasm about Washington and the free institutions of the 
country, and his youthful fanaticisms have given place to 
a healthy republican feeling. A light and graceful style 
marks this fata morgana. 

In the year 1839 he took his leave of military service, 
and devoted himself to philosophical studies; returned 
to America in 1845, went to Texas, bought a large estate 
in Colorado, but soon afterwards lost all his wealth, 
which was considerable, and his land. In the year 1850 
he came to Cincinnati, and found for several years em- 
ployment upon the Volksfreund. He interrupted this lit- 
erary work for a short time to work on his farm, which he 
had bought in Clermont county, but returned in i860 to 
journalism. He has a knowledge of the classical lan- 
guages, and talks most of the modern ones fluently, which 
enables him to fulfil his office as interpreter in court with 
great ability. Literary work, prose as well as poetry, is 
still his favorite occupation, and brightens the days of his 
old age. 


Another prolific writer in the scientific field is the 
doctor of medicine, Joseph Hypolit Pulte. He was born 
at Meschede, Westphalia. After finishing his medical 
studies, he went in 3834 to the United States, following 
his brother, who was already a well-known physician in 
St. Louis. Here he took hold with enthusiasm of hom- 
oeopathy, which had been but a short time before brought 
to America by Dr. Constantin Hering. After laboring 
for several years in the Homoeopathic college in Allen- 
town, he settled in Cincinnati as a practicing physician 
about the year 1840. In the year 1850 he published the 
work, Hansliche Praxis der Homoopathischen Hilkunde, 
(Domestic Practice of Homoeopathy), which appeared 
also in London in English and in Havana in Spanish. 
He followed this by several other medical writings during 
the following years. He also conducted for several years 
the American Magazine of Homoeopathy and Hydro- 
pathy. In 1852 he became professor of clinical practice 
and obstetrics in the Homoeopathic college at Cleveland, 
and founded in Cincinnati, from his own means, the 
Pulte Homoeopathic medical college, which was opened 
September 27, 1872. Besides his poetical writings we 
ought also to make mention of his philosophical work, 
with which he has enriched the literature of the country, 
under the title Organon in der Weltgeschichte, which 
was published in Cincinnati in 1846. It is an attempt 
to bring revealed religion into harmony with philosophy. 
For an analysis of this work we must refer to a lecture 
delivered by Mr. H. A. Ratterman, December 26, 1877 
(Deutscher Pionier, volume ten, page 317). 


has been for several years the editor of the Pionier, and 
fills a high position among the literary men of Cincinnati. 

He was born October 14, 1832, at Ankum, district of 
Osnabruck. He emigrated with his family to the United 
States in 1846, where his father continued in Cincinnati 
his former trade as a carpenter. Circumstances com- 
pelled also Heinrich to take hold of hard work very soon, 
but he made use at once of his leisure moments in study- 
ing the English language. After the early death of his 
father (January, 1850), the care of the family fell upon 
his shoulders; and, although he worked at his business, 
he continued his studies during his vacant hours. A 
protracted suspension of work having compelled him to 
give up his trade, he used his savings to attend a com- 
mercial college, becoming then book-keeper for one of 
his relations, a partner in the lumber business; and went 
into other business connections when this partnership 
had dissolved. Through his influence and continued 
efforts the German Mutual Insurance ' Company (fire 
insurance) was founded in the spring of 1858, and be- 
came soon after one of the most successful institutions 
of this kind in the ¥nited States. He has been for more 
than twenty years the secretary and business manager of 
it. But the intense activity with which he has devoted 
himself to this institution has not been able to check his 
inner impulse for literary work and music. He has writ- 
ten poetry in the German and the English language, sun- 
der the pseudonym "Hugo Reimmund," and has worked 
with especial industry in the field of historical investiga- 
tions, particularly in the history of civilization. Above 
all, he has taken it upon himself to vindicate a just esti- 
mate of the German immigration. He traces up, with a 
peculiar zeal and genuine enthusiasm, the generations of 
the German immigrants into the most remote period, and 
his investigations into this and kindred topics are not 
only deeply prosecuted, but betray a sharp and critical 
judgment. There is hardly a book or pamphlet which 
can give him in any way material for his historical 
work that is not known to him; and the public archives 
of Washington and other cities have been well searched 
by him. Being engaged for a number of years with such 
historical work, he has superintended, since 1874, the 
monthly periodical, Deutscher Pionier, which aims to give 
in an entertaining style a view of the past and present of 
German life in America in every respect. This journal 
has already accumulated an immense treasure of material 
since its first foundation in 1869, which certainly nobody 
better than Rattermann himself will be able to utilize for 
a comprehensive work on immigration. He published 
also an historical sketch of the city of Cincinnati, several 
novels, and a Geschichte des Grossen Amerikanischen 
Westens (History of the Great American West), published 
in two parts, in Cincinnati, 1876 and 1877. He is also 
very fond of music, and is himself a good musician; he 
was one of the founders and a member of the Ssenger- 
bund (1850), the Msennerchor (1857), and the Orpheus 
(1858). He is a member and one of the trustees of the 
Historical and Philosophical society of Ohio, a member 
of the Cincinnati Literary club, a corresponding member 
of the New York Historical society, and one of the most 
active founders of the German Literary club of Cincin- 
nati. He owns a large and valuable library, which facili- 



tates his praiseworthy labors. In the interest of the 
insurance company he has also studied law, especially 
the branches which relate to insurance. A man of such 
an active and widely gifted nature could of course not 
remain[:indifferent towards polities. In former times he 
belonged to the Democratic party, and worked for it 
prominently by speech and writing. After the war, at 
the time when so many were dissatisfied with both of the 
great parties, he labored for an Independent Reform 
party, and we find him a delegate of the same at the 
convention in Cincinnati in 1872, on the same day of the 
convention of the Liberal Republicans. The Reform 
party, to which belonged several of the most prominent 
men, especially of Ohio, adopted an excellent platform, 
which differed from that of the Liberal Republicans es- 
sentially but in one point — they did not approve of Gree- 
ley's nomination as candidate for the Presidency, chiefly 
because he had been all his life a warm adherent to the 
tariff, which measure the Reform party had opposed de- 
cidedly. Rattermann's political activity seemed now, for 
a time at least,, paralyzed ; but it showed itself again in 
full force during the political campaign of 1876, when he 
worked most energetically for Tilden, who, when Gov- 
ernor of New York, had fought against corruption, and 
on account of his successful attempts at reform seemed 
not only to the Democrats, but also to some Republicans, 
the most desirable candidate for the Presidency. 


The result which the Germans had gained by their 
powerful aid to the Democratic party during the election 
of 1836, moved them to ask for themselves a service in 
return from that party. They insisted especially upon 
having the German language introduced into the public 
schools as a branch of study. Already, in the year 1836, 
a German school had been opened under the influence 
of Lane Seminary, an institution under the control of the 
Presbyterians. This German school, called the Emi- 
grants' school, was maintained by the Emigrants' Friend 
Society. The chief leaders of this institution were Bella- 
my Storer as president, Johann Meyer as vice-president, 
and Jakob Gulich as chairman of the executive commit- 
tee. A German Pole, Johann Joseph Lehmanowsky, 
acted as general agent for the society, and F. C. F. Salo- 
mon, from Erfurt, was the principal of the school. Leh- 
manowsky founded, besides the school in Cincinnati, 
others in Dayton, Ohio, Louisville, Kentucky, and New 
Albany, Indiana. The teachers of the Cincinnati Emi- 
grants' school were, besides Salomon, a poetically minded, 
jolly German by the name of Julius Weyse and Julius 
Schwarz, of rather eccentric character, who was a son of 
Professor Schwarz, of Heidelberg. As the Emigrant 
school, however, soon fell under suspicion of making 
proselytes to Presbyterianism, and the Catholics had al- 
ready founded a German school of their own under the 
care of the Rev. J. M. Henni (now Archbishop), the 
teachers of which were men like Dr. Roelker and Messrs. 
Moormann and Dengler (afterward lawyers), all thorough 
instructors, it was now decided, after many disputes, to 
insist upon having the German also taught in the public 

schools, which are maintained 'by general taxation. At 
first the Board of Education was applied to; but they 
considered the request inconsistent with their duties, as 
only the Legislature could furnish the remedy for the 
Germans. This question was now laid before that body, 
which passed a law in 1838, by which the trustees of the 
public schools might introduce the German language as 
a branch of study into districls where a sufficient number 
of persons should petition for it, provided there were 
enough scholars to justify it. With this law they went 
back to the trustees, who, however, availing themselves 
of the little word "might," again refused to grant the pe- 
tition. The pressure was continued, and during the elec- 
tion of 1839 the candidates for the legislature were made 
to promise to exert themselves to make the law effective, 
by substituting the word "shall" for "might," thus chang- 
ing the permission into a command. The Germans, 
having evidently the majority at the elections, and taking 
unanimously this position, the Democrats were induced 
to consent to the measure, and the law was changed ac- 
cording to their wishes, March 19, 1840. 

During the summer of this year, the first German- 
English public school was established. The principal of 
this school was Joseph A. Hemann; and Heinrich Pop- 
pelmann, Georg La Barre and Emilie Frankenstein were 
the teachers. But the problem of a German-English 
school was not yet at an end. Encouraged by the elec- 
tion of 1840, the majority of the Whig party, which al- 
ways had been opposed to German study in the public 
schools? thought to cripple it entirely by establishing 
purely German instead of German-English schools, and, 
strange to say, with English principals; and the German 
principal was dismissed. The Germans would not sub- 
mit to this, and were now holding a number of largely 
attended meetings, in which they put forth their rights 
most forcibly, by speeches and resolutions. The first one 
of these meetings took place July 16, 1841, with Karl 
Belser in the chair. Edward Muhl delivered an excel- 
lent speech in favor of preserving the rights" of the Ger- 
mans in this country, especially in regard to the educa- 
tion of the children in their own mother-tongue. They 
did not rest by simply protesting, but elected a standing 
committee to attend to the interests of the Germans in 
the schools; and, not receiving the consideration they 
had expected from the Board of Education, they estab- 
lished schools of their own, according to their plans, till 
they obtained their rights from the school board. The 
principal workers in this matter were August Renz, 
Stephan Molitor, Heinrich Rodter, Ludwig Rehfuss, 
Pastor Seib, Emil Klauprecht, Edward Muhl, Nikiaus 
Hoffer, and others. Final success crowned their efforts, 
and the German-English system of the public schools in 
Cincinnati, which now extends to all the classes of the 
different schools, working more effectively than in any 
other city of America, is the living fruit of that energetic 

To secure the privileges gained at last after so much 
difficulty, they endeavored to secure a representation in 
the school board. That was, however, a difficult matter, 
because in the Fifth ward, in which, at the time, the Ger- 



mans were well represented, the Whig party had still the 
majority. They thought of Dr. Roelker as the best man 
they could present as their candidate; as he, standing 
sufficiently in connection with the Americans, might 
have possibly a chance of being elected. And he was 
elected in the spring of 1843, as the first German mem- 
ber of the board of education of Cincinnati, and was re- 
elected during the two following years. 


was born in the city of Osnabruck, in the year 1809. He 
graduated at the College Karolinum at Osnabruck, and 
entered after that the seminary at Munster. After having 
finished his studies, he taught for a short time in Osna- 
bruck, and emigrated in 1835 to America, where he staid 
for two years in New York as a teacher. In 1837 he 
went to Cincinnati, where he became an English teacher, 
holding this position for two years, when, through 
Henni's influence, he was appointed principal of the 
Catholic Dreifaltigkeits-schule (Trinity school). He re- 
signed this position after one year, to study medicine at 
the Ohio Medical college, where, at the time, the very 
able German professors, Dr. S. D. Gross and Dr. Johann 
Eberle, delivered lectures under the rectorship of the 
eminent scholar, Dr. Daniel D ra kc Having graduated 
at this college, he devoted himself to the practice of 
medicine in Cincinnati. His position as English teacher 
in the public schools had brought him into association as 
well with the most prominent men of the city as with the 
most influential members of the board of education; and 
when the Germans of the Fifth ward nominated him as a 
candidate for the school board in 1843, he was elected, 
alth'ough the Democratic party, to which he belonged, 
was greatly in the minority in that ward. He was at 
last appointed chairman of the committee on instruction 
in German, and succeeded in mollifying the hostile feel- 
ing which formerly existed in the board against instruction 
in German, by his moderate and thoughtful, but earnest 
efforts. The German-English schools, which so far had 
shown very little life, rallied and flourished soon under 
his untiring care, so that they showed, even in English, 
better results than the purely English schools at the next 
half-yearly examinations in winter. That was a triumph 
. for the Germans which filled everybody with gladness, 
and a meeting of German citizens was called to give 
Roelker publicly their thanks for his activity. The Ger- 
man school was insured. He possessed in the. highest 
degree all the qualities necessary for such a position, as 
was truly said in a communication through the Volksb/atl, 
by somebody in favor of his re-election in the spring of 
1844. His re-election was not difficult; and even in the 
year 1845, when the German division of the ward was 
separated, to form a separate ward of its own, and the 
Whigs of this ward, who numbered by far the majority, 
put up General Findlay for Roelker's position, while the 
Democrats telt too weak to dare to renominate Dr. 
Roelker; he was again re-elected by the citizens, to the 
great astonishment of all, without having worked for that 
result personally. 

But Roelker understood clearly that the preservation 

of the German language did not depend on school in- 
struction alone; but that continued effort afterwards 
would be necessary to ripen the seed planted at the 
school. For this purpose he proposed the founding of a 
library company, which was brought about in the autumn 
of 1844. The success in founding this society, called 
Deutscher Lese-und-Bildungsverein (German Reading 
and Educational Society), was due principally to Dr. 
Roelker, Messrs. Rehfuss, Rodter, Molitor, Dr. Tellkampf 
(who, however, soon after left Cincinnati), Dr. Emmert, 
Backhaus, Klauprecht, La Barre (afterwards for many 
years the librarian of the society), and many others. 
Roelker was made the first President of the society, 
which then continued to grow and prosper, until the 
pressure of the civil war caused its dissolution. The 
four thousand volumes owned by the library were pre- 
sented to the Msennerchor singing society, where they 
still form a free library for its members, though the large 
public library, now containing over one hundred thou- 
sand volumes, has made it altogether superfluous, and its 
usefulness of but little importance. 

The Reading and Educational society was to be eleva- 
ted, under Dr. Roelker's and later under Stallo's presi- 
dency, to a more important use than merely the reading 
of books could accomplish. Scientific lectures were de- 
livered by learned men — among others by Stallo and 
Georg Fein, from Braunschweig, besides Franz Loher, 
who delivered five lectures, which appeared afterwards in 
print: Des deutschen Volkes Bedentung in der Weltges- 
chichte (the Importance of the German People in the 
History of the World). 

When Dr. Roelker resigned his position as a member 
of the school board in 1 846, he was elected to the im- 
portant position of school examiner, in which office he 
served till 1849, when he went to Europe. He is still 
living in Cincinnati. 

There is hardly another man in the city to whom as 
much credit for the successful introduction of German 
instruction in the public schools is due, as to Dr. Roelker. 
His genuinely scientific education, his practical experi- 
ence in teaching, and his clear, thoughtful mind, helped 
him to accomplish successfully what others had com- 
menced with eagerness, but could not carry through. 
Roelker's successors in the school board of Cincinnati, 
before the year 1850, were Messrs. Heinrich Rodter, 
Stephan Molitor, F. H. Rowekamp, Johann Schiff, and 
Dr. S. Unzicker. 


who, as all reports say, gave the first decisive word in 
favor of the introduction of German into the public • 
schools, was a native of Wurtemberg. He was born in 
1803, studied law at the university of Tubingen, and 
practiced it in his native town. He came to Cincinnati 
in 1836, and established himself as a notary public. His 
defective pronunciation of the English language, his want 
of talent as a speaker, and his dread of pleading, kept 
him, probably, from becoming a barrister. He was, how- 
ever, very successful as a notary public. He took also 
an active part in political journalism, and edited, in com- 
pany with George Walker, the weekly paper Der Deutsch 



Amerikaner (1839), and afterwards the second Democratic 
newspaper of Cincinnati, Die Volksbuhne (1841-45). 
Renz's active interest in all public movements of the 
Germans has always been guided by an unselfish prin- 


the first German principal of the German-English schools 
in Cincinnati, was born in 1816 at Oesede, near Osna- 
bruck. He attended the college of Osnabruck, and emi- 
grated to America in 1837. In 1838 he became a teacher 
in Canton, Ohio, and in 1839 filled the same position at 
the parochial school of St. Mary's parish, in Cincinnati. 
After the law was passed which allowed the German lan- 
guage to be taught in the public schools, he passed his 
examination at the same time with the well-known Ger- 
man writer of travels, Friedrich Gerstacker, who was then 
staying in Cincinnati, and was appointed to the position 
of principal at the German school, which he filled for a 
year. When in 1841 the school board tried to suppress 
the German instruction, and the Germans, as has been 
said already, founded a temporary shool by voluntary con- 
tributions, Hemann became principal of that school, but 
in the following year he resigned the position and re- 
turned as principal to St. Mary's school. Later, in 1850, 
he founded the Cincinnati Volksfreund, the still-existing 
Democratic newspaper, which he conducted till 1863, in 
in which year he retired from journalism. Hemann has 
earned especial merit by being one of the workers for the 
founding of the German historical periodical, the 
Deutscher Pionier. He lives at present in Canton, Ohio, 
and conducts the Ohio Volkszeitung published there. 


The German Catholics founded also in 1845 a German 
library, which was conducted by the German Catholic 
school and reading society. It contained also four thou- 
sand volumes, when it was afterwards incorporated with 
the Catholic Institute. 


We have mentioned occasionally before the gentlemen 
Molitor and Walker; and both deserve an honorable 
place in the history of the German press. Stephan Mol- 
itor was born January 5, 1806, at Cheslitz, Oberfranken. 
In November, 1823, he went to Wurzburg, and studied 
philosophy and jurisprudence. His lively and independ- 
ent student-life did not interfere with his studies, and he 
received, soon after having finished his studies, a position 
as reporter in police matters at Munchen. The motives 
of his emigration are not known. He came to the United 
States in 1830. 

In the year 1835 he conducted the New Yorker Staats- 
zeitung, which had been founded but a short time before. 
But soon after we meet him in Buffalo, where he con- 
ducted the Weltburger, till he made in 1837 Cincinnati 
his second home. He worked there for a while in partner- 
ship with Heinrich Rodter upon the Volksblatt, and made 
this paper his own within a year, conducting it with great 
ability and good success to the year 1863. His legal ed- 
ucation and experience in government service gave him 
an important advantage over most of his journalistic 

rivals, He made himself very soon acquainted with 
American history and politics, and was able to talk about 
the recurring questions in national economy and politics 
with a knowledge which is even now wanting in several 
otherwise talented editors of popular German-American 
papers. In the year 1863 he sold his paper, retired from 
public life to his country place, and died July 25, 1873, 
in Cincinnati. 

During the long period from 1837 to 1863, he labored 
through his journals for the spiritual elevation of his coun- 
trymen and for everything which he considered best for 
the people. In his obituary, which appeared in the Pio- 
nier (fifth volume, page 191), we read: 

Only this need be said here, that he exercised the greatest influence 
as well in State as in local matters, that he worked indefatigably for the 
forming of our German-American public schools, and never shrank from 
breaking a lance, be it for the public welfare or for individual right. 

His friend Rumelin is of the opinion that Molitor ex- 
ercised, by his efficiency as an editor, an important influ- 
ence upon the general politics of the Union. He also 
points out his business capacity, which secured him his 
position; and, although it did not bring him in great 
riches, it enabled him to keep always his independence 
as owner of a press. "It was well known," continues 
Rumelin, "that he loved money-making, but also that he 
pursued it with moderation and within limits. He never 
was an office-hunter. His ambition for fame and honor 
was well known, but also that he kept it within the bounds 
of a man of the people, as is due to the head of a Re- 
publican- newspaper. 


was born in Urach, near Rentlingen, Wurtemberg, about 
the year 1808. He was one of those men who have 
missed their vocation. Having received a thoroughly 
theological education at the Tubingen Stift, he became 
sufficiently imbued with the ideas of Hegel and Strauss 
to deviate from orthodoxy. Like many others, he might, 
had he staid at home, have gradually accustomed him- 
self to his position, making a sort of compromise with 
his belief. But the Lutheran Synod of Baltimore had 
requested the theological faculty of Tubingen to send 
over some young and able theologians to serve in the 
theological seminary at Gettysburg, or as pastors. Walker 
was one of the young men who were sent. Arriving in 
the year 1833 or l8 34. he found very soon that what was 
called orthodoxy in Germany was here looked upon al- 
most as heresy; and as, besides this, he was fond of pre- 
senting himself in the free-and-easy dress and manners 
of the German student, it is natural that he failed to give 
satisfaction. As soon as possible he was therefore sent 
to Tuscarawas county, Ohio, where some Wurtemberg- 
ians formed a small congregation. But even there he 
came in collision with the Lutheran Synod at Columbus; 
and when he turned his thoughts to politics and became 
a decided Democrat of the Jackson school, he left his 
congregation and went to Germantown, near Dayton, in 
1838. There he founded, in company with Dr. Christian 
Espich, the Protestant, and undertook also the printing 
of the statute laws of Ohio in German. He removed 
the Protestant soon after to Cincinnati, and became, at 





r*V- v 



the same time, one of the conductors of the Volksblatt, 
then in the hands of Rodter. The Protestant, however, 
breathed its last after a short time. He undertook in 
the same year the superintendence of a newly-founded 
political paper, the Deutsch-Amerikaner, which also ex- 
pired soon, after a short and favorable beginning. Walker 
now sho(3k the dust of Cincinnati off his feet, went to 
Louisville, and superintended there soon after (1840) a 
newly-founded paper, Die Volksbuhne, which, however, 
conld not celebrate its first anniversary, at least not in 
Louisville; for very soon after we find the same Volks- 
buhne in Cincinnati, again under Walker's superintend- 
ence. How long he performed on the "buhne'' (stage) 
has not been ascertained; but he must have come finally 
to the conviction that politics was really not his field. 
He founded therefore a religio-political paper, the Hoch- 
wachter (1845-49) which answered better to his inclina- 
tions. Assisted by his friends, he kept this up until his 
death. He died from cholera in the year 1849. 

The knowledge and uncommon intellectual gifts pos- 
sessed by Walker would have enabled him to work more 
effectively, had it been possible for him to develop him- 
self further, acquaint himself with the history, politics, 
and laws of his adopted Fatherland. But he belonged 
to the large number of immigrating Germans, who, al- 
though endowed with good talents and comprehensive 
knowledge, exclude themselves from all but their own 
countrymen; and the American world does not exist for 
them at all. Taking part in German enterprises and so- 
cieties, which have charities for their object or are de- 
voted to sociability and education, they exercise, to be 
sure, a useful effect; but to the building up of our Amer- 
ican nationality, they help but indirectly. 


took hold of public life with more energy. He was 
Walker's friend, and also a Suabian child, for he was 
born at Ebingen, January 26, 1806. Having received a 
thorough education as chemist, pharmacist, and botanist, 
at the university of his country, he filled the position of 
a "provisor" for several of the best apothecaries of the 
most important cities in his Suabian fatherland. He 
took, at the same time, a lively interest in the liberal 
political agitations and movements which arose in Ger- 
many after the July revolution. In the year 1833 he left 
Germany, probably because he despaired of political re- 
form. He settled in Cincinnati and established a drug- 
store which gained very soon a good reputation. He 
became one of the active founders of the German 
society, took part in founding in 1836 the Volksblatt, 
and became a zealous Democrat. He was one of those 
who, during the conflict over the German schools, urged 
his party to declare themselves firmly in favor of main- 
taining the German schools, under penalty of losing the 
Gerirfan votes at the next election. Rehfuss also took 
part in the establishment of the Lafayette guard, in the 
year 1836, and became their captain. In the year 1843 
he was one of the founders of the Lese und Bildung- 
verein (Reading and Educational society), and added in 
general through his social talents, as also through his ex- 

tensive hospitality, which his means permitted, a great 
deal to the elevation and animation of the social life of 
Cincinnati. He continued to carry on his vocation with 
great zeal, and published the results of his investigations 
and experience in several pamphlets, and wrote also 
about the cultivation of the vine and botany. He be- 
came a member of the Association of Natural Sciences 
of the United States, and during a convention of the 
most eminent physicists of America, which was held in 
Cincinnati, his country mansion stood hospitably open 
to its members. Agassiz and Professor Henry were his 
guests. The revolution of 1848 could not but fill a man 
like Rehfuss with enthusiasm. He gave to it his warm- 
est sympathy, and was especially one of the most active 
speakers in favor of the subscription started by Gottfried 
Kinkel, in aid of fresh revolutions in Germany. In 
politics he maintained always a certain independence. 
He died July 31, 1855, not yet fifty years old. 

The Lafayette guard, which was mentioned before, 
was the cause of the formation of other German town 
militia companies. Soon after were formed a chasseur 
company and a turner company, as also companies of 
Steuben, Kosziusko, and Jackson guards. A few years 
later several of these companies formed themselves into 
a battalion, under Lieutenant-Colonel August Moor. 


was born March 28, 18 14, in Leipzig. He became a pupil 
of the Koniglich-sachsische Forstakademie, which was con- 
ducted on military principles ; and probably there his mili- 
tary inclinations were awakened. By some means or other 
he became involved in the September troubles of 1830, in 
Leipzig or Dresden, was arrested, and sentenced to an im- 
prisonment for eight months. The only thing for him to do, 
after his discharge, seemed to be to try his luck in the 
free States of America. He landed in Baltimore in No- 
vember, 1833, found occupation in Philadelphia, became 
a lieutenant of the Washington Guard of that city, un- 
der Captain Koseritz, and during the Seminole war in 
1836 he enlisted in a volunteer dragoon company, in 
which he became lieutenant colonel. After the expira- 
tion of the appointed time of service of that company 
it was dissolved, and we find Moor in the year 1838 at 
Cincinnati, where he conducted a bakery successfully for 
several years. The Mexican war of 1846 exercised nat- 
urally a great attraction upon him. He became captain 
of one of the companies of an Ohio volunteer infantry 
regiment, and distinguished himself in several battles 
and skirmishes by his prudence and valor, so that he 
soon advanced to the positions of major, lieutenant col- 
onel, and colonel of the regiment. A few years after his 
return he became major general of the First division of 
Ohio militia, but resigned this position after a few years, 
as the militia organization was very imperfect; it consist- 
ed more of staff officers than of soldiers. At the breaking 
out of the War of Secession Moor was one of the first 
who enlisted under the flag of the Union. He became 
colonel of the Twenty-eighth Ohio volunteer regiment 
(the Second German regiment). Incorporated with Gen- 
eral Rosecrans' army, he distinguished himself glorious- 




ly in West Virginia — fought under Hunter in the Valley 
of the Shenandoah, and was considered one of the best 
and bravest officers of the army. He led a brigade du- 
ring the whole of his three years' service, but was not 
until his discharge appointed Brevet Brigadier General. 
His open and honest character, his rebellion against all 
favoritisms, which, unfortunately, were very prevalent in 
the army during the civil war, his want of submissiveness, 
and the jealousy which existed in the higher military cir- 
cles against foreigners, though the President himself was 
free from such prejudices, caused probably the hinder- 
ance to his advancement. Soon after the first evidences 
of his military qualifications he ought have been made 
brigadier general, and later he ought have been advanced 
to the position of major general. He was highly appre- 
ciated by the generals above him, as Rosecrans, Averill, 
Burnside, and Hunter; and by them his advancement 
was several times proposed. In the paper Sonst und 
Jetzt, edited by Armin Tenner, Cincinnati, in 1878, we 
read of General Moor: 

Being modest, as all those are who are aware of their inner worth 
and their true merit, he did not seek the capricious favoritism of the 
people nor the approbation of the multitude; his name takes in the 
annals of the Union a well-deserved rank. His earnest military char- 
acter, which also in private life he can shake off, is often taken for 
pride and haughtiness; but his numerous friends know how to value 
him, and to acknowledge the noble kernel hidden by a rough outside 
shell, and know how to distinguish a dignified manner from vulgar 


is another distinguished military character; he is at pres- 
ent brigadier-general of the United States army. He 
was born at Pforzheim, Baden, in the year 1828, and 
came with his parents to the United States when yet very 
young. They settled in Ripley, Brown county, Ohio, 
where they still lived in 1846, the year of the breaking 
out of the war with Mexico. Kautz, then eighteen years 
old, enlisted as private in the First volunteer regiment of 
Ohio. He fought in the battle of Monterey and in sev- 
eral skirmishes, and became soon after the war a lieuten- 
ant in the regular army of the United States. At the 
outbreak of the war of secession he was captain in the 
cavalry, but commanded his regiment in those notable 
days before Richmond in 1862 under McClellan. He 
proved himself there an exceptionally fine horseman and 
officer, and was made soon after colonel of the Second 
Ohio cavalry regiment, and later commanding general of 
the cavalry of the Twenty-third corps of the army. His 
bold riding excited general surprise. He became brevet 
major-general as well in the volunteer as in the regular 
army. After the close of the war he returned to the reg- 
ular army as lieutenant-colonel of the Fifteenth infantry 
regiment. -He is the author of several small military 
treatises, which have especial reference to the service. 


With him we may worthily rank General Gottfried 
Weitzel, who, though he is claimed by the Americans as 
one of them, was born in Germany, but came to America 
in his early youth. He was born November 1, 1835, at 
Winzlen, Rheinpfalz. His parents settled in Cincinnati. 
In his seventeenth year he was sent as a cadet to West 

Point, and left this institution in 1855, after having 
passed an excellent examination, when he was made sec- 
ond lieutenant of the engineer corps, which position is 
only given to the best graduates. At the outbreak of the 
war he was already a captain, and became attached to 
General Butler's staff when that general besieged New 
Orleans, and after his -promotion received the 'command 
of a brigade in the army corps of General Banks, when 
that general undertook his unfortunate expedition up the 
Red river. Assigned to the Potomac army, under Gen- 
eral Grant, he received the command of a division, and 
distinguished himself, especially in the operations against 
Petersburgh, the taking of which led to the fall of Rich- 
mond. He was the first one who, at the head of his 
command, entered the city of Richmond at the side of 
President Lincoln. Strange coincidence! The German 
General Schimmelpfenning was the first who led his 
brigade into Charleston, and another German general 
was the first who carried the flag of the Union into the 
long-besieged, strongest fort of the confederates. Weitzel 
is at present major in the engineer corps of the United 
States army, with the brevet rank of a major general. 
That Weitzel is a German by birth is proved by the fact 
that he is a member of the German Pioneer society of 
Cincinnati, to which only German natives are admitted. 


By our. short description of the press in Cincinnati, 
one can already draw some conclusion as to the interest 
with which the Germans have taken hold of politics. 
But it was not till 1840 that the German vote became of 
great importance. It had grown immensely since 1836. 
By far the larger number of Germans here then be- 
longed, as in most of the older States (especially the 
western), to the Democmtic party. It was hardly possi- 
ble for this to be otherwise. Already before the Native 
movement had lifted its threatening head in 1836, the 
National Democratic party had secured the adherence of 
the immigration. The liberal naturalization laws were 
already due to them, under the presidency of Jefferson. 
About the year 1820 the Democrats had succeeded in 
Congress in lowering the price of public land and in hav- 
ing the lands sold in smaller lots (forty acres) to real set- 
tlers. About the year 1830, after long and vehement 
contests, very liberal pre-emption laws were adopted, 
which enabled the settler to pay for his land with the re- 
ceipts of a moderate harvest. All these laws were passed 
after very obstinate contests with the Congressmen from 
the east, who had principally belonged to the former 
party of Federalists, and later to the Whig party. Espe- 
cially Henry Clay, the most important leader of the 
Whigs, spoke very zealously against allowing the right of 
pre-emption to those settlers who were not yet citizens; 
that is, who had not yet lived five years in the United 

It has often been said that the Germans and the im- 
migrants of other nations had been enticed into the 
Democratic party simply by the charm of the word 
"Democracy," and general phrases about liberity .and 
equality, much in the mouth of Democrats. Grant that 



a great many allowed themselves to be won over by 
glittering phrases, yet it is certain that the general mass 
of the Germans and the Irish knew how to appreciate 
the real advantages of the Democratic measures. They 
would not have been able to buy large tracts of land 
from the Government with their usually scant means, but 
would have fallen into the hands of land speculators. 
Now they could, without any means, settle down and be- 
gin to cultivate their land, because they enjoyed as settlers 
the pre-emption right. Neither could the tariff, intro- 
duced and favored by the Whig party for the benefit of a 
few manufacturers in the east, be approved by the new 
immigrants to the west. 

The most ardent speeches of the Democratic politi- 
cians could not have held the Germans for thirty years to 
their party, if their material interests had not led them 
the same way. The obnoxious native movement, so 
profoundly mortifying to man's pride, which showed itself 
first during the years 1835-37, and then renewed its 
attacks in 1842-44, by slaughter and incendiarism, and 
which seemed to be rather favored here and there by the 
Whig party, while the Democrats opposed it decidedly in 
all its public demonstrations and promised to guard the 
rights of the foreigners energetically, was sufficient to 
drive all the Germans, who were still undecided, by neces- 
sity into the arms of Democracy. 

As in other large communities, the Germans of Ohio 
organized themselves also into a compact party, and in 
1843 the association called Deutscher demokratischer 
Verein of Hamilton county, was founded in Cincinnati. 
The society issued a manifesto, by which it retained its 
independence even towards its own party, in declaring 
that the Germans would abandon the Democratic party 
as soon as it was seen that the liberal principles avowed 
by that party were not sincerely held. And if the mania 
for office and the odious prejudices towards the foreign- 
ers should also show themselves in the Democracy, the 
Germans were to take up the fight against such unworthy 
members of their party. In this programme the associa- 
tion declares itself for the maintenance of the first prin- 
ciple of Democracy: "The same rights and entire justice 
for all men, without distinction of their religious or politi- 
cal belief;" and Opposes the spirit of the native movement 
with the utmost severity. 

The directorship of the association was given to thirty 
members, and we find among the officers the names of 
Stephan Molitor, Nikolaus Hofer and Heinrich Rodter. 
The society was active in many directions. It obtained 
for the Germans general recognition, assured them a full 
representation at the party conventions, and protected in 
the public schools the German instruction, so often 
threatened. But it was especially efficacious during the 
Presidential election in 1844, when the Democrats 
elected their candidate, Mr. Polk. German electoral 
assemblies were held; political clubs and singing societies 
were founded; and from this time on, the German vote 
in Ohio fell very heavily into the scale. 

The news of the victory won by the Native party in 
the city of New York, in April, 1844, and of the incen- 
diary actions of a mob of the Native Americans, who 

burned Roman Catholic churches in Philadelphia, wae 
received by the Germans of Cincinnati with deep solici- 
tude. The executive committee of the German Demo- 
cratic association called at once a meeting for April 29th, 
in the hall of Landfried's Napoleon tavern, in which the 
position of the immigrant citizens of the country was 
taken into very serious consideration. The speeches 
which were delivered against the revolting actions of the 
Natives in the eastern cities displayed a spirit of deter- 
mination which always goes hand and hand with the 
side of right. The Germans were recommended to hold 
together for united action, and were called upon to meet 
the dark Native movements with boldness. A commit- 
tee, with George Walker at its head, handed in resolutions 
which recommended the appointment of a committee, 
who were to inquire from the different candidates for 
President, Vice President, governor, and other public 
offices, if they approved of the principles and measures 
of the so-called American Republicans (Natives), or if 
they, under all conditions and in all cases, would oppose 
them through official and private influence; the appoint- 
ment of a committee to prepare an address to the Ger- 
mans of the Union and one to the American people, to 
be delivered at a public convention, which was to be 
combined, on the first day of the May following, with a 
spring festival; and the question of holding a general 
convention of the Germans of Ohio on the Fourth of 
July, 1844, was to be laid before this convention for de- 
cision. Moreover, the quarrels and contentions which 
prevailed among the German newspapers at the time 
were taken by this meeting into consideration. The res- 
olution in reference to them reads: 

Resolved, That we, the Germans of Cincinnati, have watched for 
some time with great displeasure the personal quarrels of the German 
papers of this city, and that we hereby declare positively that we shall 
in future look upon every editor of a paper, who shall again excite such 
personal quarrel, as a common enemy of the immigrants; for, to be 
able to conquer the common enemy, we need more than ever to be 

The chairman of the meeting was Molitor, the editor 
of the VolksHatt; Dr. C. F. Schmidt, the editor of the 
Republikaner, and Walker, editor of the Volksbuhne, were 

Other resolutions referred to the taking part of the 
German military companies in the festival — including in- 
vitations to such organizations in Louisville and Colum- 
bus — and to other arrangements for the festival. 

The details of this May festival, which is described as 
one of the most imposing public demonstrations ever 
held in Cincinnati, do not belong within our province. 
Pastor August Kroll delivered the oration, which is said 
to have been a masterpiece of eloquence. The com- 
mittee, to which the composition of the addresses before 
mentioned had been assigned, delivered their report. It 
was, however, resolved to postpone the same until the 
next public meeting May nth, so as not to disturb the 
festive joy of the day by the sad reminiscences of the 
cruelties suffered by our countrymen in the east. 

The address, "To the Germans of the Union," calls 
attention in the commencement of the political crisis, so 
dangerous to the country and its freedom, through the 



rise of a party founded on Native principles or national 
distinction, and upon religious and political fanaticism; 
represents it to be the duty of every well-meaning citizen 
of the country to meet these disturbances earnestly, but 
with dignity; reminds the Germans not to allow their 
own national feeling, but the preservation of the free 
institutions of their adopted country, to be their guiding 
star, so as to win the respect of the well-meaning Ameri- 
cans, and with that the assurance of success. It asks 
further of them to join the Democratic party, which al- 
ready, forty years ago, without expecting at the time any 
advantages, had carried the repeal of the laws against 
foreigners, had adhered to those principles faithfully ever 
since, and had taken the immigrants and their rights al- 
ways under their protective shield. It points out that 
there are among the German countrymen also members 
of the Whig party, and recommends these to consult 
with their conscience and their patriotism, if party mo- 
tives ought to be stronger with them than the welfare and 
claims of the coming generation of Americans. "Let 
them remain with their party," continues the address, "if 
they can do so; but we retain the pleasant hope that these 
our countrymen will very soon acknowledge that the love 
for their new fatherland is greater than the love for 

If we consider that Molitor was the author of the 
other address, "To the People of Ohio,'' we need not be 
astonished that, besides the most convincing thorough- 
ness with which the address treats the questions from the 
standpoint of natural and legal rights, it represents also a 
thorough knowledge of the political history of America, 
and is controlled by a spirit of thoughtfulness and mod- 
eration which characterized Molitor in all his actions. 
The address closes with the words : 

We shall watch quietly and without passion the direction this move- 
ment is taking, and, as before, so shall also be in future, the welfare of 
our adopted Fatherland, and the preservation of its free and glorious 
institutions, our first and only aim. 

To give the German element a representation in the 
legislature, it was resolved in the meeting of the Demo- 
cratic Association of the twentieth of July, 1844, to pro- 
pose Karl Rumelin at the next Democratic convention as 
a candidate for the House of Representatives of Ohio. 
The convention agreed to the proposition, and Rumelin 
was elected in the fall by a considerable majority of votes. 
The Association made also the request, somewhat similar 
to the demand made before in Pennsylvania, to have all 
the public documents which are printed by the State for 
the use of the citizens, also printed in the German lan- 
guage; which request has ever since been heeded by the 
authorities of the State. Furthermore, the candidates for 
the legislature of the State of Ohio and for Congress were 
questioned as to whether they were in favor of or against 
the interference of the legislature in the matter of the 
temperance movements, and if they would, when elected, 
oppose the aims and intrigues of the Native American 
party in their political and religious tendencies. 


We have mentioned several times the name of Nikolaus 
Hofer as one of the most prominent leaders of the Ger- 

mans of Ohio. He was born at Rulzheim, Rheinpfalz, 
in the year 1810, and came to Cincinnati in 1832, and 
carried on gardening principally. He became finally a 
real estate agent and administrator of General Findlay's 
extensive lands. He took an active part in all mutual 
efforts of the Germans, filled the office of a city commis- 
sioner, and worked earnestly for the founding of German 
schools. He was the first vice-president of the Demo- 
cratic Association, repeatedly a delegate in the State and 
local conventions of that party, and exercised a great in- 
fluence, as well upon the Germans as upon the Ameri- 
cans. The genial and zealous Rodter used to say that 
Nikolaus Hofer was his right hand in all political affairs. 
He died in January, 1875, ar, d the conjoint press of the 
city published extensive and honorable obituary notices 
of him. Mr. H. A. Rattermann says in his sketch of 
Hofer's life (Deutscher Pioneer, volume six, page four 
hundred and nineteen) : 

Among the old pioneers who have been active in our city on the field 
of German-American efforts at civilization, he stands out prominently 
like a large oak tree among its surrounding underbrush, by virtue of 
his clear insight into the social and political situations of life. Although 
he has not enjoyed the highest school education, he was, on account of 
his sound judgment in political matters, for a number of years looked 
upon as a leader of the Germans in the upper part of the city, and to a 
certain extent in the whole city. If Hofer had enjoyed a fine educa- 
tion in addition to his natural talents, he would have been one of the 
most prominent leaders of the American-German population. 


When speaking before about the May festival, we men- 
tioned that Pastor August Kroll delivered the oration. 
Born at Rohrback, in the Grand Dukedom of Hessen, 
July 22, 1806, he was destined by his parents for the 
clerical profession. He attended the gymnasium at Bud- 
ingen, studied afterwards theology at the university of 
Giessen, and became then assistant parson in the parish 
at Eckardtshausen. On the one hand his poorly paid 
vicarship and on the other the extravagant statements of 
Duden about the American wonderland, which appeared 
at that time in print in Germany, induced Kroll to join 
the Follenius Emigration society in the spring of 1833, 
with which he emigrated to America in the following 
year. In company with Dr. Bruhl, who was the physi- 
cian of the society, Kroll went to Cape Girardeau county, 
Missouri, where they jointly rented some land and culti- 
vated it. In the year 1838, however, Kroll obeyed a 
call as pastor of a German Evangelical church at Louis- 
ville, which position he exchanged in 1841 for the par- 
sonage of the Protestant Johannis church, the oldest 
German parish of Cincinnati. He worked in this parish 
with great success up to the time of his death, which ac- 
curred November 25, 1874. Besides fulfilling his cleri- 
cal duties, Kroll was also, together with the pastor 
Friedrich Botticher (born at Mackerock, Preussen, in 
1800, died at Newport, Kentucky, in 1849), the principal 
founder of the Protestantische Zeitblatter, a periodical 
which represented liberal Protestantism in the United 


educated at the university of Halle for a theologian, after- 
wards a teacher in the gymnasium at Nordhausen, and 



later a pastor in Habernegen, had come already in 1832 
to America. He may be considered here the founder of 
rational Christianity, which was represented by him, and 
with him, and after his death especially, by Kroll. Kroll 
conducted the Protestantische Ztitblatter until his death, 
with great ability and great zeal. 


In the history of American art the name of Hiram 
Powers, the sculptor of the Greek slave and of Eve at 
the fountain, fills one of the most prominent places. But 
it is hardly known to many that this son of a Connecticut 
farmer was the apprentice of a watchmaker, and that his 
artistic career is due to a German sculptor, whose pupil 
he was. Friedrich Eckstein, born at Berlin about the year 
1787, attended the Academy of Arts of his native town, 
and studied art under Johann Gottfried Schadow, the 
founder of the academy. He came to Cincinnati in the 
year 1825 or 1826, and founded during the last named 
year an Academy of Fine Arts, of which he remained the 
director until his early death in 1832. He died here of 
cholera; and with him died also the flourishing academy. 
But few of his own works are known, besides the busts 
of Governor Morrow and President William H. Harrison. 
These are, however, of great artistic value; the first named 
is at present to be found in the State library at Colum- 
bus, and the other is in the possession of General Harri- 
son's descendants. His great reputation has, however, 
now another representative in his before named pupil, 
who, without doubt, holds the precedence among Ameri- 
can sculptors. 


About the same time the two brothers, Johann Peter 
and Gottfried N. Frankenstein, made their appearance as 
painters, of whom especially the last named made a great 
reputation. His large landscape painting of Niagara 
falls has been multiplied by engravers and lithographers, 
and a bust of the Hon. John McLean, judge of the Uni- 
ted States supreme court, executed by him in marble, 
adorns the Federal court-room in Cincinnati. 

Mr. Rattermann says about him, in a lecture upon 
Art and Artists in Cincinnati, delivered before the Cin- 
cinnati Literary club: "His paintings show individuality 
in their conception, combined with a bright coloring, 
which later has been surpassed only by his genial pupil 
Wilhelm Sonntag." 

In the year 1838 Gottfried Frankenstein succeeded in 
bringing to life again in Cincinnati the Academy of Fine 
Arts, and became its first president. It was, however, of 
but short duration. Another artist, Friedrich Franks, 
was in 1828 the founder of a gallery of fine arts in 
Cincinnati, and afterwards the owner of the Western 


It is worthy of notice that the various endeavors to 
found academies of art in Cincinnati have always pro- 
ceeded from Germans; for Franks also was commonly 
taken for a German. 

About the efficiency of these artists' schools it need 
only be said that some of the most prominent American 

artists have come forth from them ; as Miner K. Kellogg, 
William H. Powell, the brothers Beard, the American 
artist and poet, Thomas Buchanan Read, and others. 
Mr. Rattermann thus speaks of their artistic worth in 
his lecture: 

The artists of this first period of art in Cincinnati were principally 
the pupils of nature, and only reached in their studies the point where 
greater justice is done to the real than to the ideal. They belonged, 
therefore, more to the realistic school, if I may express it in that way. 
Only Eckstein, who was a pupil of the celebrated Schadow, and who 
has been honored by the title of professor, was an idealist. His pupil 
Powers, however, in spite of all his efforts at idealism, had a natural 
tendency to realism, as is observable in all his productions. His aspi- 
rations after ideal beauty give to his works more the appearance of 
bare coldness than the warmth of feeling which shines through the 
higher light. His figures are pure as snow and smooth as ice, but also 
cold as ice and snow. 


That music has been introduced by the Germans, and 
has been especially fostered by them in Cincinnati, as 
as well as throughout America, is self-evident. Already, 
in the year 1823, there existed here a musical society, 
the Apollonische Gesellschaft; and in 1839 another sing- 
ing society was founded, from which originated in 1844 
the Deutsche Liedertafel. Ever since 1846 the three 
German singing societies, which existed at that time in 
Cincinnati, have celebrated every year a musical festival, 
and in 1849 tne nrst great German musical festival of 
the United States was held in this city. On this occa- 
sion the first German Saengerbund of North America was 
founded, whose musical festivals have now gained a world- 
wide reputation, and have prepared the way for the 
foundation of the grand Music hall and the Cincinnati 
College of Music, for a while under the direction of 
Theodore Thomas. 


In the year r83i an organ factory was established in 
Cincinnati by Mathias Schwab, from which have gone 
forth great numbers of excellent instruments, which pro- 
claim in all parts of the country the praise of German 
superiority. This factory, the oldest of its kind in this 
country, is still in existence, under the management of 
the experienced workmen, Johann H. Kohnken and 
Gallus Grimm, both having worked for thirty years under 
Mr. Schwab's direction. 

At that time (1836) was also made the first attempt to 
use machinery extensively in the fabrication of furniture. 
The invention of Woodworth's planing machine induced 
Friederich Rammelsberg, a Hanoverian, who was the 
foreman in Johann Geyer's furniture factory, to make all 
sorts of experiments in this department. Some years 
later Robert Mitchell, who had served his apprenticeship 
under Rammelsberg's guidance, began also some experi- 
ments, but without gaining any practical results. After 
inheriting a little property, he associated himself with 
Rammelsberg in 1846. The practical knowledge of 
Rammelsberg, thus united to a moderate capital, and not 
any longer restrained, as formerly, by his over-prudent 
principal, now began to realize important results. Not 
only does the gigantic building, which is still in existence 
under the name of Mitchell and Rammelsberg's furniture 
factory, employing more than one thousand five hun- 



dred workmen (the largest furniture factory in the world), 
owe its existence to him, but the general successful rise 
of the furniture trade in Cincinnati and in the west is 
due to him. Rammelsberg died in 1863. 

S. N. PIKE. 

We now come to a man whose name — at least the 
name by which he is known — announces him to be 
either an Englishman or an American. It was known 
only to a few of his nearest neighbors that Samuel N. 
Pike, the builder of the beautiful opera houses in Cin- 
cinnati and in New York, was a German. He was the 
son of Jewish parents by the name of Hecht, and was 
bom in the year 1822, at Schwetzingen, near Heidel- 
berg. He came in the year 1827 to America with his 
parents, who at first staid in New York, and then set- 
tled in Stamford, Connecticut. In Stamford young Pike 
(his father had changed the name; Hetch means Pike 
in English) received a good school education; went, in 
1839, to St. Joseph, Florida, where he opened a store, 
which he kept for about a year, and then went to Rich- 
mond, Virginia, where he carried on business as an im- 
porter of wines. From Richmond he removed to Balti- 
more, then to St. Louis, and finally, in 1844, to Cincin- 
nati. At all three of these places he tried to build up a 
dry-goods business. He married in Cincinnati the 
youngest daughter of Judge Miller, and then began a liq- 
uor business, by which he soon gained enormous wealth. 
When Jenny Lind, the Swedish Nightingale, travelled 
through America, Pike was one of the most zealous at- 
tendants at her concerts and admirers "of her divine 
voice," as he used to express himself, and resolved, if he 
should ever acquire sufficient wealth, to build for the 
Muse of Song a temple which should do honor to Cin- 
cinnati. When in the year 1856 the foundation of this 
magnificent palace was being erected, but very few antic- 
ipated the purposes of this colossal building. Inter- 
rupted by .the crisis in business in the autumn of that 
year, the building was discontinued till the fall of the 
next year, and was completed in the winter of 1858-59. 
On the 22d of February, 1859, the opera house, at that 
time the largest and most beautiful in America, and one 
of the largest in the world, was opened with due solem- 
nity. It was an epoch in the musical and dramatic his- 
tory of the city ; and when Pike's wealth rapidly increased 
he began to build in 1866 also a grand dramatic palace 
in the city of New York, the Grand opera house, which 
he afterwards sold to James Fisk, jr., for eight hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars. But he had hardly begun 
with the building of the New York opera house when 
the magnificent opera house in Cincinnati became, in the 
spring of 1866, a prey to the flames. The structure was 
afterwards rebuilt, and is still one of the principal orna- 
ments of the city. A gigantic speculation in land in the 
neighborhood of Hoboken, NewYork, brought Mr. Pike 
an immense profit; so that, at his death in 1875, his for- 
tune was valued at several millions of dollars. 

Pike was not an uneducated man. He was a great 
lover of music, and played himself on several instruments. 
He was also well versed in literature, and wrote some 

English poems, which appeared in print anonymously. 
They show, however, more depth of feeling than tech- 
nical construction. His slight intercourse with Germans 
and his imperfect knowledge of the German language 
contributed, perhaps, to his being taken by almost 'every- 
body for an American. "In a small company," observes 
somebody who was more intimately acquainted with Pike, 
"he confessed one day that he was a German by birth; 
and he has continued since then to converse often in his 
mother-tongue with this company." In politics he be- 
longed to the Democratic party, but could not be persua- 
ded in 1867 to accept the nomination as candidate for 
the office of mayor of Cincinnati. 


In 1841 we find in Cincinnati a German society, for 
intellectual entertainment, called Harmonie, and several 
years later the association, Freunde der gesellschaftlichen 
Reform. A German theater was founded in 1845. 


The zeal with which Germans participated in American 
politics did not interfere at all with their interest in the 
events of their old Fatherland. Several of their national 
memorable days were celebrated, as for instance the 
birthday of Jean Paul and of Goethe. As in other places, 
so also in Cincinnati, was founded an institution for the 
aid of liberty movements in Germany, and large sums of 
money were sent by the Germans for the relief of the 
much-oppressed patriots, Wirth, Seidensticker, Jordan, 
and the children of the martyr Weidig. And at a public 
meeting of that time, participated in by the Germans of 
all classes, without regard to their religion or their politics, 
eight thousand dollars were collected for the benefit of 
the poor sufferers in Germany.* 

The first Turner society of Cincinnati was founded in 
1848. The revolutionary agitations of Europe, and 
especially those of Germany in 1848, found naturally 
the greatest sympathy among the population of Cincin- 
nati. The friends of liberty were encouraged and 
helped by them by all possible means. The arrival 
of Hecker and his friends in the autumn of 1848 was an 
occasion for a great ovation, in which the American pop- 
ulation participated with active interest. Hon. J. B. 
Stallo welcomed the new-comers by an address, which 
was a masterpiece in form and tenor. More associations 
were founded for financial aid in the revolutionary 
agitations, and large sums of money were procured, which 
soon afterwards, when the change of affairs in Germany 
had come, were used mostly for the assistance of political 


It is a matter of course that, through the growing in- 
fluence which the Germans exercised, their right to the 
holding of public offices became more readily acknowl- 
edged. About the year 1840 we find Germans as well in 
the legislature as in the offices of the city departments; 
and their number would have been there still greater 
if the language had not stood in their way, and if the em- 

* Klauprecht's Deutsche Chronik, p. 179. 



igrating Germans, who had to work hard in the begin 
ning to earn an honest living, had been more ambitious 
to hold public office. It has taken a longer sojourn in 
America to arouse also in them this usually fruitless 


We have had occasion several times before t6 mention 
the name of Stallo. There is no man of whom Cincin- 
nati, the State of Ohio, and all the Germans of the 
United States, should be more proud, than of Johann 
Bernhard Stallo. His life is not remarkable on ac- 
count of strange events; he has never inhaled the air of 
prisons, has not escaped by a bold flight the persecuting 
powers, like Follen, Lieber, and many other Germans 
before and after him. His new home gave him a most 
friendly reception, and he was spared the hard struggles 
for subsistence which so many, even the best of the new- 
comers, have to experience at first. He has spent the 
greater part of his life here, in a happy family circle, but 
little shaken by the storms to which men of his promi- 
nent importance are usually exposed. 

It will not take many lines to describe Stallo's career. 
When asked how he had been able to acquire his thor- 
ough knowledge of the classic languages, and especially 
his knowledge in mathematics, at so early an age, having 
emigrated to America in his seventeenth year, and hav- 
ing commenced teaching at once, he answered : "There 
are no riddles in my life; at least none which cannot be 
easily solved. All my ancestors, as well on my father's 
as on my mother's side, were, as far as I can trace back 
our family genealogy, village schoolmasters. My grand- 
father, after whom I was named, was my first teacher. 
He was an honorable old Frisian (Stallo is not an Italian 
name, but a real Frisian name, meaning forester), and 
wore up to the time of his death a three-cornered hat, 
knee-breeches, and buckled shoes. He reserved my ed- 
ucation to himself, notwithstanding his seventy years, and 
was made very happy when 'I could read, and solve all 
sorts of arithmetical problems, before my fouith year." 

Stallo's own father had a great predilection for mathe- 
matics, and instructed him in this science; as he also took 
care that his son should study, not only the ancient lan- 
guages thoroughly, but also should make the French lan- 
guage his own, behind his grandfather's back, who hated 
everything French. In his fifteenth year (Stallo was born 
the sixteenth of March, 1823, at Sierhausen, near Dam- 
me, Grand Dukedom of Oldenburg), he was sent to 
Vechta to attend the teachers' seminary. He had at the 
same time the advantage of being able to avail himself 
of the teachings of the professors at the excellent gym- 
nasium which was there. His knowledge in language 
and mathematics advanced so rapidly that in a short 
time he became ripe for the university. His father's 
means, however, would not allow him to enter a univer- 
sity. He says himself: "The only choice left to me was 
either to lengthen the chain of schoolmasters in our family 
by another link, or go to America. The idea of emigrat- 
ing was brought near to me through my father's brother, 
Franz Joseph Stallo, who, about the year 1830, had led 
the line of emigrants from the Oldenburg country." 

This uncle had been also one of Stallo's educators, 
having instructed him especially in physics. He was a 
very eccentric man, who, although he carried on a suc- 
cessful business as printer and bookbinder, could not re- 
sist an inborn inclination for physics and mechanics. He 
made several useful inventions. To him is attributed the 
burning of the moorland and the introduction of buck- 
wheat in his neighboring country, as well as the irrigation 
of barren tracts and the sowing of them with pine seed, 
"by which lands, on which not even heath would grow, 
were transformed into pine forests."* But, as is so often 
the case with such self-taught men, he lost himself often 
in the fantastic and unattainable. His business was neg- 
lected, and, on account of his liberal political and reli- 
gious opinions, and especially his activity in inciting the 
oppressed to refuse paying taxes and to emigrate, and his 
distributing inflammatory writings, he came in conflict 
with the Government. The agitator was arrested, and 
for several months imprisoned and his printing establish- 
ment confiscated; so emigration seemed to be the only 
thing left for him. 

Having arrived in Cincinnati in the year 183 1, he 
worked at first at his former trade. But he continued 
the agitation in his old home more than ever by numer- 
ous letters; and really a very great emigration followed 
in the year 1832 from Damme, Vechta, Hunteburg, 
Osnabruck, and the surrounding country. Franz Stallo's 
thought was now upon a German settlement. An asso- 
ciation was formed, land was chosen in Auglaize county, 
and the little town which was to be built was to be called 
(against Stallo's wish) Stallotown. Like Rome, which 
was in the beginning but a space of land, with a ditch 
for a boundary, so was also Stallotown at first only recog- 
nizable by a wooden board, on which stood the word 
"Stallotown," which was nailed to a large oak tree. 

Stallo made himself useful in the new settlement as 
surveyor, and, on the whole, the little colony grew very 
soon, in spite of the rather unfavorable situation, which 
was improved afterwards by drainage. In the summer 
of 1833 they counted as many as a hundred souls. The 
cholera, however, which was raging during this year in 
Cincinnati, reached Stallotown, and called proportion- 
ately for a greater number of victims there than in larger 
towns. Franz Joseph Stallo was also among the number 
who fell. The little town, which counts at present 
about two thousand inhabitants, has exchanged the name 
of its founder for that of Minster. 

Johann Bernhard Stallo emigrated to America in the 
year 1839. Provided with letters of introduction from 
his father and grandfather to several ministers and 
teachers in Cincinnati, he found at once a position in a 
private school. There he compiled his first literary work, 
a German A-B-C spelling and reading book, which was 
published without the name of its author. He showed 
already by this first book his deep insight into a child's 
faculties of conception and understanding. There had 
been a great want of just such a book in the lower classes 
of the schools, so the work became soon very popular, 

* Deutscher Pionier, volume VII, page 5. 



and has appeared in many stereotype editions. At that 
time the directors of the newly-founded Catholic St. 
Xavier's college, in Cincinnati, were in search of teachers; 
and their attention having been called to Stallo by this 
very work, and hearing also about his superior knowl- 
edge, especially in mathematics, they offered him a posi- 
tion as teacher of the German language at this college. 
That was, however, only a nominal title, for in fact a 
class was assigned to him fiom the very first for instruc- 
tion in the ancient languages and in mathematics; and 
he advanced with this class for the next three years in the 
several grades of the course of studies. Together with 
one of his associate teachers, who devoted himself with 
great zeal to the studies of physics and chemistry, and 
assisted by the rich library of the institution, Stallo ex- 
pended now almost every leisure hour in the study of 
these sciences. He devoted himself to the study of 
physics and chemistry for three years, from 1841 to 
1843, with all the zeal of learning within him, and with a 
certain passion; and he has gained from it great satis- 
faction. In the autumn of 1843 ne received a call as 
teacher of mathematics, physics, and chemistry at S|. 
John's college, in the city of New York, which position 
he filled till the end of the year 1847. The study of the 
higher mathematics led him to German philosophy, and 
in 1848 appeared the fruit of his studies, a philosophical 
work — General Principles of the Philosophy of Nature — 
published in Boston, by Crosby & Nichols. 

Although the profession which Stallo chose afterwards 
may have withdrawn him somewhat from his investiga- 
tions in the province of philosophic science, he has 
always remained true to philosophy. A number of his 
philosophical essays have been published in the most 
prominent American scientific journals, especially in the 
Popular Science Monthly. A valuable philosophical 
library, the like of which is hardly owned by any other 
private gentleman, gives evidence of the wide field of 
his investigations. After having returned to Cincinnati, 
he resolved to devote himself to the study of law. To 
so ripe a mind as his it was easy to become soon ac- 
quainted with all the principles of law in their widest 
meaning, including the laws of government and national 
economy. Having been admitted to the bar in the year 
1849, he distinguished himself soon in his new calling in 
such a way that in the year 1853 he was appointed by 
the governor of Ohio as judge of the court of common 
pleas of Hamilton county, to fill a vacancy. The people 
elected him the same year for the regular term of that 
office. As honorable and estimable as the office of judge 
may be in the United States, it is not, or at least was not, 
sufficiently remunerative for men who had the prospect 
of a large practice. Stallo, who had married happily in 
the meantime, resigned therefore his office as judge in 
the year 1855, which he had filled to the highest satisfac- 
tion of the bar and the people, and returned to the prac- 
tice of law, in which he has labored ever since with, the 
greatest success. 

If "posterity winds no wreaths for the mimic," we can 
say the same as well of those who have won a high repu- 
tation among their contemporaries on the field of juristic 

activity. The decisions of the judges of the supreme 
court are kept alive, to be sure, by the regularly published 
reports; but the words of the most eloquent lawyer, no 
matter how important a result they may decide for the 
moment, are blown away like autumn leaves. It was, 
however, reserved to Stallo to gain, by an argument made 
before the supreme court of Ohio, a brilliant reputation. 
This was in a case which excited not only general atten- 
tion in his own State, but also in several others. 

The school board of Cincinnati had resolved to forbid 
the reading of religious writings, including the Bible, in 
public schools, as also to repeal the rule for reading every 
day at the opening of the school a chapter of the Bible, 
and for singing appropriate religious songs, this being, as 
was held, contrary to the spirit of a free school, for the 
children of parents of all religious sects and beliefs. 
This action of the school board had called forth great 
indignation among the different Protestant sects ; the re- 
ligious papers imagined their Zion in danger, and that 
atheism and Catholicism were on the point of taking 
possession of our Christian country. A judicial pro- 
cedure was commenced against the school board to pre- 
vent the carrying out of this resolve. Stallo, called upon 
to defend the measures of the board, did this with won- 
derful eloquence. Sustained by the spirit and the literal 
meaning of the constitution of Ohio, by leading decisions 
of judges, but especially by reasons of morality and of 
justice for all, this argument, lasting several hours, could 
not but convince all unprejudiced listeners. The greater 
number of the judges were, however, not convinced. 
Being probably themselves members of a Protestant 
church, and trammeled by the whole ecclesiastical in- 
fluence in Cincinnati, they were not able, with the best 
of intentions, to remain impartial. 

In this argument Stallo attacked the claim, made be- 
fore by some teacher of jurisprudence, and made proba- 
bly without reflecting upon the consequences, that Chris- 
tianity is part of the law of the State. He fought against 
this opinion, as implying that our entire present civili- 
zation is founded only on Christianity. He claimed a 
strict separation of the church from the State, as being in 
unison with our constitution and the spirit of the times. 
He reminded the court that the fathers of the church had 
continued to build on the old, celebrated heathen phil- 
osophers, that the age of the reformation had been also 
the age of the Humanists and of the revival of the arts 
and sciences of the classic ages; that our declaration of 
independence and constitution had their origin during 
the skeptic, philosophic epoch which preceded the French 
revolution; that Thomas Jefferson, who was in the eyes 
of the orthodox an infidel, had conceived the first, and 
the "pious old heathen^ Franklin had, with others of 
the same mind, helped to make the latter, and that the 
fathers of our republic had read the "Rights of Man" of 
infidel Thomas Paine. 

"I deny," proclaimed Stallo, "not only that Christi- 
anity is the law of the State, and that the freedom of our 
institutions is grounded in Christian civilization; but I 
deny, also, that our modern European and American 
civilization can in any just sense be called Christian. By 

■w- tt/AKR f'- 7 '-' 



the term civilization we designate the materials and forces 
of the physical, intellectual and moral culture of a people. 
Now, in the first place, the intellectual possessions which 
make up the stock of our culture, and their correspond- 
ing material possessions, are not only not the gains and 
emoluments of Christianity, but have been acquired in 
spite of its resistance and recalcitration. It is not Chris- 
tianity which has expanded our mental and ph\sical hori- 
zon to co-extension with spatial infinity, which has re- 
vealed to us the laws according to which the stellar, 
planetary and satellitic orbs form or develop themselves 
in the eihereal expanse, and in obedience to which they 
rotate and revolve, under the invisible guidance of im- 
mutable attraction, in their perennial courses; it is not 
Christianity which has unveiled the mysteries of our 
planetary history, or armed us with the power by the aid 
of which we subject the elements to our dominion. 
Copernicus dedicated his Immortal book to a Pope; but 
a Pope sealed it to the eyes of all faithful believers, and 
his inquisitors interposed the walls of a prison between 
the heavens and Galileo, because he had dared to look 
into their depths through a telescope, and to open his 
mind to the truth of the heliocentric theory. Nor was it 
the Pope or the Catholic church alone who sought to 
extinguish the dawning light of the new era or to obstiuct 
the vision of awakening humanity. Luther and Melanc- 
thon denounced the Copernican system as fiercely as the 
inquisitors of Rome; and John Kepler, the discoverer of 
the laws of which Newton's Principia are but the mathe- 
matical verification, had to turn his back upon a 
Protestant university — his alma mater — because of his 
heliocentric belief, and to seek employment as a tutor in 
a Catholic Austrian college. There is hardly one of the 
eminent investigators to whose labors we owe the sciences 
of astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, physiology, 
etc., who has not been under the ban of the churches 
and proscribed by the monopolists of salvation. When, 
in the lapse of ages, a'ter the first centuries of the Chris- 
tian era, has Chiistianity baptiztd or stood sponsor to 
any of the new truths which were born into the world to 
redeem it from a part of its miseries and woes, or when 
has it welcomed them with a benediction ? Whenever, 
of late, as of yore, the precursory glimmer of an unwonted 
light has brightened the skies, the surest and readiest way 
to discover its source has been to look in the direction in 
which the Pope and his church have driven their latest 
anathema, or a Protestant ecclesiastic has sent his loud- 
est curse. At this very moment Europe is in a roar from 
the discharge of ecclesiastical artillery at the zoologists 
and physiologists who seek to refer the evolution of 
organic beings to the same immutable laws which pre- 
side over the genesis of all the phenomena of this uni- 

At this point one of the judges, Storer, interrupted the 
speaker with the words: 

"Do you allude to the man who thinks that our ances- 
try runs into the animal creation?" 

Upon which Judge Stallo answered: 

"I allude to the followers of Charles Darwin, who has 
formulated (and, I think,, imperfectly formulated) the 

doctrine that man, too, was not placed miraculously on 
the highest round in the ladder of organic progression, 
but in some way had to scale that ladder, step by step." 

It is impossible to give a perfect conception of the 
striking logic, the wealth of philosophical truth and his- 
torical illustration of this speech, by short extiacts. The 
fine style is in accordance with the fine tenor of the ad- 
dress. Stallo and the whole liberally thinking population 
of the country had the satisfaction of seeing that the Su- 
preme Court of Ohio, to which an appeal was taken from 
the Cincinnati court, reversed the decree of the latter. 

Stallo was for seventeen years one of the examiners of 
the candidates for the position of teacher in the public 
schools, and afterward one of the trustees of the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati. He has, on the whole, always 
shown an active interest in the education of the people. 

That a man like Stallo could not remain indifferent to 
politics, is self-evident. We mean politics in the higher 
sense. What here usually is called politics had no at- 
traction for him. Principles were only taken into con- 
sideration by him. Persons were only of interest to-him 
when they agreed with or opposed his views. The party 
machinery, the oiganization of the party, in which so 
many public characters seek their especial vocation; the 
weaving of intrigues, the artificial arrangements of primary 
meetings and other electoral assemblies, were always to 
him objects of decided repugnance. But once he has 
accepted a political honorary office; namely, when he was 
chosen Elector for the Republican Presidential candi- 
date, Fremont, in the year 1856. He has never aspired 
to any political office for himself. Ambition is alien to 
him. As the tangent only touches the circle in one place, 
so has politics, so to speak, only touched him from the 
outside; but in gieat vital questions he has worked inde- 
tatigably with voice and pen. He joined with great en- 
thusiasm the Liberal Reform movements in the year 
1872, but withdrew when the Liberal Convention nomi- 
nated Mr. Greeley, whom he did not acknowledge as 
a representative of his principles, especially on the 
question of free trade. In the year 1876, however, he 
approved and advocated the election of Tilden, and 
labored for it with the most brilliant and efficient activity. 
Shortly before the election he wrote a number of letters 
for the Staafszei/ung, of New York, which contain a real 
treasure of healthy views on political questions. As well 
by their tenor as by their fine style, they excited general 
attention, and were reprinted in many journals. 

Stallo has often been reproached with being too much 
of an idealist in politics, who did not take the existing 
situations into consideration, and was therefore unfit for 
a political leader. Stallo has never aspired to the char- 
acter of such a leader. He is not a leader, he is rather 
a teacher for the parties. We have^ enough of the real- 
istic politicians, who, for any price, seek the power and 
the booty which proceed from that only. Men who sac- 
rifice their principles for persons, or profess some princi- 
ples simply to aid some persons, so-called practical states- 
men, we need not seek for with a lantern. The more 
satisfactory is it to meet from time to time some charac- 
ters who do not appeal to the prejudices, the passions, 




and the self-interest of the multitude, but to its reason 
and its conscience, who urge upon it that the moral prin- 
ciples of the States do not differ from those of the indi- 
vidual citizen, who call incessantly to memory the great 
principles of truth, upon which free States must be 
founded, who propose to themselves and others a high 
aim, to the attainment of which we ought at least to as- 
pire, so as to save public life from sinking down into the 
slime of vulgarity. .» 

Stallo, being master of both languages, English as well 
as German, in the court-room, on the rostrum, and in the 
school-room, has the same power of conversation in so- 
cial circles — a rare gift, especially among the Germans. 
And this man of the exact sciences and the science of 
government has, at the same time, a very cultivated taste 
for the fine arts, especially for music, which has always 
been truly cherished at his home. His attractive exte- 
rior appearance bespeaks at the first glance the rare rich- 
ness of his intellectual gifts. 

Without wishing to please or offend anybody, we dare 
to say that no German in America, publicly known, com- 
bines, like Stallo, a comprehensive knowledge with an 
acute judgment, deep thought with a delicate sense for 
the arts, incessant diligence with amiable sociality, and ac- 
curate understanding of the questions of the times with 
the talent of giving a clear and beautiful expression to 
his understanding, by writing and speech. But what is 
the most pleasing feature in this man's appearance, and 
gives to his actions the true consecration, is that nobody 
has ever doubted the purity of his motives, that nobody 
has ever believed that his active interest in the politics of 
this country had sprung from self-interested motives or 
from the gratification of his own personal ambition. 



The total history of the rise and progress of religion 
in the Queen City, with adequate sketches of the two 
hundred and ten churches, more or less, now existing 
within its limits, would occupy at least the entire space 
of the two volumes devoted to this work. It is the pur- 
pose of the following chapter merely to detail the' begin- 
nings of church organization in Cincinnati, supply an 
outline historical notice to each of the churches which 
have pioneered several of the leading religious denomi- 
nations here, and give some facts concerning the present 
state of religion and the churches, in the city, and a few 
notes of auxiliary societies, for co-operative work. 

Among the founders of Losantiville seem to have been 
a goodly number of God-fearing men — the majority of 
them Presbyterians, if one may infer from the type of 
the first religious society planted here. In the plan and 
survey of the village, provision was made for the dedica- 
tion of an entire half square, now among the most valu- 
able properties in the city, to the purposes of religion, 

education, and burials. It included lots numbered one 
hundred, one hundred and fifteen, one hundred and 
thirty-nine, and one hundred and forty, being the south 
half of the block bounded by Fourth, Fifth, Walnut and 
Main — the same which has been continuously occupied, 
in part by the First Presbyterian society, the church of 
the pioneers, as representing the religious interest, and 
in part almost continuously by the educational interest, 
now and for many years embodied in the Cincinnati 

The ground was not long suffered to remain unoccu- 
pied. As soon as the little band of Presbyterians had 
been somewhat reinforced and was ready for organization, 
an informal society was constituted and began to worship 
upon and near this spot.